Presentation on theme: "Fong 11/17/03 1 Penn Ghosts, Shadows and Resultatives: The Lexical Representation of Verbs Sandiway Fong, Christiane Fellbaum, David Lebeaux, Talana 42,"— Presentation transcript:
Fong 11/17/03 1 Penn Ghosts, Shadows and Resultatives: The Lexical Representation of Verbs Sandiway Fong, Christiane Fellbaum, David Lebeaux, Talana 42, pp. 755-784, March, 2001. CIS 630 Martha Palmer November 17, 2003
Fong 11/17/03 2 Penn Compared to: Malka Rappaport-Hovav & Beth Levin (1998) The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors. Miriam Butt and Wilhelm Geuder (eds.), CSLI Publications. Same examples considered, different mechanism for constructing representations.
Fong 11/17/03 3 Penn Regular Polysemy? sweep Terry swept. ACTIVITY Terry swept the floor. *Terry swept the crumbs. Terry swept the crumbs into the corner. CH-LOC Terry swept the leaves off the sidewalk. CH-LOC Terry swept the floor clean. CH-STATE Terry swept the leaves into a pile. CREATION
Fong 11/17/03 4 Penn Regular Polysemy? sweep, wipe ?Terry wiped. ACTIVITY Terry wiped the table. *Terry wiped the crumbs. Terry wiped the crumbs into the sink. CH-LOC Terry wiped the crumbs off the table. CH-LOC Terry wiped the slate clean. CH-STATE ?Terry wiped the crumbs into a pile. CREATION
Fong 11/17/03 5 Penn Regular Polysemy? run Pat ran. ACTIVITY Pat ran to the beach. DIRECTED-MOTION/GOAL Pat ran herself ragged. CH-STATE Pat ran her shoes to shreds. CH-STATE Pat ran clear of the falling rocks. CH-LOC The coach ran the athletes around the track. CH-LOC
Fong 11/17/03 6 Penn Event structure templates Activities [X ACT ] States [X ] Achievements [BECOME [X ]] Accomplishments [[X ACT ] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]] [ X CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]]
Fong 11/17/03 7 Penn Lexical aspectual classification Manner verbs are activities (sweep) [X ACT] [X sweep ] Result verbs are achievements (arrive) [BECOME [X ]] or accomplishments (dry) [[X ACT] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]]
Fong 11/17/03 8 Penn Lexical aspectual classification Transformations x CAUSE y XFORM (y’) Manner verbs are activities (sweep) [X ACT] [X sweep ] x ACT ON y Result verbs are achievements or accomplishments (dry) [[X ACT] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]] x CAUSE y BECOME
Fong 11/17/03 9 Penn Event structure templates Sweep as an activity. [X ACT] [X sweep ] Sweep as an accomplishment [[X ACT Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]] [[X ACT Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Z ]]]
Fong 11/17/03 10 Penn Building the meaning participants associated with the constant variables in the event template structure # Participants > then # variables? Two types of participants, structure and content: 1) licensed by constant AND event template 2) licensed by constant
Fong 11/17/03 11 Penn Accounting for variations Template Augmentation: Event structure templates may be freely augmented up to other possible templates in the basic inventory of event structure templates.
Fong 11/17/03 12 Penn Well-formedness conditions Subevent Identification Condition: Each subevent in the event structure must be identified by a lexical head (e.g., a V, an A, or a P) in the syntax. Argument Realization Condition: There must be an argument XP in the syntax for each structure participant in the event structure. Each argument XP in the syntax must be associated with an identified subevent in the event structure.
Fong 11/17/03 13 Penn Augmenting Templates: sweep Basic meaning -> [X sweep Y] Augmentations [[X sweep Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]] Phil swept the floor clean. *Phil swept the floor clean for an hour. Phil almost swept the floor clean. Phil almost swept the floor. *Phil swept clean. Y cannot be omitted.
Fong 11/17/03 14 Penn Event structure templates Sweep as an activity. [X ACT] [X sweep ] x ACT ON y John ACT ON floor Sweep as an accomplishment [[X ACT Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Y ]]] [[X ACT Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Z ]]] x ACT ON y & y BE John ACT ON floor & floor BE John scrubbed the floor clean.
Fong 11/17/03 15 Penn Condition 1 Check Off Condition: All secondary template elements must be checked off against corresponding elements in a primary template. (Two y’s have to corefer.) Unique State Condition: may occur at most once in a template. (Rules out *The alarm awakened the hotel guests alert.)
Fong 11/17/03 16 Penn Transformations – Change of state? The spy shredded the documents into pieces. x CAUSE y XFORM (y’) & y BECOME y’ spy CAUSE documents XFORM (pieces’) & documents BECOME pieces Claim is transformations are more permanent The spy shredded the documents into pieces but the CIA pieced it back together again.
Fong 11/17/03 17 Penn Syntactic analysis of resultatives Small clause [ VP [ V wipe] [ AP [ NP the table] [ A clean]]] VP Case wiped I(AGR) V V Grid([x],[y] Act(,x,on(y),move(z) AP NP case(acc) theta(y) A1 Be(y, ) gri N1 DET thetable VP
Fong 11/17/03 18 Penn Ghosts Licensing ghosts: Check off unchecked y, resulting y* unrestricted. (Must appear in direct object position.) She ran her new shoes threadbare. *She ran her new shoes. y BE x ACT & y* BE She ACT & shoes BE
Fong 11/17/03 19 Penn Figure/Ground verbs rub the skin. GROUND rub the skin with lotion *rub the lotion. rub the lotion into the skin. x ACT ON y *set the ring. set the ring with the diamond. set the diamond. FIGURE set the diamond into the ring. x CAUSE diamond BECOME [FIGURE]
Fong 11/17/03 20 Penn The FIGURE feature [FIGURE] The argument encoding the Figure feature in a Figure/Ground template must be realized in syntax. Is the ground argument a shadow? *spread the bread. *spread the bread with cheese (garlic butter?). spread the cheese. spread the cheese onto the bread.
Fong 11/17/03 21 Penn ± FIGURE inject the patient. inject the patient with drugs. inject the drug. inject the drug into the patient. x CAUSE drug/patient BECOME [ ± FIGURE] Contrast with taste the soup for poison No change of location of y. Also The needle poked the cloth. No moving of y to subject position.
Fong 11/17/03 22 Penn Augmenting Templates: sweep Basic meaning -> [X sweep Y] Augmentations [[X sweep Y] CAUSE [BECOME [ Z ]]] Phil swept the crumbs into the corner. Also scatter the seeds./scatter the seeds on the field. daub the paint/daub the wall with paint/ daub paint on the wall.
Fong 11/17/03 23 Penn Shadows Shadow Realization Rule: Shadow arguments are not realized in syntax except when checked off by matching secondary templates. Secondary Template Subject Rule: Subjects of secondary tempates must be realized as direct objects.
Fong 11/17/03 24 Penn Shadows – removal verbs Mary cleared the table. Mary cleared the table of dishes. *Mary cleared the table up/away. *Mary cleared the dishes. ? x CAUSE y BECOME (REMOVE z) No secondary predication, so dishes can’t be DO Mary cleared the dishes from the table. Mary cleared the dishes up?/away. x CAUSE y BECOME (REMOVE z) & z up
Fong 11/17/03 25 Penn Shadows – manner verbs Mary swept the driveway. *Mary swept the driveway up. *Mary swept the driveway of leaves. Mary swept the leaves off the driveway. x CAUSE y BECOME (REMOVE z) z OFF Mary swept the leaves up./Mary swept up the leaves? *Mary swept/raked the leaves.? x CAUSE y BECOME (REMOVE z) No secondary predication, so leaves can’t be DO
Fong 11/17/03 26 Penn Augmenting Templates – spray/load John sprayed paint on the wall. Ambiguous [John ACT wall] CAUSE [BECOME [ paint ]]] John sprayed the wall with paint. [John ACT wall] CAUSE [BECOME [ wall ]]]
Fong 11/17/03 27 Penn Shadows – Put verbs I painted the wall. I painted the wall with latex paint. *I painted latex paint. x CAUSE y BECOME (ADD z) No secondary predication, so paint can’t be DO I painted latex paint on the wall. x CAUSE y BECOME (ADD z) z ON I sprayed the wall. I sprayed the wall with latex paint. ?I sprayed latex paint. I sprayed latex paint on the wall.
Fong 11/17/03 28 Penn Shadows and Resultatives Mary piled the books. Mary piled the books high. x CAUSE y RECONFIG (LOC z) & y BE Mary piled the books on the shelves. *Mary piled the shelves. x CAUSE y RECONFIG (LOC z) No secondary predication, so shelves can’t be DO Mary piled the shelves high (with books). x CAUSE y RECONFIG (LOC z) & z WITH y & y BE syntactic – shelves -> high, semantic – books -> high Mary piled the shelves with books.