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Introduction to the Cat

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1 Introduction to the Cat
Anatomy and Physiology

2 Felis catus or domesticus
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphyla: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus and Species: Felis catus

3 Directional Terms Cranial: toward the head, forward
Caudal: toward the rear, backward Dorsal: toward the backbone Ventral: toward the belly Lateral: toward the side Medial: toward the midline Proximal: closer to the body Distal: farther from the body

4 4 Body Areas Head (cranial) Neck (cervical)
Trunk (thoracic and abdominal) Tail (caudal) LIMBS: Forelimb: brachium, antebrachium, wrist, palm+digits+tori= manus Hind Limb: thigh, shank, ankle, sole+digits+tori= pes

5 External Anatomy Pinnae: external fold portion of ear that directs sound waves into the external auditory meatus External nares: nostrils Eyelids: 1) upper and 2) lower 3) plus a nicitating membrane in the medial corner of the eye which extends laterally over the eye to moisten and wipe the eye clean (plica semi-lunaris)

6 External Anatomy Papillae or Teats: external openings to mammary glands - usually 8 (four on each side of abdomen) Anus: external opening of the rectum Urogenital openings: ventral to the anus Male: penis and double-pouched scrotum (containing testes) Female: vagina Tori: fleshy pads on the bottom of the cat’s feet (fore feet have 7 and hind feet have 5)

7 External Anatomy Claws: retractable: the gait of the cat is digitigrade (walking on digits with the remainder of the paw elevated) Skin: covered with hair (exclusive mammal structure) Hair: each hair has a central medulla surrounded by a layer of elongated cells called the cortex, which is covered by a surface layer of scale-like cells called the cuticle

8 Oral Cavity Hard Palate: hard, bony top of mouth
Soft Palate: located caudally to the hard palate and is a muscular structure. Both palates separate the cranial oral cavity from the caudal nasal cavity, which leads to the external nares.

9 Oral Cavity Tongue: dorsal surface is covered with papillae (rough) for grooming and with taste buds along side and at base Teeth: Incisors: cranial ends of both upper and lower jaws (three pairs) Canines: located one on each side caudally to the incisors (4) Premolars: located caudally to the canines (6 in upper jaw and 4 in lower) Molars: caudal to the premolars (one pair on both the upper and lower jaws)

10 External Anatomy Lips: well developed and the upper lip is cleft in the center by the philtrum groove Vibrassae: Long sensory hairs around the eyes, cheeks and mouth (whiskers) Life span: approx. 15 years Gestation period: approx. nine weeks Litter: two to five kittens

11 Safety FIRST!!! All backpacks and other personal belongings are to be put on the floor in the back of the room each day. All you will need is your lab packet that will already be in the tub on the table with your tools and any additional handouts I designate at the beginning of each period. NO pens or pencils unless indicated. 2. Goggles, aprons, and gloves must be on your body BEFORE you get your cat out each day and all long hair must be tied back. 3. Closed-toed shoes MUST be worn on dissection days 4. 4. Any horse-play of ANY kind will result in a discipline write-up and IMMEDIATE removal from the lab.

12 Safety FIRST!!! 5. Avoid carrying scalpels, probes, or scissors around the room. If you must for some reason, ALWAYS carry these with the points turned DOWN. 5. ALWAYS cut AWAY from yourself with the scalpel and be sure that your partners fingers are out of the way!!! 6. NO STUDENTS WILL CHANGE SCALPEL BLADES!!!! If you need a new blade, bring your scalpel to me and I will change it for you. WHEN CLEANING SCAPELS, WIPE ON WET PAPER TOWEL ON THE TABLE! DO NOT USE YOUR HAND TO WIPE THE BLADE! Scalpels are NOT to be put in supply tub. When clean they are to be placed in the beaker (blade down) on Mrs. Walker’s desk.

13 Safety FIRST!!!! 7. ALL students are responsible for clean-up each day. Everyone must stop work at the 10-minute bell to clean-up, and no one may leave the room until ALL clean-up is complete and MRS. WALKER HAS DISMISSED YOU. 8. All dirty paper towel, newspaper, and gloves must be disposed of in the large trash can in the back of the room. Sinks must be clean and counters dry. All tables and faucet handles must be completely wiped down with Lysol wipes. 9. No parts of the cat are to be taken out of the classroom. 10. EVERYONE must wash their hands with soap and water before leaving the room at the end of the period.

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