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Identification and Control of Lead Hazards in Housing David Jacobs, PhD, CIH National Center for Healthy Housing United States April 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Identification and Control of Lead Hazards in Housing David Jacobs, PhD, CIH National Center for Healthy Housing United States April 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identification and Control of Lead Hazards in Housing David Jacobs, PhD, CIH National Center for Healthy Housing United States April 2010




5 Evidence of the Link Between Lead Paint and Lead Poisoning Historical Case Surveillance Data Environmental Correlate Studies Stable Isotope Ratios Lead-Based Paint as a Major Source of Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Review of the Evidence in Lead In Paint, Soil and Dust: Health Risks, Exposure Studies, Control Measures and Quality Assurance, Michael E. Beard and S.D. Allen Iske, Eds, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, p. 175-187, 1995.





10 Lead Exposure Pathway



13 Steps to Eliminate Lead Paint Hazards Determine if hazards are present Determine cause of hazard (water, others) Protect Occupants & Workers Hazard Control Options Cleanup Dust Testing

14 RMD LPA Lead Paint X-Ray Fluorecense Analyzer Measures lead in as little as 2 to 4 seconds with 95% confidence



17 Pb K L M N O e- E1=Eb Photoelectric E1>>Eb L-Shell XRF K-Shell XRF Compton Scatter XRF Generation

18 Control Source of Paint Failure

19 Options Permanent –Replace windows, doors, other building items –Enclose lead paint (new walls, siding) –Encapsulate lead paint (special long term coatings) –Remove lead paint using wet scraping, low-temperature heat guns, chemicals Short Term (Management) –Paint Stabilization –On-going Maintenance

20 Options (2) Dust Control –Friction & Impact Surfaces –Special Cleaning Bare Soil –Vegetation –Mulch –Removal


22 Avoid Tracking Lead Dust

23 Plastic Sheeting Exterior

24 Paint Scraping (Wet Methods)

25 Containment for High Dust Jobs

26 Dust and Friction/Impact

27 Enclosing Window Sills With Sheet Metal

28 Cleanup and Dust Removal Use High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor (HEPA) Vacuums and Wet Methods

29 Wet Cleaning Separate Wash and Rinse Water

30 Dust (Wipe) Testing

31 Dust Wipe Sampling Method HUD Guidelines Appendix 13.1: Wipe Sampling for Settled Lead-Contaminated Dust

32 US Dust Lead Standard Floors = 40 ug/ft 2 Interior Window Sills = 250 ug/ft 2 Set so that less than 5% of children would develop a PbB above the intervention level (15 ug/dL) Set in 1999 Now widely perceived as being insufficiently protective New NCHH proposal –10 ug/ft 2 and 100 ug/ft 2 for floors & sills

33 Key US Lead Exposure Limits Ambient Air (old)1.5 ug/m 3 Ambient Air (new)0.1 – 0.3 ug/m 3 Settled Dust (Floors)40 ug/ft 2 10 ug/ft 2 (NCHH proposed) Settled Dust (Sills)250 ug/ft 2 Play Soil (bare)400 ppm Yard Soil (bare)1200 ppm Drinking Water15 ug/L New Housing Paint600 ppm (90) Existing Housing Paint1 mg/cm 2 or 5,000 ppm

34 Key US Lead Exposure Limits (2) Workplace Air (8 hrs)50 ug/m 3 Permissible 30 ug/m 3 Action Level Exterior Concrete (Guidance) 800 ug/ft 2 Blood (Occupational)30 ug/dL Blood (Advisory)10 ug/dL (some jurisdictions now at 5)

35 The Power of Surveillance and National Surveys Age of Residence, year built Poisoned Children (%) From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), Phase 2, 1991-1994 National Average for all children (4.4% with Blood Lead Levels above 10  g/dL) African American Children Low Income Children All Children

36 Housing Surveillance Data: Where is the Remaining Lead Paint?



39 Dust Lead & Paint Lead: Ease of Contamination Current US definition of lead paint = 1 mg/cm 2 Sand a one square foot area, turn it into dust Spread the dust over a 10 ft x 10 ft room Resulting lead dust loading = 9,300 ug/ft 2 Current US Government Limit = 40 ug/ft 2

40 Prohibited Paint Removal Methods Power Sanding Flame Torching Abrasive Blasting Methylene Chloride Paint Strippers



43 Lead Paint Protections in the US Health-based exposure standards for paint, dust or soil Standard inspection or abatement protocols Prohibited paint removal methods Laboratory QA/QC Performance criteria for paint XRFs

44 Lead Paint Protections (cont’d) Trained or licensed inspectorate or abatement work force Occupational standards to protect workers Training curricula Public education Disclosure of known lead paint hazards & no enforcement Funding to address hazards in low-income privately owned high risk housing


46 Benefits of Window Replacement Lead Dust Accumulation Energy Savings: Heating and Cooling Housing Value Other?

47 HUD Pb Paint Hazard Control Evaluation Blood Lead Declined 37% Source: NCHH, UC 2004

48 Window Sill Lead Dust 12 Years After Abatement

49 Floor Lead Dust 12 Years After Abatement

50 Important Elements of US Approach 1.Research on Exposure Pathways (Lead as multi-media pollutant) 2.National and Local Surveillance on both Health and Housing Data is Essential 3.Guidelines, Legislation, Regulation & Enforcement 4.Education & Market-Based Approaches 5.Articulation of National Plan 6.Subsidy and Enforcement Targeted to Highest Risk 7.Evaluation of Exposure Control 8.High Cost of the Reactive Approach

51 Case Report One House in New Orleans


53 “Until effective standards for the domestic environment are devised, it is likely that children will continue to be employed as biological indicators of substandard housing.” Donald Barltrop, 1974

54 Calling for a Global Ban on Lead Use in Residential Indoor and Outdoor Paints, Children’s Products, and All Nonessential Uses in Consumer Products Policy Date: 11/5/2007 Policy Number: LB-07-01


56 David E. Jacobs, PhD, CIH Director of Research National Center for Healthy Housing 5025 Hawthorne PL NW Washington, DC 20016 202-607-0938

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