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預防措施及認識 Prevention & Control

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Presentation on theme: "預防措施及認識 Prevention & Control"— Presentation transcript:

1 預防措施及認識 Prevention & Control
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS ) Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SRS) 嚴重急性呼吸道綜合症 HKWC-QMH-OSH CND AB-506

2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention & Control
Knowledge of SARS Prevention at Workplace * Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) * Daily Cleansing * Terminal Cleansing 3. Personal Precaution * Healthy Lifestyle & Personal Hygiene 4. Donning & Removing PPE for SARS Cases


INFECTION – an illness produced by the invasion and multiplication of an infectious agent in body tissue. INFECTIOUS AGENTS – are microorganisms that can cause disease INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY – extremes of age; dysfunction immune system; very ill & high level of stress

AVOIDING CROSS CONTAMINATION “In health care facilities, it is essential that careful hand washing be done by all caretakers to avoid cross-contamination.” (Luckman & Sorensen, Basic Nursing, 3rd Edition, p. 506)

6 Chain of Infection Infectious Susceptible Agent Host Portal of
Entry Reservoir Mode of Transmission Portal of Exit

7 Disrupting the Chain Susceptible Host Infectious Agent Portal of Entry
Use disinfectants, antiseptics, antimicrobial drugs WASH HANDS Maintain effective immunization. Limit Exposure Personal hygiene & Health life-style Keep natural body defenses intact WASH HANDS Susceptible Host Infectious Agent Portal of Entry Reservoir Mode of Transmission Portal of Exit Maintain effective immunization. Limit Exposure WASH HANDS WASH HANDS:- Wear gloves when handling body substances Control Sources: Air Movement, water & contacts Block exit. Treat all body substances as potentially infectious WASH HANDS

8 WHAT IS SARS (SRS)? 嚴重急性呼吸道綜合症?
ATYPICAL Pneumonia: Influenza: Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Adenovirus Chemical: 典型肺炎 TYPICAL Pneumonia: Bacteria-Streptococcus 非典型肺炎: 支原體 過濾性病毒 化學性 Unknown agents SARS - Coronavirus family (變 種冠狀病毒) Paramyxovirus 病因不明

9 Typical Pneumonia 典型肺炎病徵及病狀
* Bacteria causing lung infection 肺炎鏈球菌 * Fever 發燒 * Chest pain 胸痛 * Cough 咳嗽 * Thick phlegm or mucus 咳濃痰

10 Cumulative Figures on SARS
( ) 3:00 P.M. Most of the deaths occurred in individuals who have a history of chronic diseases, or were patients who sought treatment at a relatively late stage of infection.

11 Signs & Symptoms of SARS
Frequency 頻數 Fever 發燒 ≧ 38℃ 100% Chills 發冷 92% Malaise 全身不適 90% Headache 頭痛 84% Myalgia 肌肉痛 67% Cough 咳嗽 50% Dizziness 頭暈 49% Rigors 寒顫 44% Sore throat 喉嚨痛 43% Runny nose 流鼻水 39% Productive cough 咳嗽有痰 36% Chest X-ray: changes compatible with pneumonia

12 Chinese University of Hong Kong
Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging Radiological appearances of recent cases of atypical pneumonia in Hong Kong Dept of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Campus (SARS) Task Force

13 PROGRESS CXR Case 1: A 31-year-old health-care worker presented with 2-day history of fever, chills and myalgia.                                                                   Figure 1 - CXR at the time of diagnosis showed ill-defined air space opacification in right lower zone Figure 2 - CXR after 3 days showed partial resoulation of consolidatve changes in right lower zone. There is a new finding of ill-defined air space opacification in left lower zone Figure 3 - CXR after another 4 days showed progressive resolution of the changes in both lower zones

14 Route of Transmission 傳播途徑
*Droplets 飛沫, *Direct contact and Patient’s secretions 直接傳染, 患者的呼吸道分泌物 * Fomites 中間媒介 Confined areas with poor ventilation 密閉空間 Aerosol l噴霧擴散

15 Routes of Entry

16 High Risk Group to Infection 感染病毒高危一族
Low Immunity 抵抗力薄弱 Over exhausted & Stressed 過度疲勞 Close contacts with infected case 與患者有近距離接觸

17 Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment 診斷及治療
* History of Illness, Signs & Symptoms 病徵及病狀 * X-Ray Chest X光肺 * Blood for analyses 血液分析 * High-dose of steroid, Ribavirin and cover with board-spectrum antibiotics 用對抗過濾性病毒的藥物和抑制免疫力的類固醇特效藥

18 Wearing Facemask 佩 戴 口 罩 Properly donned - satisfactory protection The general public may wear a facemask for self protection. Points to note 應注意事項: Wash hands before wearing a facemask 佩戴口罩前必須清潔雙手。

19 Proper Hand Washing 2 3 1 6 5 4

20 Wearing Facemask (cont.)
Follow the instructions on the packet carefully, Surgical facemask: The facemask should fit snugly over the face. The coloured side of the facemask should face outside. Tie all the strings that keep the facemask in place or fix the rubber bands of the facemask round the ears properly. The facemask should fully cover the nose, mouth as well as the chin. The metallic wire part of the facemask should be fixed securely over the bridge of the nose to prevent leakage. Under general circumstances, the surgical mask should be changed daily

21 Wearing of Surgical Mask

22 Wearing Facemask (cont.)
Put the facemask into a plastic bag and tie it properly before putting it into a rubbish bin. Wash hands before wearing a facemask. Replace the facemask immediately if it is damaged or soiled.

23 Wearing of Respirator N95
Hold respirator in hand Bands over the head Cover Face with Mask Fit Respirator N95 to face Test Respirator N95

24 Daily Disinfection * Use domestic detergent to clean floor, and surfaces, then use household bleach 1:50 to rinse floor and services. (Use 20 ml/cc household bleach ml/cc of tap water = 1000 ml/cc dilution) N.B: NEVER mix bleach solution with other chemicals or detergents.

25 MEASURES 500 c.c. 20c.c. 15 c.c. 500 c.c. 5 c.c. 10 c.c.

26 Daily Disinfection (Cont.)
* Pay attention to all sides of beds, head and foot ends, bed side rails, lockers; doors, door-knobs, door handles, pull-push trolleys, taps and sinks. * Use designated cleansing tools: cloth, mops buckets for isolated areas.

27 Clean up of Spilt body fluids or vomitus
Put on disposable gloves & masks, wipe the vomitus, phlegm or body fluid with paper towel. Use household bleach 1:50 dilution to clean the affected area and the surrounding

28 Clean up of Spilt body fluids: phlegm, vomitus or others 溢濺物的處理

29 Terminal Disinfection
Clean all floors and services first with domestic detergent, then household bleach 1:50 dilution to disinfect the floor, all corners and surfaces. Use domestic detergent to clean bed: head and foot ends, bed frames, mattress, side rails, lockers, pull-push trolley; handles, doors, door-knobs, taps & sinks. Then use household bleach 1:50 dilution to wipe all services washed with detergents.

30 Terminal Disinfection (Cont.)
* Bedside medical equipment: stethoscope, sphygmomanometer must be cleansed and disinfected before using on other patients * Use 70% Alcohol wipe for parts that cannot be washed. Cuff of sphygmomanometer must be washed with household detergent, rise and dry well before use * All surfaces of isolation room must be washed with household detergents, then disinfect with household bleach 1:50 dilution.

31 Precaution in Office Environment 預防措施—辦公室
* Remind staff having cough & fever to consult doctor and be granted leave to stay at home * Personal hygiene, rigorous hand washing & wear masks if suffering from common cold. * Adequate spacing between office workers * Open window to allow circulation of fresh air. * Frequent cleaning of air-conditioning system and filters. * Daily vacuum clean floors and carpets, maintain good housekeeping.

32 Daily Disinfection (Office)

33 Personal Precautions 預防措施 — 個人

34 Precaution - Personal * See to personal health and hygiene
* Always cover mouth and nose with handkerchief of paper handkerchiefs/ tissue paper while sneezing, coughing or yawning. * Proper disposal of used paper handkerchiefs/ tissue paper. * Wash hand thoroughly after coughing, sneezing, toileting or using public facilities. * Immediate seek medical advice if having cough and fever

35 Personal – Healthy Life Style 預防措施 — 個人 (绩)
A balanced diet (adequate fat, protein carbohydrates) and plenty of fluid. Eliminate or minimize caffeine & alcoholic drinks均衡及充足的飲食,避免不健康食品,如咖啡、酒精飲品 * Quit Smoking 戒煙

36 Jawetz,E; Melnick, J. L. & Adelber, E. A. (1987)
Jawetz,E; Melnick, J.L.& Adelber, E.A. (1987). Review of Medical Microbiology, 17th Ed. Appleton & Lange. Chapter 40 pp. 474 “The coronaviruses include human strains from the respiratory tract, avian infectioius brochiturs virus (IBV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), an enteritis vius of swine and others…………” “Growth of humancoroaviruses are difficult in cell cultures…….The optimal temp. for growth is 33-35C “Coronaviruses of lower animals can establish long-term infections in their natural hosts (pigs, chickens, mice). They may also set up inapparent persistent infections in humans.

37 Great Facts about Pork “The 3,000 year old Confucian Book of Rites says, "A gentleman does not eat the flesh of pigs and dogs." Although many Chinese are avid eaters of pork today, physicians of ancient China recognized pork-eating as the root of many human ailments”. Influenza (flu) is one of the most famous illnesses which pigs share with humans. This illness is harbored in the lungs of pigs during the summer months and tends to affect pigs and humans in the cooler months. Sausage contains bits of pigs' lungs, so those who eat pork sausage tend to suffer more during epidemics of influenza. Pig meat contains excessive quantities of histamine and imidazole compounds, which can lead to itching and inflammation; growth hormone, which promotes inflammation and growth; sulphur-containing mesenchymal mucus, which leads to swelling and deposits of mucus in tendons and cartilage, resulting in arthritis, rheumatism, etc.

38 Personal – Healthy Life Style (Cont.)預防措施 — 個人 (绩)
* Daily & regular exercises (deep breathing, stretch and brisk walking) 常做運動,增強身體的扺抗力 * Adequate rest and sleep充足休息及睡眠,睡前摒除雜念 * Practice relaxation techniques練習鬆弛技巧 * Face stresses positively: Take stress as CHALLENGES 減低壓力

39 Daily Disinfection PREVENTION AT HOME 預防措施 -家居
* Use domestic detergent to clean floor, and surfaces, then use household bleach 1:100 to rinse floor and services. (Use 10ml/cc household bleach ml/cc of tap water = 1000 ml/cc dilution) N.B: NEVER mix bleach solution with other chemicals or detergents.

40 Daily Disinfection (Cont.)
Pay attention to all sides of furniture: telephones, tables, chairs, chests, wardrobes, lockers; doors, door-knobs, door handles, pull-push trolleys, taps and sinks.. Toys should be regularly cleansed by immersing in to household bleach 1: 100 dilution for 30 minutes, then rinse well and dry.



43 Prevention at Home (Cont.)
Do consult doctor immediately if any member of your family is having signs of common cold, fever or cough If your child or toddler is suspected suffering from flu symptoms, do not sent him/her to school or nursery 。 The affected family member should wear a surgical mask to prevent spreading to other family members. The care-giver should also wear surgical mask while attending the affected/sick family member.

44 Public Washrooms 公用手洗間
1 2 3 4 6 5 7 9 8



47 Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance (Chapter 141) amended to control infectious disease
Regulation 4 of the Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases Regulations requires medical practitioners to notify the Director of Health Amended: Sections 72 and 8(4) & First Schedule to the Ordinance and Form to Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance (Amendment of First Schedule) Order 2003 and the Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases Regulations (Amendment of Form) Order 2003 With the addition of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, a total of 28 infectious diseases are included in the First Schedule to the Ordinance

48 The four designated medical centres:
* Pamela Youde Child Assessment Centre (Shatin) 2/F, Chap Wai Kon Street, Sha Tin * South Kwai Chung Jockey Club Polyclinic 310 Kwai Shing Circuit, Kwai Chung * Shek Kip Mei Health Centre 2 Berwick Street, Shek Kip Mei * Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic 6/F, 134 Queen's Road West, Western

49 HA-SARS COUNSELING 心靈綠洲 - Oasis Psychological Concern on SARS
Centre of Personal Growth Address: 147B Argyle Street, KH Nurses Quarters, 1/F. Psychological Concern on SARS Tel.:: (09:00-17:00, Monday to Sunday) Pager: (17:00-09:00, Monday to Sunday) Association of Hong Kong Nursing Staff (AHKNS) SARS Counseling Hotline: (14:00-17:00, Daily) SARS Enquiry:


51 Atypical Pneumonia




55 Hong Kong's hygiene laws - safeguarding public health
Good health and a clean environment are needed to combat atypical pneumonia. In Hong Kong, where the rule of law prevails, there are comprehensive laws in place that relate to our daily lives and the running of businesses. These laws protect our rights and define the government's powers and responsibilities. This pamphlet highlights the most relevant laws that relate to the control of atypical pneumonia. Members of the public are encouraged to get acquainted with these laws, not just to avoid prosecution, but to better discharge their civic responsibilities and support law enforcement and implementation. If we all play our part, we will all benefit and Hong Kong will become a cleaner and more hygienic city

56 Individual The Health Authorities are empowered to require:
The owners or occupiers of premises to make improvements residence or related facilities dangerous to health (e.g. water tank, sewage pipe, refuse container) The owners or occupiers of premises to remove the waste at common part of a building, found on a canopy, The owners or occupiers of premises to destroy the vermin at premises found infested The owners or occupiers of premises not to obstruct scavenging operation and cleaning workers. No spitting is allowed in public places. Used tissue paper, masks and other waste shall not be disposed of in public places.

57 The laws on health and quarantine set out in this pamphlet are contained in the Laws of Hong Kong or laid down in the common law. The relevant statutory laws include - Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance (Cap. 132) Hawker Regulation (Cap. 132 sub. leg. AI) Places of Amusement Regulation (Cap. 132 sub. leg. BA) Public Cleansing and Prevention of Nuisances Regulation (Cap. 132 sub. leg. BK) Food Business Regulation (Cap. 132 sub. leg. X) Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Diseases Regulations (Cap. 141 sub. leg. B) Education Regulations (Cap. 279 sub. leg. A) Road Traffic (Public Service Vehicles) Regulations (Cap. 374 sub. leg. D) In most cases, a person who contravenes any relevant provision is liable to a maximum fine of $50,000 and imprisonment for one year. The offender may also be subject to civil claims.

58 Department of Health Central Health Education Unit 24-hour Health Education Hotline: Education and Manpower Bureau Hotline : Social Welfare Department Hotline : Health Talk Materials Presentation Slide - Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections (Microsoft PowerPoint Format ; Picture Format) Last updated on March 27, 2003

59 Related Websites

60 Wellness to All THANK YOU
Ref: HA – ICN:SRS Management & Guidelines HKMA - HKU CUHK DH - Leaflets * Prevention of Atypical Pneumonia * Atypical Pneumonia: Guidelines for the Workplace Wellness to All THANK YOU

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