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Heritage Language Across the Life Span Third Summer Heritage Language Research Institute The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign June 22-26, 2009 Agnes.

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Presentation on theme: "Heritage Language Across the Life Span Third Summer Heritage Language Research Institute The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign June 22-26, 2009 Agnes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Heritage Language Across the Life Span Third Summer Heritage Language Research Institute The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign June 22-26, 2009 Agnes He SUNY-Stony Brook

2 Outline  Heart, heritage, HL  Chinese language characteristics  CHL: a synchronic perspective  CHL: a diachronic perspective  CHL acquisitional characteristics  Pedagogical implications: pre-college and college levels

3 Everyone needs a heart “The poor Tin Man just stood there mindlessly doing his work... He had no heart nor soul. He's the heartless and emotionless creature robotically carrying out his daily task as though he were already dead.”

4 Language of the heart “ My home language is Chinese. My parents are from China. They praised me, scolded me, all in Chinese… My Chinese is really bad. I can’t read and I can only write my name. But when I think of Chinese, I think of my mom, dad, and home. It is the language of my home, and my heart... Then later I learned English from school, and so I think of English as the language of my head.” --Jason, a CHL learner

5 HL: the Heart of heritage Some assumptions (from a language socialization and conversation analytic perspective):  The symbiosis of language and identity  language as a resource for shaping, maintaining, transforming identity  HL acquisition and HL literacy acquisition processes as identity processes  Ordinary, everyday interaction as the primary locus for language and cultural development

6 Learning CHL: dialects

7 Learning CHL: scripts  Christian Dior 选用高雅的颜 色,华丽的式 样,看上去光 彩夺目,是众 多女士非常喜 爱的时装 。  Christian Dior 選用高雅的顏 色,華麗的式 樣,看上去光 彩奪目,是眾 多女士非常喜 愛的時裝。

8 Scripts and dialects Mandarin is the learner’s home dialect or is comprehensible to home dialect Mandarin is unintelligible to home dialect classroom script same as home script classroom script different from home script no home literacy in Chinese

9 « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 Meaning in English: « Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den » In a stone den was a poet Shi, who was a lion addict, and had resolved to eat ten. He often went to the market to look for lions. At ten o'clock, ten lions had just arrived at the market. At that time, Shi had just arrived at the market. He saw those ten lions, and using his trusty arrows, caused the ten lions to die. He brought the corpses of the ten lions to the stone den. The stone den was damp. He asked his servants to wipe it. After the stone den was wiped, he tried to eat those ten lions. When he ate, he realized that those ten lions were in fact ten stone lion corpses. Try to explain this matter. « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 Meaning in English: « Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den » In a stone den was a poet Shi, who was a lion addict, and had resolved to eat ten. He often went to the market to look for lions. At ten o'clock, ten lions had just arrived at the market. At that time, Shi had just arrived at the market. He saw those ten lions, and using his trusty arrows, caused the ten lions to die. He brought the corpses of the ten lions to the stone den. The stone den was damp. He asked his servants to wipe it. After the stone den was wiped, he tried to eat those ten lions. When he ate, he realized that those ten lions were in fact ten stone lion corpses. Try to explain this matter. « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì shì shì. Shì shì shì shí shī, shì shǐ shì, shǐ shì shí shī shìshì. Shì shí shì shí shī shī, shì shíshì. Shíshì shī, Shì shǐ shì shì shíshì. Shíshì shì, Shì shǐ shì shí shì shí shī. Shí shí, shǐ shí shì shí shī, shí shí shí shī shī. Shì shì shì shì. 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 Meaning in English: « Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den » In a stone den was a poet Shi, who was a lion addict, and had resolved to eat ten. He often went to the market to look for lions. At ten o'clock, ten lions had just arrived at the market. At that time, Shi had just arrived at the market. He saw those ten lions, and using his trusty arrows, caused the ten lions to die. He brought the corpses of the ten lions to the stone den. The stone den was damp. He asked his servants to wipe it. After the stone den was wiped, he tried to eat those ten lions. When he ate, he realized that those ten lions were in fact ten stone lion corpses. Try to explain this matter. 《施氏食獅史》 石室詩士施氏,嗜獅,誓食十獅。 氏時時適市視獅。 十時,適十獅適市。 是時,適施氏適市。 氏視是十獅,恃矢勢,使是十獅逝 世。 氏拾是十獅屍,適石室。 石室濕,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始試食是十獅。 食時,始識是十獅,實十石獅屍。 試釋是事。 Homonyms and homophones: Yuen Ren Chao: lion-eating poet

10 Yuen Ren Chao : lion-eating poet: English translation « Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den » In a stone den was a poet Shi, who was a lion addict, and had resolved to eat ten. He often went to the market to look for lions. At ten o'clock, ten lions had just arrived at the market. At that time, Shi had just arrived at the market. He saw those ten lions, and using his trusty arrows, caused the ten lions to die. He brought the corpses of the ten lions to the stone den. The stone den was damp. He asked his servants to wipe it. After the stone den was wiped, he tried to eat those ten lions. When he ate, he realized that those ten lions were in fact ten stone lion corpses. Try to explain this matter.

11 Writing system: reading and decoding  FEAR LESS LY OUT SPOKE N BUT SOME WHAT HUMOR LESS NEW ENG LAND BORN LEAD ACT OR GEORGE MICHAEL SON EX PRESS ED OUT RAGE TO DAY AT THE STALE MATE BE TWEEN MAN AGE MENT AND THE ACT OR 'S UNION BE CAUSE THE STAND OFF HAD SET BACK THE TIME TABLE FOR PRO DUC TION OF HIS PLAY

12 What Do CHL Learners Already Know?  Phonology: do CHL learners have Mandarin pronunciation, or other dialectal variation and accommodation?  Morphology: do they already understand character formations, the notion of Chinese words, phrases ( 字,词,短 语 )?  Syntax: is grammar conscious to CHL learners or does it need to be made conscious to CHL learners?  Pragmatics: to what extent are CHL learners aware of different speech styles, genres, speech acts, speech events, etc. and their social distributions and functions?  In CFL or CSL, we could safely assume that everything needs to be taught; CHL learner proficiency levels are much harder to define.

13 CHL learners: a synchronic perspective: Variability in proficiency (Hendryx 2008) Listening/Speaking WritingReading

14 The CHL Learner: a diachronic view  toward a quasi-ergodic model (He, 2008, in press)  Jason’s journey Snapshots of all CHL learners at different stages at one given time = “Jason” over 14 years

15 “Jason”: a CHL Learner  Born in Guangdong, China  At 3, immigrated with his family to Queens, New York  At 6, started Kindergarten  Dropped out of weekend Chinese language school  4th to 12th Grade, one of the highest achieving students  In high school, took Spanish  Currently an Economics major, taking beginning level CHL class in a university  Best friends are Brad and Jim  Dating a girl from a Mandarin-speaking family background  Hopes to do business in China some day

16 high school: reported data 6th Grade: published data Chinese Language School: recorded data Kindergarten: field notes University: recorded data Data

17 Spatial: K-3 Kindergarten at home [field notes] Mother:Jason, kuai kuai, hurry le! Nainai zai wait you! Fast fast PRT grandma ASP-DUR Jason, fast fast, hurry! Grandma is waiting for you!

18 Spatial: K-3 Kindergarten classroom [field notes] Mrs. B: My friends, let’s get ready. It’s center time. ((Jason doesn’t move.)) Mrs. B: Jason, which center do you wanna go? ((Jason doesn’t respond. Mrs. B takes his hand and brings him to the art center next to an easel.)) Mrs. B: You like to paint? I know you are a good artist. ((Jason looks at the easel and then at other kids who are at the number center working with numbers 0 through 9. Jason joins the number center. Mrs. B leaves.))

19 Spatial: K-3 At the parent-teacher conference [field notes] Mrs. B:Jason is a very bright kid. But he needs to learn English. Father:Yes yes. Mrs. B:Do you speak English to him at home? Father:Uh yes. Mrs. B:You know, it’s very hard for kids if they don’t get much support from home. Father:Uh yes.

20 Spatial: K-3 CHL school [recorded data] 001Teacher: “ 孔融 让 梨 ” 是 - 说 的 是 “ kongrong yield pear ” be- say NOM be The story of “ Kong Rong Yields Pears ” tells us that 002 > little friend should mutual yield little friends should yield (.) to (.) each (.) other. 003 要是要是你们在 家 (.) 跟 弟弟 妹妹 玩, if if you LOC home with younger brother younger sister play If you are playing with your younger brothers and sisters at home, 004 你们 (.) 抢 玩具 (.) 这 样 对 不 对 啊? you grab toy this way correct NEG correct Q You (.) fight for toys (.) Is that right or not? 005 不 好 啊 ((waving hands)) NEG good PRT Not good ok 006(.2)

21 Spatial: K-3 007Teacher: 要把 - 应该 把 玩具让 :: 给 弟弟 妹妹 should ought BA toy yield DIR younger brother younger sister Should- Ought to yie::ld the toys to younger brothers and sisters 008(.2) 009Teacher: 谦 :: 让 :(.) 懂 吗 ? 谦让 就 是 这 个 意思 Yield understand Q yield just be this CL meaning Yield (.) Understand? This is what yield means. 010 Jason: 让 给 他 ? 我们 share 就 可以了。 yield DIR he we share just ok CRS Yield to him? We can share. 011Teacher:Share (.) 嗷 :: share 是 不 错 Share PRT share be NEG wrong Share (.) uh:: share is not wrong 012(.4) 013Teacher: 可是能 让 更好 = But able yield even better But being able to YIELD will be EVEN better. 014Jason:=Oh:: no::: Do I really have to? 015Teacher: 不是 - 不是说 非 - 不是 说 NEG NEG say have to- NEG say must must yield I ’ m not saying you have to- not saying that you MUST yield 016 能 让 (.) 最 : 好啊 Able yield best PRT Being able to yield is THE BEST ok

22 A Spatial Composite: K-3 Jason NeighborsCousins School Friends CHL Teacher School Teacher AuntGrandma Parents try to speak English to J and also send him to CHL school Aunt advocates for English only but speaks both to J. Teacher concerned with J’s English but celebrates his cultural background Parents

23 Spatial: 4-6 School report card: “Jason is a superior student who excels across all subject areas…” At dinner table: Grandma:Oy- m- oy faan a? want NEG want rice PRT Want rice or not? (2.0) Grandma:Chaaufaan a. Oy- m- oy? fried rice PRT want-NEG-want Fried rice. Want or not? (2.0) Jason:I’ll have some shrimps.

24 Spatial: 4-6 At home: Aunt:qu na ge biezhen lai. go get CL pin CP Go get a pin. Jason:Where’s it? Aunt:Ask mom. Jason:Ma. Mom:mm Jason:na you biezhen a? Q:where exist pin Q where can I find a pin? Mom:sh’ma? Q: what what? Jason:biezhen zai nar? pin LOC Q:where where is the pin? Mom:kankan zuobian chouti you mei you look left drawer have NEG have see if you can find it in the drawer on the left Jason:Yes. (To Aunt) How big? Aunt:Anything.

25 Spatial: 4-6 Language choice, sequential organization, multi-party interaction English / Chinese Aunt:request Jason:question Aunt:answer:command Jason:compliance:address Mom:response Jason:question Mom:initiation Jason:repair Mom:answer:question Jason:answer question Aunt:answer

26 Spatial: 7-12  Guidance Counselor:“He is the kind of student we all dream to have.”  Schoolmate: “Oh that Chinese guy? Or is he Vietnamese or some other kind of Asian? He is okay. Never bothers me. But what is he doing here? I think people like him should go back to China or wherever they came from.”  Neighbor: “Nice young man! He will have a great future. I wish my son more like him. You know, my son only play with people like him, you know, only Chinese. Too narrow, you know. You live in America, you want to be American, you know.”  An elderly at temple: “ 这孩子不错。他父母人很好,可他从来也不叫我奶奶。 都美国化了。 (He is a good kid. His parents are very nice people, but he never calls me ‘Grandma’. He is Americanized.)”  Mother: “He study not bad. Has good grades. He like computer. Play computer game all the time. Never stop. Spend a lot money too. He like brand. Waste money! ”  Sister: “He talks to me but he really doesn’t talk to anyone else [in the family] that much. He’s really busy’n stuff.”

27 A Spatial Composite: 4-12 Jason multi- ethnic peers counselorTeachersSisterGrandma Parents speak Chinese to Jason but don’t expect Jason to speak or learn Chinese Parents

28 Spatial: University CHL instructor [recorded data] Professor: Ok if I- I speak Mandarin, do you follow me well? Jason:I mean (.) >I underSTAND Mandarin.< At home my mom’n my aunt the- they sometimes speak Mandarin b’t (.) not all that well..hhh Most of the time everybody (.) jus speak Canto[nese. Professor: [Ok,= Jason:=I like Mandarin. Sounds better than other dialects. >Don’t know why jus feels that way. or something= Professor:=Uhuh, (.2) Jason:I don’t wanna be (.) like (.) y’ know (.) where THEY came from. [XL, Spring 2005]

29 Spatial: University Best friend: Brad (who is taking CFL) [recorded data] Jason:When’s your oral? Brad:Friday, (.) I think, (.).hhh oh no actually I don’t think she’s told us yet. I’m gonna fail hhahaha= Jason:=no you won’t, Brad:C’mon ((hhh I’m gonna)) say “wo: (.) jue::de (.2) fa:yin (.) he::n nan”((I think pronunciation is hard)) hhahhhaha Jason:Oh yea you can do it, you just did it hhuhuhuh Brad:Easy for YOU ((it’s)) your (.) lan[guage Jason: [ne::: my mom- I don= Brad:=but s[till Jason: [I guess. [BR, Spring 2005]

30 Spatial: University Math TA [recorded data] ((Jason is seeking help in TA’s office)) TA:This- this is the rule, the equation. What I tell you (.2) you mus must follow. The right way. ((Jason is still confused)) TA:Are you Chinese? ((Jason stares at TA)) TA:I tell you in Chinese. (.2) Jason:uh:: my Chinese isn’t that good= TA:=So you are ABC. No problem. I tell you again… [JL, Spring 2005]

31 Spatial: University CHL TA [recorded data] TA:This- this is jus- you put in end- before “le” you you you you know this you:: speak Chinese= Jason:=I’ve never seen this [one TA: [This- this is Chinese it’s natural we always say that. (.2) TA:You put them together you know these things right? You’re [Chinese right? Jason:[Not a whole lot. [JL, Spring 2005]

32 Spatial: University Mother [recorded data] Jason:I’m also (.2) taking uh Chinese history. (.4) Jason:It’s hard. Mother:Hard? You study hard (.) it’s easy. Jason:Ma you don’t get it. ((pause)) Mother:Why- why Chinese history? Economy major need Chinese history? I study my major I never study history= Jason:=Ma you never get it. ni bu dong la:: ((You don ’ t understand this)) I’m taking it cus I want to. Nobody asks me to. [XL, Spring 2005]

33 Spatial: University Supervisor at work place [recorded data] ((Jason is studying for a CHL quiz in between work)) Supervisor:That’s Chinese? Jason:Yeah (.) the professor sh- she said we have to (.) memorize all this stuff it’s killing me= Supervisor:=it sure looks pretty har::d (.2) but it’s cool I wish (.) I could read something like that. You must be smart. [JL, Spring 2005]

34 A Spatial Composite: University Jason SupervisorgirlfriendProfessorsTAs Club Members FriendsGrandma Parents use English to communicate with Jason; Jason begins to learn Chinese language and history Parents

35 Temporal: Jason Cantonese Mandarin English Jason Silence Time

36 Temporal: Mother Cantonese/ Mandarin English Mother Time

37 Temporal: School HL learning None School Time

38 Rethinking HL: Spatially

39 Agency and Directionality Multi-agency Multi-directionality Same agency different directions Different agency same directions Different agency different directions

40 Rethinking HL: Temporally

41 Non-linear, iterative, dynamic  sometimes plateau, sometimes exponential  cumulative  changing motivations, changing social networks, changing opportunities  changing competencies, changing choices, and changing ideologies  Changing agency, concurrently and consequently

42 Multiple worlds of the CHL learner 中国文明

43 Visualizing HL Learner Identity time space pastfuture school community home present coherence and continuity in learner identity

44 Birth order Age of arrival Parental L1 SES CHL developmental path Early exposure To CHL Domain- specific input Birth place Sustained exposure/use Explicit (partial) learning CHL learning Attrition / decline Discontinued / incomplete native linguistic system CFL learning

45 CHL Acquisitional Characteristics  Partial, discontinuous exposure (Xiao 2006, 2008))  Cultural familiarity; phonological, grammatical and orthographic intuition (cf. L2) (Koda et al. 2008)  High variability (Hendryx 2008; Dai & Zhang 2008)  a tendency of attrition or decline in language skills and morpho-syntactic knowledge (Jia & Bayley 2008)  sometimes plateau, sometimes exponential  changing motivations, changing social networks, changing opportunities (Li 1994, Tse)  changing competencies, changing choices, and changing ideologies (He, 2006, 2008)  a socialization process with multiple agencies, multiple directions, and multiple goals

46 Nurturing Young CHL Learners  CHL as integral part of life and learning  Building bridges and continuity  Character before pinyin 先认字后学拼音  Recognition of characters before production of characters 先认后写,多认少写  Reading before writing 先读后写,多读少写 马立平,斯坦福中文学校

47 A Letter to Grandparents (LJH: excerpt) 爷爷奶奶节日好! 今天是 2008 年最后一天。今年发生了很多事情。我学到 了很多东西,我还见到了很多的新的想法。今天一定是一个很 重要的一天。今天不之是新年前夜,但我们这里几分钟前,刚 刚一边下雪一边打雷。爷爷奶奶在中国听说过有这种事吗? 今年,我赢了一个数学比赛;我写了个纪念六年级的诗 ;我从小学毕业了;我开始上初中了;我过了我的 12 岁生日; 我还做了一个机器人。每一次,你们都给我发短行,你们都夸 我,说我好。我每次受到你们的短行,都会想起你们宽大的心 和暖和的爱。可惜,我的中文还不够好,写的不够快,平常没 有时间跟你们谈话。这几天是节日,我们放一个多星期假,终 于可以跟你们写信了。 ………………………….

48 A Letter to Grandparents (cont’d) 数学课教的知识比以前难,可是老师教的很好。大多数的 时候,我还是没有事情可做了,因为我有几个同学常常一开始 搞不懂,要闻很多问题才搞懂。我常常看懂了,就没事儿干了 。知识还挺难的,但是我那几个同学很多时候会过好长时间才 会搞懂。在学校外我参加了一个 Mandelbrot 的比赛。这个比赛 是给高中生的,但是有一个人突然走了。我们的队最好有八个 人才行。这个比赛很难,我是队上最查的。我还要记叙努力, 比赛还没有完呢,以后还会有。 我已经又给机器人加了改进了。到了二月份,我要带着 它跟别人比赛。在三分钟以内,我要把好多电池,高尔夫球, 硬币,和 Lego 都装进两个合资里。我是跟我的朋友一起要做的 。但是,我们那一天还要参加另一个比赛。我们要用一个机器 把四网球扔到两个地方去。两个球要扔到一个又离我们很近的 地方,但是又很高。两个球要扔到一个离我们很远的地方,但 是不能打倒更近的地方。 祝爷爷奶奶 2009 年健康快乐!

49 College CHL Learner Errors  Script (character) errors (SPE)  Errors on verbs or verb phrases (VBE)  Nominal errors (NNE)  Classifier errors (CLE)  Errors related to preposition phrases (PPE)  Errors on word order (WOE)  Adjective errors (AJE)  Adverb errors (ADE)  Errors on pronouns (PRE)  Sentential errors (SCE) (Ming & Tao, 2008)

50 Engaging Adolescent and College CHL Learners 第一课 你好! Hello! 第二课 今天几号? What date is today? 第三课 图书馆在哪里? Where is the library? 第四课 你去过北京吗? Have you been to Beijing? 第一课 百家姓 The Hundred Surnames 第二课 什么是农历? What is lunar calendar? 第三课 谁是东方人? Who is an oriental? 第四课 你以前学过中文吗? Have you learned Chinese before?

51 Pedagogical Approaches to CHL: Materials  Chinese language materials (e.g., newspapers, television programs, Internet pages as well as textbooks) that address the linguistic needs, socio- cultural identities, environment and life styles of CHL learners  Materials that are sensitive to CHL students’ learning styles and habits  Materials that are rich in Chinese culture (traditional and contemporary) and global in orientation  Some examples: 大学语文; 收获;马立平教材系 列

52 Pedagogical Approaches to CHL: Methods  Inquiry-based learning: begin with CHL student’s needs and questions (rather than a full four skill area 听说读写 approach)  A problem-posing and problem-solving pedagogy: focus on the identification, analysis and resolution of problems in learners’ worlds  Reactivating latent/tacit knowledge in character/orthography  Building vocabulary in extended contexts  Raising consciousness in grammar  Rethinking “communicative approaches”

53 Some examples  “Oh yeah I’ve seen that character before, but I forgot…” 病 : radical, phonetic-semantic principle, related characters, collocations  “What does it mean here?” 假 in 狐假虎威 : polysemy, new contexts  “No, that doesn’t sound right, but I’m not sure why.” 他没来过了: tense-aspect marker, current state relevance token

54 Pedagogical Approaches to CHL: Working with diversity Objective: maximally tap into different strengths of different learners in the same classroom  Task based learning: (a) assign a team-task which requires different skills to mixed groups of students of different profiles [ex. Conducting an interview] (b) assign different tasks to students of different profiles

55 Pedagogical Approaches to CHL: Working with diversity  Content based learning: (a) select themes building upon what learners already know [ex. Chinese naming practices] (b) make connection between Chinese language and some content area learning [ex. History, business, economics, Asian philosophy]

56 Pedagogical Approaches to CHL: cultural immersion  Study Abroad: 1.Life changing experience for all 2.HL learners: re-positioning their identities 3.Reinforced commitment to CHL  Home/community: 1.Ask for parental cooperation (pre-college) 2.CHL as tool to strengthen family ties 3.CHL as resource for creating new opportunities

57 Further and Urgent Questions  Different trajectories for CHL learners of different dialect backgrounds?  Different trajectories for CHL learners at different ages / phases of life?  Different trajectories for continuous CHL learning vs. intermittent CHL learning?  Different trajectories for CHL learners vs. CFL learners?

58 Most recent on CHL  He, Agnes Weiyun & Xiao, Yun. (Eds.) (2008). Chinese as a Heritage Language: Fostering Rooted World Citizenry. Honolulu: National Foreign Language Resource Center/ University of Hawaii Press.  312 pp. April 2008  ISBN

59 Thank You 谢谢


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