What is “Engineering Design” ? “Engineering design is a systematic process by which solutions to the needs of humankind are obtained. “ Design is the process of conceiving or inventing ideas and communicating those ideas to others in a form that is understood easily.” Lockhart et al. “ Design is the act of creating the specifications for a product or process that best satisfies the design criteria. Eide Bertoline et al.
Simplified Definition Needs solutions Design Process 1. Write down the problem statement. 2. Generate possible solutions. 3. Evaluate each solution against the criteria and select the best one. 4. Document the solution.
The Role of Graphics Visualization Communication Documentation
Let’s try to think together… Yesterday, I went to ME department to buy a textbook. I saw the window panels are very dirty.
Let’s try to think together… Maybe, a person responsible to this job is lazy. I don’t think so. I saw she worked diligently...…
Let’s try to think together… I asked her, why don’t you clean those windows ? What did she answer you ? She said it is impossible to clean those windows. So, what do you think ? I looked at the windows again, then I understood her answer. What are your findings ?
Let’s try to think together… ? ? ? ? ? I founded that the windows have two glass panels. One is fixed to the top, another one is fixed to the bottom of a window frame. Both panels place offset with each other and their free edge overlap about mid of the window’s height.
Let’s try to think together… Sorry, I cannot imagine about the window you have explained. Okay, I will show you a sketch of the windows. Visualization & Communication
Let’s try to think together… Sorry, I still do not understand why it is hard to clean the Um... The glass panel is thin, so he omits section lines ! I will show you the side view of this window. window.
Let’s try to think together… Ah.. I see. The offset distance is small, so she can not That is right !. If we do not solve this problem, access the opposite side of the window and the overlapped zone. learning environment will become worse and …….
STEP 2 : Generate possible solutions. 1. Hire a cleaning service company. 5. Design a homemade cleaning device. 2. Buy a usable device. 3. Redesign the window construction. 6. ……………………… Individual Teamwork 4. Change the window to concrete wall.
Cost STEP 3 : Evaluate the solutions Availability Criteria Simplicity Aesthetic 1. Hire a cleaning service company. 5. Design a homemade cleaning device. 2. Buy a usable device. 3. Redesign the window construction. 6. ……………………… 4. Change the window to concrete wall. Assume you (or your team) make a decision that “Design a homemade cleaning device” is the best solution under listed criteria. …
To design a device that can clean the opposite side of glass panel and overlapping area effectively. STEP 1 : Write down a specific problem statement.
STEP 2 : Generate possible solutions. 1. Modify from an existing solution. 2. Ad hoc solution. Solutions A, B … Use a freehand sketch to record the solutions Ideation PatentBook
Major functions of a device 1. Wash & Polish (the panel) 2. Wipe Would you like to combine both functions into a single device ? Yes No 1) Two devices: One for wash & polish another one for wipe. Single device. 2) Single device but has a changeable part. Assume you (or your team) choose this choice. STEP 2 : Generate possible solutions.
To design a wiping device that can wipe the opposite side of glass panel and overlapping area effectively. STEP 1 : Write down a specific problem statement.
Function What material is the part should be made of ? What should be an appropriate form of part(s) to do the required functions? How parts are assembled ? Not too heavy. Not too expensive. Can insert between the panels. … Hold (by user) Wipe Should not rust. Easy to use. … STEP 2 : Generate possible solutions.
CostWeight … Size Solutions Freehand sketching is used to represent rough ideas. Ease of operation STEP 3 : Evaluate the solutions Criteria A B C Assume you (or your team) choose the solution C
If this final results are unsatisfactory, the selected solution will be modified. Mathematical analysis Computer simulation Build and test a prototype STEP 3 : Evaluate the solutions : Refined
Computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) is the computer process of making engineering drawings and technical documents more closely related to drafting. Definition
Sketch an idea Create drawings Manu- facturing Parts Traditional tool 2-D CADD Solid modeling CNC machine Translate part information to machine code Pencil & Paper Ideation Brain Conventional machine (manual operate) Time Process Working Drawing Interpret by operator Evolution of Engineering Drawing Create machine code by operator
Advantages of CADD 1. Increased accuracy 3. Easy to revise 2. Increased drawing speed 1. Built-in several analysis tools 2. Better presentation (Easy to visualize) - Pan, rotate, animate, shade, texture 4. Availability of drawing libraries Drafting stage Design stage
Concepts in Working Drawing Creation Draw a group of lines that are connected and present - Orthographic multiview - Pictorial view 2-D CADD Create an orthographic view from a solid object. Draw a closed contour and convert to surface. Modify this surface to solid object. Solid modeling
Limitation of CADD (within scope of drawing creation) Good engineering drawings must have the following characteristics. Parts or product information is completely given. Information is clearly presented. Information can be used in manufacturing of part. Always remind yourself that “Good drawing cannot be created by using CADD software alone without understanding the drawing concepts.”
Apply a proper line weight and style. Select a necessary view. Decide the appropriate places of dimensions. Select an appropriate section techniques (if necessary) Limitation of CADD (within scope of drawing creation) To create a good engineering drawings YOU MUST do the following tasks yourself.
Limitation of CADD (within scope of drawing interpretation) Because they are frequently used technical document. Therefore,YOU MUST prepare yourself for interpreting (or visualizing) them when you become ENGINEER. No CADD software can create a pictorial view from an orthographic multiview.
Example : Necessary view selected by software. What do you think ? Good or Poor.
Example : Automatic dimension by software. What do you think ? Good or Poor.