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Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Automotive Alignment Angles Camber Caster Front toe Rear toe.

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Presentation on theme: "Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Automotive Alignment Angles Camber Caster Front toe Rear toe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Automotive Alignment Angles Camber Caster Front toe Rear toe

2 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Primary Alignment Angles u Front Camber u Rear Camber u Caster u Front Toe u Rear Toe

3 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Camber u Definition: –The inward or outward tilt of the top of the wheel as viewed from the front. Typical Range: –Front camber- –Rear camber - 0 º ± 1 º -.5 º ± 1 º

4 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Zero Camber u Wheel is vertical when viewed from the front u Measured as Zero degrees u Applicable to front and rear tires

5 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Reasons to use at or near Zero Camber u Extremely wide tires u Positive offset rims u Extended Tire life

6 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Positive Camber u Top of tire leans outboard at the top when viewed from the front u Measured in degrees u Primarily used on front wheels

7 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Reasons to use Positive Camber u Places load inboard on spindle u Increases road isolation u Increases directional stability

8 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Negative Camber u Top of tire leans inboard at the top when viewed from the front u Measured in degrees u Primarily used on rear wheels

9 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Reasons to use Negative Camber u Places load outboard on spindle u Increased cornering ability u Increases road shock & component wear

10 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Outside Shoulder Wear due to Excessive Positive Camber Angle

11 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Camber may cause a Pull u Cross camber is the side-to-side difference in camber measurements u More than 1/2º difference side-to side may cause the vehicle to pull to the wheel with the most positive camber.

12 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Excessive Cross Camber 0º camber 1º camber Vehicle may pull to side of most positive camber

13 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Camber Specifications u Preferred Specs Front = 0º Rear = -.40º u Tolerance Front = 1º Rear =.75º u Cross camber.70º

14 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Exception to the rule

15 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company u The Forward or Rearward Tilt of the Steering Axis as viewed from the side Typical Range u Typical tolerance ± 1º Caster 1º to 6 º positive Front

16 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Steering Axis Line drawn between the two pivot points of the steering knuckle

17 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Zero Caster u Steering Axis is vertical as viewed from the side and measured as 0º

18 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Negative Caster u Forward tilt of the Steering Axis as viewed from the side and measured in degrees Front

19 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Positive Caster u Rearward tilt of the Steering Axis as viewed from the side and measured in degrees Front

20 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Benefits of Positive Caster u Helps to return wheels to straight ahead after being steered u Helps to maintain directional stability Weight must be picked up as spindle turns downward ….

21 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Negative effects of Excessive Positive Caster u Excessive steering effort & road shock u Shimmy due to excessive speed of wheels returning to center u Steering damper used to control speed of steered wheels returning to center Dampner

22 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Caster Measurement  The amount of camber change during a 10  steer to the left & right

23 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Tire wear factor of Caster u Tires may show wear on both outer edges due to camber roll. u Camber roll - the change in camber during a turn due to caster u The amount of camber change is relative to the amount of positive caster

24 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Camber Roll u Left spindle down - right spindle up u Left spindle up - right spindle down

25 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Caster may cause a Pull u Cross caster is the side-to-side difference in caster measurements u More than 1/2º difference side-to side may cause the vehicle to pull to the wheel with the least positive caster.

26 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Cross Caster 2º caster Cross Caster = Left caster minus right caster 1º caster Vehicle may pull to side of least positive caster

27 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Caster Specification u Preferred Spec Front 3.80º Rear n/a u Tolerance Front 1º u Cross caster.85º

28 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Review u Purpose of Alignment Angles u Camber ê Definitions ê Measurement method ê Specification ê Tire wear factor ê Pull factor

29 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Review u Caster ê Definitions ê Measurement method ê Specification ê Tire wear factor ê Pull factor

30 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Front Toe Angles u Incorrect front toe angles may cause: –outside shoulder wear –inside shoulder wear –wandering –darting u Total toe changes as the speed of the vehicle increases

31 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Total Toe u The difference in the distance measured between lines drawn through the center of tires on the same axle. u Measurements are taken at the front and rear of the tires.

32 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Zero Total Toe u Equal distance when measured across the front and the rear of tires on the same axle. 80”

33 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Toe-In u Measured distance is shorter between the front of the tires. é front = 79 in. é rear = 80 in. Total toe-in = 1 in. 79” 80”

34 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Excessive Toe-In Tire Wear Outside shoulder wear Center of car

35 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Toe-Out u Measured distance is shorter between the front of the tires. é front = 80 in. é rear = 79 in. Total toe-out = 1 in. 79” 80”

36 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Excessive Toe-Out Tire Wear Inside shoulder wear Center of car

37 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Total Toe Angle u The Total toe may also be displayed as an angle and expressed in degrees. Total toe angle

38 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Total Toe Specification u Negative number indicates Toe-Out u Positive number indicates Toe-In

39 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Individual Toe u Front individual toe is responsible for steering wheel position

40 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Front Individual Toe Left Front Individual toe angle Centerline toe angle u Angle formed by the intersection of the geometric centerline and a line drawn through the center of the wheel

41 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Rear Individual Toe Rear individual toe is responsible for: u tire wear u thrust angle u vehicle tracking

42 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Rear Tire Wear Patterns u Toe-In –Outside shoulder u Toe-Out –Inside shoulder u Diagonal Wipe –a condition that may result on rear tires with excessive toe Diagonal Wipe

43 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Geometric Centerline u A line drawn between the midpoint of both the front and rear axles.

44 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Thrust Line u The bisector of rear total toe. Also described as the direction the rear wheels are pushing the vehicle.

45 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company u Thrust Angle - formed by the intersection of the geometric centerline and the thrustline ( a line bisecting rear total toe ) Thrust angle Thrustline Geometric Centerline

46 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Positive & Negative Thrust Angle Positive Thrust Angle is to the Right Negative Thrust Angle is to the Left + -

47 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Dog Tracking u A visible dog track condition will be present, if the thrust angle is excessive.

48 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company Review u Front total toe is responsible for tire wear factors: –excessive toe-in = v outside shoulder wear v darting –excessive toe-out = v inside shoulder wear v wandering u Front individual toe is responsible for steering wheel position

49 Courtesy of Hunter Engineering Company u Thrustline: the direction the rear wheels are pointing the vehicle ê bisector of the total toe angle u Thrust Angle: the angle formed by the intersection of the geometric centerline and the thrustline u Rear tire wear patterns: ê outside or inside shoulder wear ê diagonal wipe if the toe angle is extreme Main Menu


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