Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EDITING Terms and Techniques Basic video elements Basic video elements Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) Frame - single.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EDITING Terms and Techniques Basic video elements Basic video elements Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) Frame - single."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDITING Terms and Techniques Basic video elements Basic video elements Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) - consists of two "fields” - consists of two "fields” - a field is the record/play head passing across the tape - a field is the record/play head passing across the tape - 60 fields/ second (U.S. standard - 60 fields/ second (U.S. standard Basic video elements Basic video elements Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) - consists of two "fields” - consists of two "fields” - a field is the record/play head passing across the tape - a field is the record/play head passing across the tape - 60 fields/ second (U.S. standard - 60 fields/ second (U.S. standard

2 EDITING Terms and Techniques NTSC U.S. standard NTSC U.S. standard PAL and SECAM are used in other countries PAL and SECAM are used in other countries Shot - visual image recorded from the time the camera starts recording to the time that it stops Shot - visual image recorded from the time the camera starts recording to the time that it stops Scene - logically connected series of shots Scene - logically connected series of shots Sequence - logically connected series of scenes Sequence - logically connected series of scenes NTSC U.S. standard NTSC U.S. standard PAL and SECAM are used in other countries PAL and SECAM are used in other countries Shot - visual image recorded from the time the camera starts recording to the time that it stops Shot - visual image recorded from the time the camera starts recording to the time that it stops Scene - logically connected series of shots Scene - logically connected series of shots Sequence - logically connected series of scenes Sequence - logically connected series of scenes

3 EDITING Terms and Techniques Field log Field log List of shots with notes created in the field, at the shoot List of shots with notes created in the field, at the shoot (Can use shot log form, or notebook paper) (Can use shot log form, or notebook paper) Include production notes: best take, excellent shot, etc... Include production notes: best take, excellent shot, etc... Field log Field log List of shots with notes created in the field, at the shoot List of shots with notes created in the field, at the shoot (Can use shot log form, or notebook paper) (Can use shot log form, or notebook paper) Include production notes: best take, excellent shot, etc... Include production notes: best take, excellent shot, etc...

4 EDITING Documentation Shot log Shot log Precise list of shots on a tape, in order (catalog of shots on a piece of tape) Precise list of shots on a tape, in order (catalog of shots on a piece of tape) Shots listed in order by time code (in and out points of the shots ) Shots listed in order by time code (in and out points of the shots ) Notes included: quality of shot, audio; production notes; in cues and out cues Notes included: quality of shot, audio; production notes; in cues and out cues Created in the off-line studio/edit suite after the shoot Created in the off-line studio/edit suite after the shoot Shot log Shot log Precise list of shots on a tape, in order (catalog of shots on a piece of tape) Precise list of shots on a tape, in order (catalog of shots on a piece of tape) Shots listed in order by time code (in and out points of the shots ) Shots listed in order by time code (in and out points of the shots ) Notes included: quality of shot, audio; production notes; in cues and out cues Notes included: quality of shot, audio; production notes; in cues and out cues Created in the off-line studio/edit suite after the shoot Created in the off-line studio/edit suite after the shoot

5 EDITING Documentation Shot log Shot log Purpose Purpose List all shots on tapes List all shots on tapes Review content of tapes for editing Review content of tapes for editing Start planning/selecting shots to be used in final project Start planning/selecting shots to be used in final project Interviews should be logged verbatim Interviews should be logged verbatim Shot log Shot log Purpose Purpose List all shots on tapes List all shots on tapes Review content of tapes for editing Review content of tapes for editing Start planning/selecting shots to be used in final project Start planning/selecting shots to be used in final project Interviews should be logged verbatim Interviews should be logged verbatim

6 Edit decision list (EDL) Created from the shot log, very specific, exact Created from the shot log, very specific, exact Creative decisions of shots to include in the final program and in what order Creative decisions of shots to include in the final program and in what order A "written outline" of the program, shot by shot A "written outline" of the program, shot by shot Makes editing much more efficient Makes editing much more efficient Completed before editing can begin Completed before editing can begin Created from the shot log, very specific, exact Created from the shot log, very specific, exact Creative decisions of shots to include in the final program and in what order Creative decisions of shots to include in the final program and in what order A "written outline" of the program, shot by shot A "written outline" of the program, shot by shot Makes editing much more efficient Makes editing much more efficient Completed before editing can begin Completed before editing can begin

7 Editing (inter shot coding) Editing (inter shot coding) Transitions between shots, how images are connected together Transitions between shots, how images are connected together Can set the pace of the film regardless of the action in front of the camera Can set the pace of the film regardless of the action in front of the camera Editing (inter shot coding) Editing (inter shot coding) Transitions between shots, how images are connected together Transitions between shots, how images are connected together Can set the pace of the film regardless of the action in front of the camera Can set the pace of the film regardless of the action in front of the camera TRANSITIONS

8 Editing - types of edits CUT – basic transition CUT – basic transition Instant “cut” between images Instant “cut” between images Most common, a must in news, reality, documentary Most common, a must in news, reality, documentary By itself, no inherent meaning By itself, no inherent meaning Many fast cuts yields fast “pace” independent of the content of the shots Many fast cuts yields fast “pace” independent of the content of the shots In Studio TV it is called a TAKE In Studio TV it is called a TAKE CUT – basic transition CUT – basic transition Instant “cut” between images Instant “cut” between images Most common, a must in news, reality, documentary Most common, a must in news, reality, documentary By itself, no inherent meaning By itself, no inherent meaning Many fast cuts yields fast “pace” independent of the content of the shots Many fast cuts yields fast “pace” independent of the content of the shots In Studio TV it is called a TAKE In Studio TV it is called a TAKE

9 Cut

10

11 Coding Techniques, Schemes continued DISSOLVE — sssllllooowww transition BETWEEN images DISSOLVE — sssllllooowww transition BETWEEN images Called a MIX in multi-camera live or live-to- tape TV Called a MIX in multi-camera live or live-to- tape TV **Often signals changes of time or place **Often signals changes of time or place DISSOLVE — sssllllooowww transition BETWEEN images DISSOLVE — sssllllooowww transition BETWEEN images Called a MIX in multi-camera live or live-to- tape TV Called a MIX in multi-camera live or live-to- tape TV **Often signals changes of time or place **Often signals changes of time or place

12 Dissolve

13

14

15 Coding Techniques, Schemes continued Wipe – shot B pushes shot A off the screen (circle, diagonal, roll) News/sports. Wipe – shot B pushes shot A off the screen (circle, diagonal, roll) News/sports. Seldom in film (trademark of cheesy 1970s films) Seldom in film (trademark of cheesy 1970s films) Wipe – shot B pushes shot A off the screen (circle, diagonal, roll) News/sports. Wipe – shot B pushes shot A off the screen (circle, diagonal, roll) News/sports. Seldom in film (trademark of cheesy 1970s films) Seldom in film (trademark of cheesy 1970s films)

16 Wipe - 4 spokes

17 Wipe - circle

18 Wipe - diamond

19 Wipe - cube spin right

20 Wipe - news flash

21 Wipe - push up

22 Wipe - blinds horizontal

23 Fade Fade - up or down from black (or a color) Fade - up or down from black (or a color) NOT the same as dissolve!! NOT the same as dissolve!! Fade down and up signals change in time/place Fade down and up signals change in time/place Fade - up or down from black (or a color) Fade - up or down from black (or a color) NOT the same as dissolve!! NOT the same as dissolve!! Fade down and up signals change in time/place Fade down and up signals change in time/place

24 Fade

25 Fade - up or down from black (or a color) Fade - up or down from black (or a color) NOT the same as dissolve!! NOT the same as dissolve!! Fade down and up signals change in time/plac Fade down and up signals change in time/plac Fade - up or down from black (or a color) Fade - up or down from black (or a color) NOT the same as dissolve!! NOT the same as dissolve!! Fade down and up signals change in time/plac Fade down and up signals change in time/plac

26 Transitions - guidelines Transitions between two shots should be smooth Transitions between two shots should be smooth Edits should not call attention to themselves Edits should not call attention to themselves The shots should be significantly different in angle, closeness to subject, framing The shots should be significantly different in angle, closeness to subject, framing If shots are too similar, subject appears to "jump" if the edit is a cut If shots are too similar, subject appears to "jump" if the edit is a cut Transitions between two shots should be smooth Transitions between two shots should be smooth Edits should not call attention to themselves Edits should not call attention to themselves The shots should be significantly different in angle, closeness to subject, framing The shots should be significantly different in angle, closeness to subject, framing If shots are too similar, subject appears to "jump" if the edit is a cut If shots are too similar, subject appears to "jump" if the edit is a cut

27 Transitions - jump cuts 2 very similar shots adjacent to each other 2 very similar shots adjacent to each other Avoid by using... Avoid by using... Cover video - B-roll video to "cover" the edit Cover video - B-roll video to "cover" the edit An appropriate wipe (e.g., a page turn, white flash frame on an interview) An appropriate wipe (e.g., a page turn, white flash frame on an interview) Vary the A and B shots significantly Vary the A and B shots significantly 2 very similar shots adjacent to each other 2 very similar shots adjacent to each other Avoid by using... Avoid by using... Cover video - B-roll video to "cover" the edit Cover video - B-roll video to "cover" the edit An appropriate wipe (e.g., a page turn, white flash frame on an interview) An appropriate wipe (e.g., a page turn, white flash frame on an interview) Vary the A and B shots significantly Vary the A and B shots significantly

28 Jump cut

29

30 Jump cut - too similar in composition and angle

31 Avoid jump cuts Vary angle and/or closeness of adjacent shots Vary angle and/or closeness of adjacent shots

32 Avoid jump cuts

33 Substantial change in composition or angle

34 System terms - Non-linear Digital, computer-based editing Digital, computer-based editing Images copies/transferred from tape to computer hard drive (digitized/captured) Images copies/transferred from tape to computer hard drive (digitized/captured) Images manipulated in digital form in the computer Images manipulated in digital form in the computer ”Non-linear" because it is not tape-to- tape and can be manipulated in digital form ”Non-linear" because it is not tape-to- tape and can be manipulated in digital form Digital, computer-based editing Digital, computer-based editing Images copies/transferred from tape to computer hard drive (digitized/captured) Images copies/transferred from tape to computer hard drive (digitized/captured) Images manipulated in digital form in the computer Images manipulated in digital form in the computer ”Non-linear" because it is not tape-to- tape and can be manipulated in digital form ”Non-linear" because it is not tape-to- tape and can be manipulated in digital form

35 System terms - Non-linear Hardware requirements: Hardware requirements: Huge hard drive to save video Huge hard drive to save video Fast processor to create and 'render' effects Fast processor to create and 'render' effects Computer card to digitize (input) and output video and audio signals Computer card to digitize (input) and output video and audio signals ”Firewire" to load digital video directly into the computer IEEE 1394 ”Firewire" to load digital video directly into the computer IEEE 1394 Hardware requirements: Hardware requirements: Huge hard drive to save video Huge hard drive to save video Fast processor to create and 'render' effects Fast processor to create and 'render' effects Computer card to digitize (input) and output video and audio signals Computer card to digitize (input) and output video and audio signals ”Firewire" to load digital video directly into the computer IEEE 1394 ”Firewire" to load digital video directly into the computer IEEE 1394

36 System terms - Non-linear Software Adobe Premiere, Final Cut Pro, Avid Media Composer, Avid ExpressDV, Media 100 Adobe Premiere, Final Cut Pro, Avid Media Composer, Avid ExpressDV, Media 100 Prices range from a few hundred to many thousand dollars Prices range from a few hundred to many thousand dollars Differences: speed, quality, amount of video, features (special effects, text, audio etc...), Differences: speed, quality, amount of video, features (special effects, text, audio etc...), Real time editing (no rendering) [effects processed in real time, do not need to digitally recreate them] Real time editing (no rendering) [effects processed in real time, do not need to digitally recreate them]Software Adobe Premiere, Final Cut Pro, Avid Media Composer, Avid ExpressDV, Media 100 Adobe Premiere, Final Cut Pro, Avid Media Composer, Avid ExpressDV, Media 100 Prices range from a few hundred to many thousand dollars Prices range from a few hundred to many thousand dollars Differences: speed, quality, amount of video, features (special effects, text, audio etc...), Differences: speed, quality, amount of video, features (special effects, text, audio etc...), Real time editing (no rendering) [effects processed in real time, do not need to digitally recreate them] Real time editing (no rendering) [effects processed in real time, do not need to digitally recreate them]

37 System terms - Linear editing Copying or dubbing from tape to tape in a "linear" fashion Copying or dubbing from tape to tape in a "linear" fashion Actually copies video and audio from deck to deck, requires two decks Actually copies video and audio from deck to deck, requires two decks Controlled with an edit controller or computer Controlled with an edit controller or computer Still common in news production Still common in news production Can be either "on" or "off-line" Can be either "on" or "off-line" Copying or dubbing from tape to tape in a "linear" fashion Copying or dubbing from tape to tape in a "linear" fashion Actually copies video and audio from deck to deck, requires two decks Actually copies video and audio from deck to deck, requires two decks Controlled with an edit controller or computer Controlled with an edit controller or computer Still common in news production Still common in news production Can be either "on" or "off-line" Can be either "on" or "off-line"

38 On-line linear system Edit system combined with video mixer and character generator to allow A-B roll editing (mixing of more than one tape.) Edit system combined with video mixer and character generator to allow A-B roll editing (mixing of more than one tape.) Also includes various VTRs and audio inputs. Final mixes made here. Also includes various VTRs and audio inputs. Final mixes made here. Edit system combined with video mixer and character generator to allow A-B roll editing (mixing of more than one tape.) Edit system combined with video mixer and character generator to allow A-B roll editing (mixing of more than one tape.) Also includes various VTRs and audio inputs. Final mixes made here. Also includes various VTRs and audio inputs. Final mixes made here.

39 Off-line linear system Cuts only system, only allows cuts between shots, no other mixes, maybe titling. Cuts only system, only allows cuts between shots, no other mixes, maybe titling. Used for rough cuts, basic edits, news package editing. Used for rough cuts, basic edits, news package editing. Cuts only system, only allows cuts between shots, no other mixes, maybe titling. Cuts only system, only allows cuts between shots, no other mixes, maybe titling. Used for rough cuts, basic edits, news package editing. Used for rough cuts, basic edits, news package editing.

40 Video tape - technical elements Mylar (plastic-type) material backing with metal/magnetic coating Mylar (plastic-type) material backing with metal/magnetic coating As tape passes record heads, magnetic particles aligned to store information As tape passes record heads, magnetic particles aligned to store information Analog tape - stores information in analog form (e.g., audio cassettes, VHS, S-VHS, 3/4", Beta) Analog tape - stores information in analog form (e.g., audio cassettes, VHS, S-VHS, 3/4", Beta) Mylar (plastic-type) material backing with metal/magnetic coating Mylar (plastic-type) material backing with metal/magnetic coating As tape passes record heads, magnetic particles aligned to store information As tape passes record heads, magnetic particles aligned to store information Analog tape - stores information in analog form (e.g., audio cassettes, VHS, S-VHS, 3/4", Beta) Analog tape - stores information in analog form (e.g., audio cassettes, VHS, S-VHS, 3/4", Beta)

41 Video tape - technical elements  Digital tape - stores information digitally, binary code (e.g., 1s and 0s)  Analog and digital similar in design (coated mylar tape), different in the way information is stored.  Digital tape - stores information digitally, binary code (e.g., 1s and 0s)  Analog and digital similar in design (coated mylar tape), different in the way information is stored.

42 Record formats Elements of the video signal: Elements of the video signal: Color (chrominance) and Color (chrominance) and Brightness (luminance/contrast) Brightness (luminance/contrast) NTSC = US video engineering standard NTSC = US video engineering standard [NTSC link 2] [NTSC link 2] PAL = European video engineering standard PAL = European video engineering standard Elements of the video signal: Elements of the video signal: Color (chrominance) and Color (chrominance) and Brightness (luminance/contrast) Brightness (luminance/contrast) NTSC = US video engineering standard NTSC = US video engineering standard [NTSC link 2] [NTSC link 2] PAL = European video engineering standard PAL = European video engineering standard

43 Video Tape - Generation loss Loss in quality when a tape is copied (analog only) Loss in quality when a tape is copied (analog only) Occurs in linear editing, dubbing Occurs in linear editing, dubbing Each time a tape is copied, quality goes down: colors bleed, clarity is reduced, grain increases Each time a tape is copied, quality goes down: colors bleed, clarity is reduced, grain increases Original, 2nd generation, 3rd generation Original, 2nd generation, 3rd generation Loss in quality when a tape is copied (analog only) Loss in quality when a tape is copied (analog only) Occurs in linear editing, dubbing Occurs in linear editing, dubbing Each time a tape is copied, quality goes down: colors bleed, clarity is reduced, grain increases Each time a tape is copied, quality goes down: colors bleed, clarity is reduced, grain increases Original, 2nd generation, 3rd generation Original, 2nd generation, 3rd generation

44 Video Tape - Generation loss VHS starts looking very bad by the 3rd generation, sometimes by the 2nd VHS starts looking very bad by the 3rd generation, sometimes by the 2nd Limit number of generations if possible Limit number of generations if possible NOT an issue in digital editing NOT an issue in digital editing image is digital, no generation loss from tape to computer to tape. (Compression IS an issue, however.) image is digital, no generation loss from tape to computer to tape. (Compression IS an issue, however.) VHS starts looking very bad by the 3rd generation, sometimes by the 2nd VHS starts looking very bad by the 3rd generation, sometimes by the 2nd Limit number of generations if possible Limit number of generations if possible NOT an issue in digital editing NOT an issue in digital editing image is digital, no generation loss from tape to computer to tape. (Compression IS an issue, however.) image is digital, no generation loss from tape to computer to tape. (Compression IS an issue, however.)

45 Videotape - information stored on tape All tapes include three types of information All tapes include three types of information 1. Video signal 1. Video signal stored diagonally as heads pass across tape stored diagonally as heads pass across tape 2. Audio signal 2. Audio signal audio stored linearly at top or bottom 2 to 4 tracks audio stored linearly at top or bottom 2 to 4 tracks All tapes include three types of information All tapes include three types of information 1. Video signal 1. Video signal stored diagonally as heads pass across tape stored diagonally as heads pass across tape 2. Audio signal 2. Audio signal audio stored linearly at top or bottom 2 to 4 tracks audio stored linearly at top or bottom 2 to 4 tracks

46 Videotape - information stored on tape 3. Control track OR Time Code 3. Control track OR Time Code Invisible and mysterious! Invisible and mysterious! Electronic signals recorded on the tape along with the video Electronic signals recorded on the tape along with the video Enables consistent tape speed Enables consistent tape speed Signifies location on the tape Signifies location on the tape 3. Control track OR Time Code 3. Control track OR Time Code Invisible and mysterious! Invisible and mysterious! Electronic signals recorded on the tape along with the video Electronic signals recorded on the tape along with the video Enables consistent tape speed Enables consistent tape speed Signifies location on the tape Signifies location on the tape

47 Videotape - information stored on tape a. Control track ** a. Control track ** Term for electronic "blips" or "clicks" on tape Term for electronic "blips" or "clicks" on tape Address not absolute, relative Address not absolute, relative VHS, home systems where the time can be "reset” VHS, home systems where the time can be "reset” Not frame accurate Not frame accurate a. Control track ** a. Control track ** Term for electronic "blips" or "clicks" on tape Term for electronic "blips" or "clicks" on tape Address not absolute, relative Address not absolute, relative VHS, home systems where the time can be "reset” VHS, home systems where the time can be "reset” Not frame accurate Not frame accurate

48 Videotape - information stored on tape b. Time code b. Time code Specific absolute address for each frame on the tape Specific absolute address for each frame on the tape Hours, minutes, seconds, frames Hours, minutes, seconds, frames 03: is always the same, recorded on the tape 03: is always the same, recorded on the tape Usually frame accurate Usually frame accurate b. Time code b. Time code Specific absolute address for each frame on the tape Specific absolute address for each frame on the tape Hours, minutes, seconds, frames Hours, minutes, seconds, frames 03: is always the same, recorded on the tape 03: is always the same, recorded on the tape Usually frame accurate Usually frame accurate

49 Tape Formats Y/C Component ("S-video") Component Y/C Component Y/C Y and C separated, greater resolution & clarity Y and C separated, greater resolution & clarity - Luminance (Y) and chrominance ( C) are separated during encoding and decoding (laid together on the tape) - Luminance (Y) and chrominance ( C) are separated during encoding and decoding (laid together on the tape) Component Y/C Component Y/C Y and C separated, greater resolution & clarity Y and C separated, greater resolution & clarity - Luminance (Y) and chrominance ( C) are separated during encoding and decoding (laid together on the tape) - Luminance (Y) and chrominance ( C) are separated during encoding and decoding (laid together on the tape)

50 Tape Formats Y/C Component ("S-video") S-VHS, Hi=8, BetacamSP, MII (M2), Digital-S S-VHS, Hi=8, BetacamSP, MII (M2), Digital-S Better than typical home video, holds up during editing Better than typical home video, holds up during editing Signal carried through a four-pin "S" cable (pins are delicate, treat them carefully) Signal carried through a four-pin "S" cable (pins are delicate, treat them carefully) S-VHS, Hi=8, BetacamSP, MII (M2), Digital-S S-VHS, Hi=8, BetacamSP, MII (M2), Digital-S Better than typical home video, holds up during editing Better than typical home video, holds up during editing Signal carried through a four-pin "S" cable (pins are delicate, treat them carefully) Signal carried through a four-pin "S" cable (pins are delicate, treat them carefully)

51 Tape Formats RGB-Component Component RGB Component RGB Red, Green & Blue separated Red, Green & Blue separated High quality color and resolution High quality color and resolution Component RGB Component RGB Red, Green & Blue separated Red, Green & Blue separated High quality color and resolution High quality color and resolution

52 Tape Formats RGB-Component Red, green, blue portions of the signal kept separate, even on the tape. "Professional" broadcast systems - separate cables for each signal Red, green, blue portions of the signal kept separate, even on the tape. "Professional" broadcast systems - separate cables for each signal D1, D5, Digital Betacam, DVCPRO, DVCCAM D1, D5, Digital Betacam, DVCPRO, DVCCAM Red, green, blue portions of the signal kept separate, even on the tape. "Professional" broadcast systems - separate cables for each signal Red, green, blue portions of the signal kept separate, even on the tape. "Professional" broadcast systems - separate cables for each signal D1, D5, Digital Betacam, DVCPRO, DVCCAM D1, D5, Digital Betacam, DVCPRO, DVCCAM

53 Tape Formats - Composite Composite - all signals blended into one Composite - all signals blended into one Chroma and Luma Chroma and Luma Lower quality, home video standard due to interference Lower quality, home video standard due to interference Analogous to "mono" audio Analogous to "mono" audio low initial quality, worse during editing low initial quality, worse during editing Composite - all signals blended into one Composite - all signals blended into one Chroma and Luma Chroma and Luma Lower quality, home video standard due to interference Lower quality, home video standard due to interference Analogous to "mono" audio Analogous to "mono" audio low initial quality, worse during editing low initial quality, worse during editing

54 Tape Formats - Composite Composite - all signals blended into one Composite - all signals blended into one Colors not clearly defined, tend to bleed Colors not clearly defined, tend to bleed Looks like "home video” Looks like "home video” VHS, 8mm, U-matic (3/4"), D2, D3 VHS, 8mm, U-matic (3/4"), D2, D3 Signal carried through RCA or RF cables Signal carried through RCA or RF cables Composite - all signals blended into one Composite - all signals blended into one Colors not clearly defined, tend to bleed Colors not clearly defined, tend to bleed Looks like "home video” Looks like "home video” VHS, 8mm, U-matic (3/4"), D2, D3 VHS, 8mm, U-matic (3/4"), D2, D3 Signal carried through RCA or RF cables Signal carried through RCA or RF cables

55 Film Editing Glossary cut A visual transition created in editing in which one shot is instantaneously replaced on screen by another. continuity editing Editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. Establishes a sense of story for the viewer. cut A visual transition created in editing in which one shot is instantaneously replaced on screen by another. continuity editing Editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. Establishes a sense of story for the viewer.

56 Film Editing Glossary cross cutting Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action, indicating they are happening simultaneously. dissolve A gradual scene transition. The editor overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one. cross cutting Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action, indicating they are happening simultaneously. dissolve A gradual scene transition. The editor overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one.

57 Film Editing Glossary editing The work of selecting and joining together shots to create a finished film. errors of continuity Disruptions in the flow of a scene, such as a failure to match action or the placement of props across shots. establishing shot A shot, normally taken from a great distance or from a "bird's eye view," that establishes where the action is about to occur. editing The work of selecting and joining together shots to create a finished film. errors of continuity Disruptions in the flow of a scene, such as a failure to match action or the placement of props across shots. establishing shot A shot, normally taken from a great distance or from a "bird's eye view," that establishes where the action is about to occur.

58 Film Editing Glossary eyeline match The matching of eyelines between two or more characters. For example, if Sam looks to the right in shot A, Jean will look to the left in shot B. This establishes a relationship of proximity and continuity. fade A visual transition between shots or scenes that appears on screen as a brief interval with no picture. The editor fades one shot to black and then fades in the next. Often used to indicate a change in time and place. eyeline match The matching of eyelines between two or more characters. For example, if Sam looks to the right in shot A, Jean will look to the left in shot B. This establishes a relationship of proximity and continuity. fade A visual transition between shots or scenes that appears on screen as a brief interval with no picture. The editor fades one shot to black and then fades in the next. Often used to indicate a change in time and place.

59 Film Editing Glossary final cut The finished edit of a film, approved by the director and the producer. This is what the audience sees. iris Visible on screen as a circle closing down over or opening up on a shot. Seldom used in contemporary film, but common during the silent era of Hollywood films. jump cut A cut that creates a lack of continuity by leaving out parts of the action. final cut The finished edit of a film, approved by the director and the producer. This is what the audience sees. iris Visible on screen as a circle closing down over or opening up on a shot. Seldom used in contemporary film, but common during the silent era of Hollywood films. jump cut A cut that creates a lack of continuity by leaving out parts of the action.

60 Film Editing Glossary matched cut A cut joining two shots whose compositional elements match, helping to establish strong continuity of action. montage Scenes whose emotional impact and visual design are achieved through the editing together of many brief shots. The shower scene from Psycho is an example of montage editing. matched cut A cut joining two shots whose compositional elements match, helping to establish strong continuity of action. montage Scenes whose emotional impact and visual design are achieved through the editing together of many brief shots. The shower scene from Psycho is an example of montage editing.

61 Film Editing Glossary rough cut The editor's first pass at assembling the shots into a film, before tightening and polishing occurs. sequence shot A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. It is composed of only one shot with no editing. rough cut The editor's first pass at assembling the shots into a film, before tightening and polishing occurs. sequence shot A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. It is composed of only one shot with no editing.

62 Film Editing Glossary shot reverse shot cutting Usually used for conversation scenes, this technique alternates between over-the- shoulder shots showing each character speaking. wipe Visible on screen as a bar travelling across the frame pushing one shot off and pulling the next shot into place. Rarely used in contemporary film, but common in films from the 1930s and 1940s. shot reverse shot cutting Usually used for conversation scenes, this technique alternates between over-the- shoulder shots showing each character speaking. wipe Visible on screen as a bar travelling across the frame pushing one shot off and pulling the next shot into place. Rarely used in contemporary film, but common in films from the 1930s and 1940s.


Download ppt "EDITING Terms and Techniques Basic video elements Basic video elements Frame - single still "picture" (U.S. standard = 30 frames/second) Frame - single."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google