Presentation on theme: "The World Leader in High-Performance Signal Processing Solutions Hazardous Waste Management in the Semiconductor Industry Ron Scholtz- CHMM, REA Analog."— Presentation transcript:
The World Leader in High-Performance Signal Processing Solutions Hazardous Waste Management in the Semiconductor Industry Ron Scholtz- CHMM, REA Analog Devices, Inc. October 7, 2003
2 What is a Hazardous Waste? Hazardous wastes are generated from the many types of semiconductor manufacturing processes. Hazardous wastes are chemicals that can no longer be used, recycled, or resold and need to be disposed. Regulated under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as State of California regulations (Title 22) Hazardous wastes have one or more of the following characteristics: – Corrosive (pH 12.5) – Ignitable (Flashpoint < 140F) – Reactive – Toxic
3 Waste Management Strategies Minimize the generation of wastes as much as feasible. Minimize the hazard of the waste generated as much as feasible. Manage the waste on-site where possible (treatment). Select the off-site disposal technology which reduces the long term liabilities as much as possible. Recycle Treatment Incineration Landfill Ensure that the wastes are handled and disposed in accordance with all laws and regulations. Ensure that off-site disposers are handling wastes properly and they present no unnecessary liabilities.
4 Corrosive Wastes Typical corrosive wastes include: Sulfuric Acid, Hydrofluoric Acid, Phosphoric Acid, Nitric Acid, Ammonium Hydroxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide Acids are used for etching, stripping, and cleaning wafers Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide is a positive photoresist developer Corrosive wastes are treated in on-site in elementary acid neutralization systems Flow through system Uses Caustic and Acid to adjust pH to between 6 and 10 Discharges to local POTW Hydrofluoric Acid wastes are treated in on-site fluoride precipitation systems Batch treatment process Generate calcium fluoride filter cake- landfill Treated water goes to POTW
5 Ignitable Wastes Photoresists (PGMEA), Isopropyl Alcohol, Strippers, Acetone, n-Butyl Acetate, Xylene (old) Strippers are a proprietary blends of organic acids or bases Collected in drums or tanks Sent off-site for recycle, fuel blending, or incineration
6 Contaminated Solids Acid contaminated gloves and wipes- generated from used PPE, clean-up of small drips Solvent contaminated gloves and wipes- generated from used PPE, wipe cleaning of parts, spill clean-up Arsenic contaminated gloves and wipes- generated from ion implant maintenance activities Lead contaminated gloves and wipes- generated from lead soldering housekeeping activities Many waste minimization opportunities- human element Pelletize and use as a fuel source Others must be incinerated
7 “Special” Wastes Not RCRA regulated, but must be properly disposed. Expired Batteries- metals Fluorescent Light Bulbs- mercury Lighting Ballasts- PCB’s, oil, metals Reject product- lead Computer monitors- lead Empty aerosol cans Lead blocks Asbestos construction materials Cafeteria grease Empty chemical bottles
8 Generator Requirements (40 CFR) EPA ID number Waste characterization and analysis Proper storage- containment, containers, aisles Security of storage areas Employee training Weekly inspections Emergency response Proper labeling- HW label, DOT hazard label, accumulation start date Uniform hazardous waste manifest- DOT shipping requirements apply (49 CFR) Approved transporters Approved TSDF facilities for off-site disposal Fees, reports
9 “Tiered Permitting” California allows certain on-site treatment of hazardous wastes under the “tiered permitting” system rather than requiring a full TSDF permit. Acid neutralization, HF precipitation, and bottle wash apply. Conditionally Exempt, Conditionally Authorized, and Permit by Rule tiers. Initial notification and permit approval Annual report to lead agency- DTSC or CUPA Tank and containment certifications Closure cost estimate Financial assurance certifications
10 Off-Site Disposal Facilities It is very important that the off-site disposal facility has the ability, commitment, financial resources, and high level of compliance to handle a company’s wastes. Always audit a new facility before sending any wastes to them. Periodically audit existing facilities- changes in ownership Use an audit checksheet There are services available that provide audit reports Comes down to a gut-check level of comfort Sometimes TSDF facilities are not readily available in local areas or have limited capabilities Don’t spread out the liability too much. Try to limit to only a few good facilities with multiple capabilities Superfund, CERCLA, clean-up costs, liability- good key words when discussing options with management
11 Source Reduction SB-14 Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989 Requires a “Source Reduction Evaluation Review and Plan” every 4 years. Focuses on wastes that represent 5% or more of total. “Aqueous wastes” and “manifested wastes” Requires a “Hazardous Waste Management Performance Report” covering the previous 4 years. Must be made available to the public on request. The State focuses on several industry sectors each year. Semiconductor industry is currently being reviewed by the State DTSC. A seminar (jointly with SESHA) and executive report will be generated by the State demonstrating success stories within the industry.
12 Source Reduction Approaches Approaches include: Input Changes- raw material changes Operational Improvements- loss prevention, waste segregation, maintenance Production Process Changes- changes in temperature, pressure, automation, equipment changes Product Reformulations- changes in design, composition, or specification of final product Administrative Steps- inventory control, employee programs Other
13 Source Reduction Evaluation Evaluation criteria includes: Amount of waste reduced Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Effects on product quality Employee health and safety Regulatory compliance Releases and discharges to other media
14 Summary Minimize the generation of wastes as much as feasible. Minimize the hazard of the waste generated as much as feasible. Manage the waste on-site where possible (treatment). Select the off-site disposal technology which reduces the long term liabilities as much as possible Ensure that the wastes are handled and disposed in accordance with all laws and regulations. Ensure that off-site disposers are handling wastes properly and they present no unnecessary liabilities.
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