Presentation on theme: "The Five Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres"— Presentation transcript:
1The Five Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres ISITI-UNIMASDr. Roger Harris
2The 5 Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres OrganisationPartnershipsCommunity ownershipNetworkingPolicyPoverty reductionRural developmentICTsTelecomm-unicationsInternetSocialNeeds and strengths analysisCommunity ParticipationMarketingOutreachFinanceBusiness plansEntrepreneurialismTrainingSubsidis-ationOperationsStaffPremisesTechnologyPower supplyLocation
3A Mnemonic for the 5 Pillars Something intended to assist the memory, such as a verse or formula.OrganisationPolicySocialFinanceOperationsOPSFOOld Printers Scramble Fuzzy OrdersOld Printers Scramble Fuzzy Orders
4Organisation Partnerships Community Ownership Networking Why are telecentre partnerships essential for sustainabilityWhat partners should telecentres haveCommunity OwnershipHow to ensure community ownership of a telecentreWhy is it importantNetworkingWhat type of networks should telecentres belong toHow to foster participation in a networkNational level networking
5Policy Poverty reduction Rural development ICTs Telecommun-ications Why are poverty reduction policies importantHow are they formulated and why should they include ICTsRural developmentWhy are rural development policies importantHow are they formulated and why should they include ICTsICTsWhy are ICT policies importantHow are they formulatedTelecommun-icationsWhat are the stages of growth for telecommunications reformWhy are they important for internet and telecentre diffusionInternetWhy is an internet policy requiredHow is it developed and implemented
6Community Participation SocialNeeds analysisHow to discover the needs of the communityWhy this is crucial for telecentre sustainabilityCommunity ParticipationWhy should communities participate in telecentre operationMarketingHow to market telecentre servicesOutreachHow to maintain constant engagement with the community
7Finance Business plans Entrepreneu-rialism Training Subsidisation What is a business planHow to build oneEntrepreneu-rialismWhat is an entrepreneurWhat essential skills are required by oneWhy are they important for telecentre sustainabilityTrainingWhat training can and should be provided for entrepreneursSubsidisationWhy, when and how are subsidies used to support telecentres
8Operations Staff Premises Technology Location Power Supply What is the role of telecentre staffHow should they be selected and trainedWhy are they critical for telecentre performance and sustainabilityPremisesHow should telecentre premises be organisedTechnologyWhat technology should telecentres usePower SupplyHow to organise power supplies where they are unreliableLocationWhy is telecentre location fundamental to sustainability
9Organisational Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability
11PartnershipsWhy are telecentre partnerships essential for sustainabilityPartners are essential.Public-Private Partnerships bring in various skills and resources.At the local level, typical Telecentre partnerships include; community leaders, community organizations, schools, health centres, agricultural extension agents and input suppliers, and local cooperatives.Assist in identifying the demand for information and in promoting developmental activities that make good use of it.Also therefore; local agricultural extension agents, community health workers, schoolteachers and government officials
12Partnerships What partners should telecentres have? Government Donors Public services, e-governmentDonorsFunding, networkingNGOsDevelopment orientationPrivate sectorFinancial sustainabilityEducation institutionsCommon serviceOther telecentresKnowledge sharing
13Community Ownership How to ensure community ownership of a telecentre Include representatives within the governance structureProvide services that are responsive to known needsWhy is it important?The road to sustainability goes through the centre of community acceptance
14Networking What type of networks should telecentres belong to? International telecentre networksNational telecentre networksRegional and local telecentre networksIf they don’t exist, start one.How to foster participation in a networkBe activeNational level networkingImportant for national programmes; government, NGOs, private sector.
16Policy Poverty reduction Rural development ICTs Telecommun-ications Internet
17Poverty reduction Why are poverty reduction policies important? To achieve the MDGsTo legitimise telecentres, that provide access to ICTs for poor people, for whom domestic access is unaffordable.How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs?National PRSPs, but ICT inclusion is patchy.
18Rural development Why are rural development policies important? Most of Asia’s poverty is rural.Rural locations are least served with access to ICTsHow are they formulated and why should they include ICTs?Mostly under Ministries of Rural Development, but their use of ICTs is generally low priority.
19ICTs Why are ICT policies important? How are they formulated? To legitimise expenditure on expansion of the infrastructureTo align policies for poverty reduction and rural development with the formulation of telecentre programmesHow are they formulated?Often a national agency which is outside the regular government structure, possibly directly under the head of government.
20TelecommunicationsWhat are the stages of growth for telecommunications reform?De-regulation, competition, foreign ownership, independent regulator.Why are they important for internet and telecentre diffusion?Deregulation accelerates technology diffusion
21Internet Why is an internet policy required? As a critical component of ICT policyA mechanism for achieving digital inclusionPolicies for internet expansion underpin e-government and telecentre diffusionHow is it developed and implemented?As part of ICT policy formulations
23Social Marketing Outreach Community Participation Needs and strengths analysisCommunity ParticipationMarketingOutreach
24Needs and strengths analysis How to discover the information and communication needs of the communityPrimary data collection:Community engagementInterviews with representatives and officialsHousehold surveysFocus group discussionsSecondary data collectionPrevious studiesOther organisations and NGOsWhy this is crucial for telecentre sustainability?To enable the provision of information-based services that the community will appreciate.
25Community Participation Why should communities participate in telecentre operation?Info-mediaries who work in telecentres should be drawn from the communities the centres serve.Community representatives within the governance structure facilitate responsiveness to community needs.They also assist with outreach and marketing by the telecentre, which increases its impact.
26Marketing How to market telecentre services Newsletters Open days Special offersPostersNotices and billboardsFliersSchool open daysCompetitionsAdvertising campaignsHealth campaignsDemonstrationsMeetings
27Outreach How to maintain constant engagement with the community Regular focus groups; farmers, women, youths, elderly, businessmen, etc.Regular surveysRegular meetings of the council / steering committee, which will contain community representatives.Regular functions; open days, promotions, events, etc.
29True or False?The 5 pillars of sustainable telecentres are; Organisation, Politics, Finance, Business and Staff.False. The The 5 pillars of sustainable telecentres are; Organisation, Policy, Social, Finance, and OperationsPoverty reduction policies are important for telecentre sustainability.TrueTelecentres need to engage with their communities occasionally.False. Telecentres need to engage with their communities constantly.Telecentres don’t need business plans.False. Telecentres need business plans.Telecentre location is fundamental to sustainability.True.
30True or False?Local agricultural extension agents are useful partners for telecentres.True.Including community representatives within the telecentre governance structure is a good way to ensure community ownership.TrueMost national PRSPs include the use of ICTs.False. ICT inclusion in PRSPs is patchy.Most of Asia’s poverty is urban.False. Most of Asia’s poverty is rural.ICT policies are not needed for diffusion of telecentres.False. ICT policies legitimize expenditure on expansion of the infrastructure
33Business plans What is a business plan? How to build one A formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goalsHow to build oneShould have these components;The product or serviceA market analysisStrategy and ImplementationManagement and staffFinancial analysis, income and cost estimates, cash flow.Publicly sponsored telecentres often lack a business planPrivate sector managed telecentres have performed better financially.The telecentre manager’s entrepreneurial dedication is a key success factor.They require a combination of technical, managerial and social development skills that are sometimes difficult to learn spontaneously by local entrepreneurs.Pressure for financial can force those that succeed to narrow their targeted users to the groups that can afford the services most, typically urban dwellers and the better off.
34Entrepreneurialism What is an entrepreneur? A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on financial risk to do soWhat essential skills are required by one? Self-Motivation, Self-Confidence, Salesmanship, Risk-taker, Financial, Management, Customer-oriented, etc.Why are they important for telecentre sustainability?Local investment fosters community orientation and fiscal discipline.However, a drive for financial sustainability that relies solely on local entrepreneurialism risks a drift away from the social agenda.Arrangements for financing Telecentres need to find a balance between ensuring financial viability (which may or may not include subsidisation) and equality in sharing the benefits among those in most need of them
35Training What training can and should be provided for entrepreneurs? Some of the skills can be learned, but they are probably not the most important ones;Salesmanship, Financial, ManagementThe more important attributes are inborn; Self-Motivation, Self-Confidence, Risk-takerThe challenge is in finding such people and nurturing them towards success.
36SubsidisationWhy, when and how are subsidies used to support telecentres?A sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an industry or business so that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive.Most governments, including those of the poorest countries, subsidise services that even the well-off benefit from, including schools, libraries, fuel, food, transportation and health services.Subsidies to telecentres can help them become viable .They generally fall into two categories:those aimed at expanding telecommunications infrastructure into under-served areas (rural and remote), andthose designed to enhance telecentre performance for development purposes.Many countries are crafting market-oriented reforms intended to privatize and deregulate their telecommunications sectors and to improve access and investment in rural, underserved and un-served areas.Example mechanisms include;license obligations to serve rural communities,minimum subsidies schemes,telecommunications development funds, andvariations of build-transfer-operate arrangements.
37Operational Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability
39Staff What is the role of telecentre staff? To provide information services to the communityAct as infomediariesLocal capacity buildingHow should they be selected and trainedDrawn from the communityWomen are bestWhy are they critical for telecentre performance and sustainability?Strong evidence links community acceptance of telecentres to quality of interaction with staff.
40PremisesHow should telecentre premises be organised?
41Technology What technology should telecentres use? Computers Internet Laptops draw less powerThin clients are less complicatedInternetVSAT, Wi,Fi, WiMax,PeripheralsOther ICTs, TV, videoCommunity radio broadcasting
42Power Supply How to organise power supplies where they are unreliable? GeneratorsSolarBatteriesMicro-hydroWind turbine
43Location Why is telecentre location fundamental to sustainability? Same reason as a retail shopTo attract customersBest is next to a market, main street, ground floor, central location.Upstairs in government offices don’t work;HiddenOfficialIntimidating“Not for us”
44The Ecosystem Perspective on Telecentre Sustainability
45Drawing together a diverse set of constructs Development StrategiesPoverty reductionGovernmentAs a user of ICTsInfrastructureUniversal ServiceICT PolicyPro-poorLocal AccessTelecentres, schools, libraries,MethodsParticipatory, local, genderInstitutionsAgriculture, enterprise development, education, health…ServicesExtension, micro-finance, public health…PeopleFarmers, women, disadvantaged, entrepreneurs, youth…
47True or False? Business plans need a market analysis. Publicly sponsored telecentres always have a business plan.False. Publicly sponsored telecentres often lack a business planEntrepreneurial skills are always easily taught to anyone.False. Entrepreneurial skills are sometimes difficult to learn.Sustainable telecentres don’t ever need subsidies.False. Subsidies to telecentres can help them become viable.Outside experts are required to operate telecentres.False. Telecentre staff are best drawn from the community.
48True or False? Telecentres should be located in government premises. False. Government offices don’t work as they tend to be hidden and intimidating.Telecentres cannot operate in areas that are off the mains electricity grid.False. Electricity can be generated locally by various means.Mobiles are better than telecentres for rural development.False. Each technology has its merits and drawbacks.Broadcast radio can be used to access the internet.True. Combined with telecentres = radio browsing.Television is Asia’s main form of information and entertainment.True.