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The Five Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres ISITI-UNIMAS Dr. Roger Harris

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Presentation on theme: "The Five Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres ISITI-UNIMAS Dr. Roger Harris"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Five Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres ISITI-UNIMAS Dr. Roger Harris

2 The 5 Pillars of Sustainable Telecentres Finance Business plans Entreprene urialism Training Subsidis- ation Policy Poverty reduction Rural development ICTs Telecomm- unications Internet Operations Staff Premises Technology Power supply Location Social Needs and strengths analysis Community Participation Marketing Outreach Organisation Partnerships Community ownership Networking Sustainable Telecentres

3 A Mnemonic for the 5 Pillars Something intended to assist the memory, such as a verse or formula. Finance Policy Operations Social Organisation P P F F O O S S O O Old Old Printers Printers Scramble Scramble Fuzzy Fuzzy Orders Old Printers Scramble Fuzzy Orders Old Printers Scramble Fuzzy Orders

4 Why are telecentre partnerships essential for sustainability What partners should telecentres have Why are telecentre partnerships essential for sustainability What partners should telecentres have Partnerships How to ensure community ownership of a telecentre Why is it important How to ensure community ownership of a telecentre Why is it important Community Ownership Networking What type of networks should telecentres belong to How to foster participation in a network National level networking What type of networks should telecentres belong to How to foster participation in a network National level networking Organisation

5 Policy Why are poverty reduction policies important How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs Why are poverty reduction policies important How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs Poverty reduction Why are rural development policies important How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs Why are rural development policies important How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs Rural development ICTs Telecommun- ications Internet Why are ICT policies important How are they formulated Why are ICT policies important How are they formulated What are the stages of growth for telecommunications reform Why are they important for internet and telecentre diffusion What are the stages of growth for telecommunications reform Why are they important for internet and telecentre diffusion Why is an internet policy required How is it developed and implemented Why is an internet policy required How is it developed and implemented

6 Social How to discover the needs of the community Why this is crucial for telecentre sustainability How to discover the needs of the community Why this is crucial for telecentre sustainability Needs analysis Why should communities participate in telecentre operation Community Participation Marketing Outreach How to market telecentre services How to maintain constant engagement with the community

7 Finance What is a business plan How to build one What is a business plan How to build one Business plans What is an entrepreneur What essential skills are required by one Why are they important for telecentre sustainability What is an entrepreneur What essential skills are required by one Why are they important for telecentre sustainability Entrepreneu -rialism Training Subsidisation What training can and should be provided for entrepreneurs Why, when and how are subsidies used to support telecentres

8 Operations What is the role of telecentre staff How should they be selected and trained Why are they critical for telecentre performance and sustainability What is the role of telecentre staff How should they be selected and trained Why are they critical for telecentre performance and sustainability Staff How should telecentre premises be organised Premises Technology Power Supply Location What technology should telecentres use How to organise power supplies where they are unreliable Why is telecentre location fundamental to sustainability

9 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Organisational Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability

10 Partnerships Community Ownership Networking Organisation

11 Partnerships Why are telecentre partnerships essential for sustainability – Partners are essential. – Public-Private Partnerships bring in various skills and resources. – At the local level, typical Telecentre partnerships include; community leaders, community organizations, schools, health centres, agricultural extension agents and input suppliers, and local cooperatives. – Assist in identifying the demand for information and in promoting developmental activities that make good use of it. – Also therefore; local agricultural extension agents, community health workers, schoolteachers and government officials

12 Partnerships What partners should telecentres have? – Government Public services, e-government – Donors Funding, networking – NGOs Development orientation – Private sector Financial sustainability – Education institutions Common service – Other telecentres Knowledge sharing

13 Community Ownership How to ensure community ownership of a telecentre – Include representatives within the governance structure – Provide services that are responsive to known needs Why is it important? – The road to sustainability goes through the centre of community acceptance

14 Networking What type of networks should telecentres belong to? – International telecentre networks – National telecentre networks – Regional and local telecentre networks – If they don’t exist, start one. How to foster participation in a network – Be active National level networking – Important for national programmes; government, NGOs, private sector.

15 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Policy Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability

16 Policy Poverty reduction Rural development ICTs Telecommun- ications Internet

17 Poverty reduction Why are poverty reduction policies important? – To achieve the MDGs – To legitimise telecentres, that provide access to ICTs for poor people, for whom domestic access is unaffordable. How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs? – National PRSPs, but ICT inclusion is patchy.

18 Rural development Why are rural development policies important? – Most of Asia’s poverty is rural. – Rural locations are least served with access to ICTs How are they formulated and why should they include ICTs? – Mostly under Ministries of Rural Development, but their use of ICTs is generally low priority.

19 ICTs Why are ICT policies important? – To legitimise expenditure on expansion of the infrastructure – To align policies for poverty reduction and rural development with the formulation of telecentre programmes How are they formulated? – Often a national agency which is outside the regular government structure, possibly directly under the head of government.

20 Telecommunications What are the stages of growth for telecommunications reform? – De-regulation, competition, foreign ownership, independent regulator. Why are they important for internet and telecentre diffusion? – Deregulation accelerates technology diffusion

21 Internet Why is an internet policy required? – As a critical component of ICT policy – A mechanism for achieving digital inclusion – Policies for internet expansion underpin e- government and telecentre diffusion How is it developed and implemented? – As part of ICT policy formulations

22 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Social Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability

23 Social Needs and strengths analysis Community Participation Marketing Outreach

24 Needs and strengths analysis How to discover the information and communication needs of the community Primary data collection: Community engagement Interviews with representatives and officials Household surveys Focus group discussions Secondary data collection Previous studies Other organisations and NGOs Why this is crucial for telecentre sustainability? To enable the provision of information-based services that the community will appreciate.

25 Community Participation Why should communities participate in telecentre operation? Info-mediaries who work in telecentres should be drawn from the communities the centres serve. Community representatives within the governance structure facilitate responsiveness to community needs. They also assist with outreach and marketing by the telecentre, which increases its impact.

26 Marketing Newsletters Open days Special offers Posters Notices and billboards Fliers School open days Competitions Advertising campaigns Health campaigns Demonstrations Meetings How to market telecentre services

27 Outreach How to maintain constant engagement with the community Regular focus groups; farmers, women, youths, elderly, businessmen, etc. Regular surveys Regular meetings of the council / steering committee, which will contain community representatives. Regular functions; open days, promotions, events, etc.

28 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Quiz

29 True or False? 1.The 5 pillars of sustainable telecentres are; Organisation, Politics, Finance, Business and Staff. False. The The 5 pillars of sustainable telecentres are; Organisation, Policy, Social, Finance, and Operations 2.Poverty reduction policies are important for telecentre sustainability. True 3.Telecentres need to engage with their communities occasionally. False. Telecentres need to engage with their communities constantly. 4.Telecentres don’t need business plans. False. Telecentres need business plans. 5.Telecentre location is fundamental to sustainability. True.

30 True or False? 6.Local agricultural extension agents are useful partners for telecentres. True. 7.Including community representatives within the telecentre governance structure is a good way to ensure community ownership. True 8.Most national PRSPs include the use of ICTs. False. ICT inclusion in PRSPs is patchy. 9.Most of Asia’s poverty is urban. False. Most of Asia’s poverty is rural. 10.ICT policies are not needed for diffusion of telecentres. False. ICT policies legitimize expenditure on expansion of the infrastructure

31 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Financial Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability

32 Finance Business plans Entrepreneu -rialism Training Subsidisation

33 Business plans What is a business plan? A formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals How to build one Should have these components; The product or service A market analysis Strategy and Implementation Management and staff Financial analysis, income and cost estimates, cash flow. Publicly sponsored telecentres often lack a business plan Private sector managed telecentres have performed better financially. The telecentre manager’s entrepreneurial dedication is a key success factor. They require a combination of technical, managerial and social development skills that are sometimes difficult to learn spontaneously by local entrepreneurs. Pressure for financial can force those that succeed to narrow their targeted users to the groups that can afford the services most, typically urban dwellers and the better off.

34 Entrepreneurialism What is an entrepreneur? – A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on financial risk to do so What essential skills are required by one? – Self-Motivation, Self-Confidence, Salesmanship, Risk-taker, Financial, Management, Customer-oriented, etc. Why are they important for telecentre sustainability? – Local investment fosters community orientation and fiscal discipline. – However, a drive for financial sustainability that relies solely on local entrepreneurialism risks a drift away from the social agenda. – Arrangements for financing Telecentres need to find a balance between ensuring financial viability (which may or may not include subsidisation) and equality in sharing the benefits among those in most need of them

35 Training What training can and should be provided for entrepreneurs? – Some of the skills can be learned, but they are probably not the most important ones; Salesmanship, Financial, Management – The more important attributes are inborn; Self-Motivation, Self-Confidence, Risk-taker The challenge is in finding such people and nurturing them towards success.

36 Subsidisation Why, when and how are subsidies used to support telecentres? A sum of money granted by the government or a public body to assist an industry or business so that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive. Most governments, including those of the poorest countries, subsidise services that even the well-off benefit from, including schools, libraries, fuel, food, transportation and health services. Subsidies to telecentres can help them become viable.They generally fall into two categories: those aimed at expanding telecommunications infrastructure into under-served areas (rural and remote), and those designed to enhance telecentre performance for development purposes. Many countries are crafting market-oriented reforms intended to privatize and deregulate their telecommunications sectors and to improve access and investment in rural, underserved and un-served areas. Example mechanisms include; – license obligations to serve rural communities, – minimum subsidies schemes, – telecommunications development funds, and – variations of build-transfer-operate arrangements.

37 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Operational Aspects of Telecentre Sustainability

38 Operations Staff Premises Technology Power Supply Location

39 Staff What is the role of telecentre staff? – To provide information services to the community – Act as infomediaries – Local capacity building How should they be selected and trained – Drawn from the community – Women are best Why are they critical for telecentre performance and sustainability? – Strong evidence links community acceptance of telecentres to quality of interaction with staff.

40 Premises How should telecentre premises be organised?

41 Technology What technology should telecentres use? – Computers Laptops draw less power Thin clients are less complicated – Internet VSAT, Wi,Fi, WiMax, – Peripherals – Other ICTs, TV, video – Community radio broadcasting

42 Power Supply How to organise power supplies where they are unreliable? – Generators – Solar – Batteries – Micro-hydro – Wind turbine

43 Location Why is telecentre location fundamental to sustainability? – Same reason as a retail shop – To attract customers – Best is next to a market, main street, ground floor, central location. – Upstairs in government offices don’t work; Hidden Official Intimidating “Not for us”

44 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability The Ecosystem Perspective on Telecentre Sustainability

45 Drawing together a diverse set of constructs ICT Policy Pro-poor ICT Policy Pro-poor Development Strategies Poverty reduction Development Strategies Poverty reduction Government As a user of ICTs Government As a user of ICTs Infrastructure Universal Service Infrastructure Universal Service Institutions Agriculture, enterprise development, education, health… Institutions Agriculture, enterprise development, education, health… Services Extension, micro- finance, public health… Services Extension, micro- finance, public health… Local Access Telecentres, schools, libraries, Local Access Telecentres, schools, libraries, Methods Participatory, local, gender Methods Participatory, local, gender People Farmers, women, disadvantaged, entrepreneurs, youth… People Farmers, women, disadvantaged, entrepreneurs, youth…

46 The 5 Pillars of Telecentre Sustainability Quiz

47 True or False? 1.Business plans need a market analysis. True. 2.Publicly sponsored telecentres always have a business plan. False. Publicly sponsored telecentres often lack a business plan 3.Entrepreneurial skills are always easily taught to anyone. False. Entrepreneurial skills are sometimes difficult to learn. 4.Sustainable telecentres don’t ever need subsidies. False. Subsidies to telecentres can help them become viable. 5.Outside experts are required to operate telecentres. False. Telecentre staff are best drawn from the community.

48 True or False? 6.Telecentres should be located in government premises. False. Government offices don’t work as they tend to be hidden and intimidating. 7.Telecentres cannot operate in areas that are off the mains electricity grid. False. Electricity can be generated locally by various means. 8.Mobiles are better than telecentres for rural development. False. Each technology has its merits and drawbacks. 9.Broadcast radio can be used to access the internet. True. Combined with telecentres = radio browsing. 10.Television is Asia’s main form of information and entertainment. True.


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