Presentation on theme: "Imperialism. Admit Slip You are a factory owner in Britain during the 1800’s (during the Industrial Revolution). Your factory is in charge of manufacturing."— Presentation transcript:
Admit Slip You are a factory owner in Britain during the 1800’s (during the Industrial Revolution). Your factory is in charge of manufacturing desks, doors, tables, and chairs (anything made of wood). Sales have recently declined due to a decrease in the amount of raw materials (lumber) used to make the finished products. In addition to the shortage of lumber, a shortage of coal in your region has caused your business to cut back production as well. 1.) Discuss in your groups what would be your plan to fix the issue described in the passage above?
Imperialism Imperialism occurs when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life. The stronger nation usually takes advantage of the weaker nation because the weaker nation has something (resources, strategic geographic location) the stronger nation needs. This type of foreign policy was practiced by European nations and Japan throughout the 1800s and early 1900s. In every case, a nation would experience industrialization prior to practicing imperialism on a foreign nation or region. This was due to the nearly greedy demand for cheap raw materials and the need for markets to buy manufactured goods.
Industrial Roots Abundant raw materials and vast markets are needed in order to maintain an industrialized economy. Raw materials such as iron and cotton can be turned into products such as steel and textiles. Finally, these products need to be sold to a market in order to turn a profit. The forces of industrialization caused nations to begin looking outside of their borders for cheaper and more abundant raw materials. Foreign populations were also viewed as vast markets where goods produced in domestic factories could be sold.
Causes of Imperialism Nationalism and Social Darwinism Nationalism- promotes the idea of national superiority. Imperialists felt that they had a right to take control of countries that they viewed as weaker. Social Darwinism was the idea of “survival of the fittest”, that it was natural for stronger nations to dominate weaker nations. Military Motives Military motives were linked to nationalism, since military power was a way to promote a nation’s goal. Colonies (weaker countries) could be used as military bases for trading and navy ships. A nation with many colonies had power and security. The more colonies a nation had, the more powerful they looked to the world.
Causes of Imperialism Economic Motives Imperialists needed raw materials to supply their factories. They needed foreign markets in which to sell their finished products. They also needed places to invest their profits. Colonies could provide all of these things. White Man’s Burden Rudyard Kipling’s poem “White Man’s Burden” offered justification for imperialism. Kipling expressed that white imperialists had a moral duty to educate people in nations they considered to be less developed. Imperialists spread western ideas, customs, and religions to people in Africa and Asia. Some interpreted this poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.
Summary of Causes
Imperialism in India During the 1700s, a joint-stock company called the British East India Company was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I of England. The British East India Company controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years. The company’s main objective was to make a profit for shareholders by exploiting the abundant natural resources and gaining access to the markets in India. To do this, the British East India Company successfully used “divide and conquer” tactics to increase their control over entire regions of India. At the time, both Muslims and Hindus were living in India, and were employed as soldiers (Sepoys) by the British.
Sepoy Mutiny So……..there are native peoples of India (Muslim and Hindu) fighting in the British Army. In 1857, tensions rose when the Sepoys became angry at the British military leaders for demanding that they follow rules that were against their religious beliefs. The rifle cartridges that were distributed to the Sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before being inserted into a gun. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys that this cover had been greased with beef and pork fat. This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and the Hindu Sepoys who were not supposed to eat beef. The Sepoys rebelled against the British, however the Sepoys were easily defeated.
Result The Sepoy Mutiny left bitter feelings It caused the British to change their Imperialistic policies. No longer was the British East India Company ruling over India, now the British Government took direct command of India.
Scramble for Africa In the 1870’s, King Leopold of Belgium sent a mission to the interior of Africa to establish trade agreements with leaders in Africa. This act set off a scramble among other European powers to establish their presence in Africa.
Berlin Conference In 1884, to avoid conflict among themselves, European leaders met in Berlin, Germany, to set up rules for colonizing Africa. European powers divided Africa with little regard for the people who lived there, and no respect for ethnic boundaries
Battle for Southern Africa An African leader named Shaka Zulu organized warriors to fight against the European slave traders and ivory hunters. The Zulus, as they were called, fought against a group of Dutch farmers called the Boers. The Zulus eventually came into conflict with the British as well. The Zulus experienced victory in 1879, however were crushed soon thereafter by the British and their superior weaponry Other groups in Africa resisted the imperialistic efforts of the Europeans. Boer War War fought between the British and Boers (Dutch Farmers) over land (British wanted to annex the Boer owned Cape Colony)
Imperialism in China In the early 1800’s Britain was trading partners with China. Britain was very dependent on tea, which they received from China. China was unhappy however because Britain did not have anything of value to trade in exchange for the tea. Britain had to find a product that China would view as valuable to continue this trade relationship To solve this trade imbalance Britain imported opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China.
Opium War Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
Unequal Treaties Treaty of Nanjing According to the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing, the Chinese were to: Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese Open several ports to British trade Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China Extraterritoriality- A policy that guaranteed European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts.
Spheres of Influence Eventually several European nations followed suit, forcing China to sign a series of unequal treaties. Eventually western nations weary of governing foreign lands, established spheres of influence within China which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.
Chinese Reaction Taiping Rebellion Chinese citizens were disgusted with the lack of effort from the Chinese government. The government did little in ridding China of opium or foreign influence after the Opium Wars (spheres of influence) Citizens were additionally angered by the extraterritoriality granted to non-Chinese citizens living in China. Peasants became furious because of their poverty and the corrupt officials of the Qing and Manchu Dynasty So…… Chinese peasants fought back in an event known as the Taiping Rebellion. Taiping Rebellion- A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners (spheres of influence).
Chinese Reaction Boxer Rebellion In 1900, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion (or the Boxer Uprising), a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there. The rebels, referred to by Westerners as Boxers because they performed physical exercises they believed would make them able to withstand bullets, killed foreigners and Chinese Christians and destroyed foreign property. From June to August, the Boxers invaded the foreign district of Beijing (then called Peking), China’s capital, until an international force that included American troops subdued the uprising. By the terms of the Boxer Protocol, which officially ended the rebellion in 1901, China agreed to pay more than $330 million in reparations.