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1 CIS100 Test 3 Review REAC-CRC © 2010 REACH CRC. All Rights Reserved.Fall 2010

2 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. CIS100 Test 3 Content Chapter 6: Business Networks and Telecommunications Chapter 7: Databases and Data Warehouses Videos: The Machine is Us/ing Us UPS Worldport / PLD Chapter 7: Organizing Data for Effective Analysis Cumulative concepts, features and functions, as well as nested IF statements plus new functions Includes all Homework and Lab Assignments to date

3 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. CIS100 Cumulative Microsoft  Excel  Functions Mathematical Functions INT ROUND SUM Statistical Functions AVERAGE COUNT COUNTA LARGE MAX MEDIAN MIN SMALL Logical Functions AND OR NOT IF

4 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. CIS100 Test 3 New Microsoft  Excel  Functions Date Functions DATEDIF YEARFRAC NOW TODAY Mathematical Functions ROUND

5 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Dial-up connections through regular phone lines and Ethernet computer network connections are examples of ____. A)wideband B)broadband C)shortband D)baseband

6 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Dial-up connections through regular phone lines and Ethernet computer network connections are examples of ____. A)wideband B)broadband C)shortband D)baseband Ref: p. 199

7 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft  Excel  Date Functions DATEDIF =DATEDIF(startdate,enddate,interval) YEARFRAC =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,[basis])

8 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions Syntax: =DATEDIF(startdate,enddate,interval) Arguments: startdate Required  A date that represents the start date. enddate Required  A date that represents the end date. interval Required  The type of day count basis to use.

9 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions Syntax: =DATEDIF(startdate,enddate,interval) Arguments: interval Required  The type of day count basis to use.

10 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Description: Computes the difference between two dates in a variety of different intervals. Remarks: If you have the interval in another cell referenced by the formula, that cell should not have quotes around the interval string. When calculating date intervals, DATEDIF uses the year of startdate, not enddate when calculating the yd, ym and md intervals Errors: #VALUE – If startdate or enddate are not valid dates #NUM! – If startdate is greater than or equal to enddate #NUM! – If interval is not a valid paramter (m, d, y, ym, yd, md) Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

11 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =DATEDIF(A2,A3,”d”) Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions What is the difference in days between the two dates?

12 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =DATEDIF(A2,A3,”d”) =210 Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions What is the difference in days between the two dates?

13 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Description: Returns the serial number of the current date. Remarks: If the cell format was General before the function was entered, Excel changes the cell format to Date. If you want to view the serial number, you must change the cell format to General or Number. The TODAY function is useful when you need to have the current date displayed on a worksheet, regardless of when you open the workbook. The TODAY function is dependent on your computer’s system clock being correct. Errors: None Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

14 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =TODAY() Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

15 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =TODAY() Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

16 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions Syntax: =NOW() Arguments: None

17 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Description: Returns the serial number of the current date and time. Remarks: If the cell format was General before the function was entered, Excel changes the cell format to the same date and time format that is specified in the regional date and time settings in Control Panel. The NOW function is useful when you need to display the current date and time on a worksheet or calculate a value based on the current date and time, and have that value updated each time you open the worksheet. Numbers to the right of the decimal point in the serial number represent the time; numbers to the left represent the date. The results of the NOW function change only when the worksheet is calculated or when a macro that contains the function is run. It is not updated continuously. Errors: None Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

18 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =NOW() Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

19 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions =NOW()

20 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A communications ____________________ is the physical means that transports the signal, such as a copper wire telephone line, a television cable, or radio waves.

21 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A communications ________medium______ is the physical means that transports the signal, such as a copper wire telephone line, a television cable, or radio waves. Ref: p. 199

22 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions Syntax: =YEARFRAC(start_date,end_date,[basis]) Arguments: start_date Required  A date that represents the start date. end_date Required  A date that represents the end date. basis Optional  The type of day count basis to use.

23 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. 0 – This value is used for US (NASD) date systems that assume 30 days are in a month and 360 days are in one year. If no basis value is specified, a value of 0 is used. 1 – A value of 1 should be used for the basis if you want your calculations based on the actual number of days in any given month or year. 2 – This value uses the actual number of days in any given month but assumes there are only 360 days in a year. 3 – This value is similar to the previous option as it uses the actual number of days in any given month, but it assumes there are 365 days in each year. That is, it disregards leap years. 4 – This value is similar to 0 (30 days in each month and 360 days in a year), but it assumes a European date system.

24 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Description: Calculates the fraction of the year represented by the number of whole days between two dates (the start_date and the end_date). Remarks: Use the YEARFRAC worksheet function to identify the proportion of a whole year's benefits or obligations to assign to a specific term. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. All arguments are truncated to integers. Errors: #VALUE – If start_date or end_date are not valid dates #NUM! – If basis < 0 #NUM! – If basis > 4 Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

25 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =YEARFRAC(A2,A3,A4) Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions What is the fraction of the year between the two dates?

26 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. =YEARFRAC(A2,A3,A4) = Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions What is the fraction of the year between the two dates?

27 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question ( Excel) Calculate the number of whole days between a person's birth date (stored in cell A1) and the current date - a good example, since there are a few different ways to do this =TODAY() - A1 =ROUND(NOW() – A1 - 1, 0) =DATEDIF(A1, TODAY(), "d") =ROUND(YEARFRAC(A1, NOW(), 1) * , 0)

28 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question Question (Excel) Read each of the following questions and provide a response for the first two using a formatted date and then a whole number for the latter two. (1 point each) A) What is the date represented by serial number in a given worksheet? [PartA] B) What is the date that is 123 days after January 1st of the year 2525? [PartB] C) What is the day of the week for the date that is exactly two thousand days (in the future) from Independence Day of the current year? [PartC] D) What is the number of days that Franklin D. Roosevelt served as President of the United States? Hint: FDR was inaugurated on March 4, 1933 and then died in office on April 12, [PartD]

29 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Nested If in Excel A nested IF statement says something like... "If the answer is yes, do this. If the answer is no do this or this (depending on...“ Syntax: IF( condition1, value_if_true, IF( condition2, value_if_true, value_if_false )) Microsoft ® Excel ® Date Functions

30 Nested IF Contd. More Examples:BCDE What was the percentage grade you got on your last test?75% You got a C =IF(F42<60%,"Sorry, you failed",IF(F42<70%,"You got a D",IF(F42<80%,"You got a C",IF(F42<90%, "You got a B", "WOW you got an A!!!"))))

31 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question Excel) A customer applies for a 30-year mortgage at their employer-sponsored credit union, which offers borrowing terms based on the customer's "FICO" (which has been set-up as a defined name in a worksheet) credit score. Write a formula to determine the rate. –Mortgage application denied if score is less than 600 –Interest rate of 6% if score is –Interest rate of 5% if score is –Interest rate of 4% if score is over 800 =IF (FICO<600,"Denied",IF(FICO<700,6%, IF(FICO<800,5%,4%)))

32 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question (Excel) The Boolean expression: =AND($A5=2,C$7=4,E9>8,$G$11=16) was originally keyed into cell G4 of a worksheet. It was then copied to another cell within the same worksheet. After copying, the formula was transformed to: =AND($A6=2,F$7=4,H10>8,$G$11=16) What is the cell reference that the original formula above gets copied to?

33 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question Question (Excel) Without using the AVERAGE or MEDIAN functions, provide a formula to determine the arithmetic mean salary for the group of employees in the accompanying image, rounded to the nearest thousand dollars. Answer =ROUND(SUM(C4:C14)/COUNT(C4:C14),-3) =ROUND(SUM(C4:C14)/COUNT(C4:C14), -3) =ROUND(SUM($C$4:$C$14)/COUNT($C$4:$C$14),-3) =ROUND(SUM($C$4:$C$14)/COUNT($C$4:$C$14),-3)

34 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Multiple characters make up a record. A)TRUE B)FALSE

35 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Multiple characters make up a record. A)TRUE B)FALSE Ref: p. 235

36 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Mathematical Functions Syntax: =ROUND(number, num_digits) Arguments: number Required  The number that you want to round. num_digits Required  The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument.

37 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Mathematical Functions Description: Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. Remarks: If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero), then number is rounded to the specified number of decimal places. If num_digits is 0, the number is rounded to the nearest integer. If num_digits is less than 0, the number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. Errors: None

38 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Microsoft ® Excel ® Mathematical Functions

39 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Practice Question (Excel) Dosages for medications in infants needs to be very precise and is typically based on body weight. Assume that: –the infant receiving the medication weighs 10 pounds –there are 2.2 kilograms per a pound –the dosage is 12 milligrams per kilogram of body weight How much medicine should be administered, if the result is rounded to the nearest tenth of a milligram? =ROUND(10/2.2*12, 1)

40 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A(n) _____ field __________ is one piece of information about an entity, such as the last name or first name of a student, or the student’s street address.

41 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A(n) _____ field __________ is one piece of information about an entity, such as the last name or first name of a student, or the student’s street address. Ref: p. 235

42 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Each ____ of mobile communication technologies refers to a communication protocol or a combination of protocols. A)generation B)packet C)wave D)network

43 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Each ____ of mobile communication technologies refers to a communication protocol or a combination of protocols. A)generation B)packet C)wave D)Network Ref: p.212

44 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question The two major types of ____ are geostationary, also called GEO, and low earth orbit, also called LEO. A)microwaves B)satellites C)broadband D)Baseband

45 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question The two major types of ____ are geostationary, also called GEO, and low earth orbit, also called LEO. A)microwaves B)satellites C)broadband D)baseband Ref. p. 202

46 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A ____ is the field by which records in a table are uniquely identified. A)secondary key B)composite key C)primary key D)main key

47 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A ____ is the field by which records in a table are uniquely identified. A)secondary key B)composite key C)primary key D)main key Ref. p. 239

48 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Usually, a table in a relational database must have a primary key, and most relational DBMSs enforce this rule. A)TRUE B)FALSE

49 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Usually, a table in a relational database must have a primary key, and most relational DBMSs enforce this rule. A)TRUE B)FALSE Ref. p. 239

50 DATABASES & DATA WAREHOUSES Extra Material

51 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Database Approach Entity – any object about which an organization chooses to collect data. Ex. Types of people: employees, students, contractors, etc. Character – the smallest piece of data Field – one piece of information about an entity Ex. First Name or Last Name. Multiple characters make up a field Record – the fields related to the same entity make up a record File – A collection of related records Ex. All the records of a colleges’ students Database – a collection of one or more files Ref. p 235

52 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question There are two overall approaches to maintaining data: the traditional file approach—which has no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, and manipulating data— and the ____, which does have this mechanism. A)Database Approach B)Data Approach C)Datafile Approach D)Indexed file approach

53 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question There are two overall approaches to maintaining data: the traditional file approach—which has no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, and manipulating data— and the ____, which does have this mechanism. A)Database Approach B)Data Approach C)Datafile Approach D)Indexed file approach Ref. p. 234

54 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A collection of related records, such as all the records of a college’s students, is called a(n) A)Field B)Character C)Item D)File

55 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A collection of related records, such as all the records of a college’s students, is called a(n) A)Field B)Character C)Item D)File Ref p. 235

56 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A ____ is the general logical structure in which records are stored within a database and the method used to establish relationships among the records. A)database relationship B)database model C)database list D)database catalog

57 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question A ____ is the general logical structure in which records are stored within a database and the method used to establish relationships among the records. A)database relationship B)database model C)database list D)database catalog Ref p. 238

58 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question While a database itself is a collection of several related files, the program used to build databases, populate them with data, and manipulate the data is called a(n) ____________________.

59 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question While a database itself is a collection of several related files, the program used to build databases, populate them with data, and manipulate the data is called a(n) DBMS – Database Management System. Ref. p 236

60 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Because of capacity needs, organizations often choose ____ to store and manage data warehouses. A)midrange servers B)high speed networks C)mainframe computers with multiple CPUs D)workstations

61 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Because of capacity needs, organizations often choose ____ to store and manage data warehouses. A)midrange servers B)high speed networks C)mainframe computers with multiple CPUs D)Workstations Ref. p 250

62 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Multiple characters make up a record. A.TRUE B.FALSE

63 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Textbook Question Multiple characters make up a record. A.TRUE B.FALSE Ref. p 235

64 CH. 7 Databases and Data Warehouses

65 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question There are two overall approaches to maintaining data: the traditional file approach—which has no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, and manipulating data—and the ____, which does have this mechanism. A)database approach B)data approach C)datafile approach D)indexed file approach

66 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question There are two overall approaches to maintaining data: the traditional file approach—which has no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, and manipulating data—and the ____, which does have this mechanism. A)database approach B)data approach C)datafile approach D)indexed file approach Ref. p 234

67 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 67 The Traditional File Approach

68 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A database itself is a collection of several related files, but DBMSs do all the work—structuring files, storing data, and linking records. A)True B)False

69 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A database itself is a collection of several related files, but DBMSs do all the work—structuring files, storing data, and linking records. A)True B)False Ref. P. 236

70 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The very fact that manipulation of the data requires a programmer is probably the greatest disadvantage of the ____. A)information file approach B)file approach C)database approach D)indexed file approach

71 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The very fact that manipulation of the data requires a programmer is probably the greatest disadvantage of the ____. A)information file approach B)file approach C)database approach D)indexed file approach Ref. p 234

72 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 72 The Database Approach

73 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 73 The Database Approach (continued)

74 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 74

75 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition75 The Database Approach (continued)

76 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 76 The Relational Model

77 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question To link records from one table with records of another table, the tables must have at least one field in common, and that field must be a ____ field for one of the tables. A)composite key B)main key C)foreign key D)primary key

78 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question To link records from one table with records of another table, the tables must have at least one field in common, and that field must be a ____ field for one of the tables. A)composite key B)main key C)foreign key D)primary key Ref. p 240

79 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 79 The Relational Model (continued)

80 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Data is accessed in a database by sending messages called “protocols,” which request data from specific records and/or fields and direct the computer to display the results. A)True B)False

81 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Data is accessed in a database by sending messages called “protocols,” which request data from specific records and/or fields and direct the computer to display the results. A)True B)False Ref. P. 237

82 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 82 The Database Approach (continued)

83 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 83 The Relational Model (continued)

84 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 84 The Object-Oriented Model

85 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 85 Relational Operations

86 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 86 Structured Query Language

87 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A ____ is the general logical structure in which records are stored within a database and the method used to establish relationships among the records. A)database relationship B)database model C)database list D)database catalog

88 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A ____ is the general logical structure in which records are stored within a database and the method used to establish relationships among the records. A)database relationship B)database model C)database list D)database catalog Ref. p 238

89 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A schema describes the structure of the database being designed: the names and types of fields in each record type and the general relationships among different sets of records or files. A)True B)False

90 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question A schema describes the structure of the database being designed: the names and types of fields in each record type and the general relationships among different sets of records or files. A)True B)False Ref. p 244

91 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 91 The Schema and Metadata

92 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question While a transactional database contains current data, which is disposed of after some time, the data in ____ is accumulated and might reflect many years of business activities. A)data warehouses B)data carts C)information bases D)information repositories

93 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question While a transactional database contains current data, which is disposed of after some time, the data in ____ is accumulated and might reflect many years of business activities. A)data warehouses B)data carts C)information bases D)information repositories Ref. p 248

94 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 94 Data Warehousing

95 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Because of capacity needs, organizations often choose ____ to store and manage data warehouses. A)midrange servers B)high speed networks C)mainframe computers with multiple CPUs D)workstations

96 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Because of capacity needs, organizations often choose ____ to store and manage data warehouses. A)midrange servers B)high speed networks C)mainframe computers with multiple CPUs D)workstations Ref. p 250

97 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 97 From Database to Data Warehouse

98 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question There are two phases involved in building a data warehouse from transactional data: extraction and transforming. A)True B)False

99 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question There are two phases involved in building a data warehouse from transactional data: extraction and transforming. A)True B)False Ref. p 251

100 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 100 Phases in Data Warehousing Three phases in transferring data from a transactional database to a data warehouse: –Extraction phase: create files from transactional database –Transformation phase: cleanse and modify the data format –Loading phase: transfer files to data warehouse A properly built data warehouse becomes a single source for all data required for analysis Data mining and online analytical processing (OLAP) use data in data warehouses

101 CH. 6 Business Networks and Telecommunications

102 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 102 Objectives Describe business and home applications of digital telecommunications Identify the major media and devices used in telecommunications Explain the concept of protocols Compare and contrast various networking and Internet services List networking technologies and trends that are likely to have an impact on businesses and information management in the near future Discuss the pros and cons of telecommuting

103 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 103 Telecommunications in Business

104 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 104 Telecommunications in Business (continued)

105 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 105 Telecommunications in Business (continued)

106 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 106 Telecommunications in Daily Use Cellular phones Videoconferencing Wireless payments and warehousing Peer-to-peer file sharing Web-empowered commerce

107 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition107 Cellular Phones

108 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 108 Videoconferencing

109 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology enables us to conclude transactions and to make payments quickly. A)True B)False

110 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology enables us to conclude transactions and to make payments quickly. A)True B)False Ref. p 198

111 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 111 Wireless Payments and Warehousing

112 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 112 Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

113 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 113 Web-Empowered Commerce

114 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Dial-up connections through regular phone lines and Ethernet computer network connections are examples of ____. A)wideband B)broadband C)shortband D)baseband

115 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Dial-up connections through regular phone lines and Ethernet computer network connections are examples of ____. A)wideband B)broadband C)shortband D)baseband Ref. p 199

116 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition116 Bandwidth

117 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 117 Media

118 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Optical fibers can carry signals over relatively shorter distances compared to other media. A)True B)False

119 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question Optical fibers can carry signals over relatively shorter distances compared to other media. A)True B)False Ref p. 201

120 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 120 Twisted pair cable: pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together –Twisting reduces electromagnetic interference (EMI) –Flexible, reliable, and low cost –Connects devices with RJ-45 connector plug Coaxial cable: for cable television transmission –Used for Internet connections via cable Optical fiber: uses light to represent bits –Not susceptible to interference –Can carry signals for longer distances

121 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 121 Radio frequency (RF) technologies: use radio waves to carry bits –Popular examples: Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Microwaves: high-frequency radio waves that can carry signals with high accuracy over long distances –For outside transmission, weather conditions may degrade the quality Microwave signals can be transmitted by satellite links

122 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Electrical power lines: electrical power grid can be used for telecommunication Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) or Power Line Communication (PLC): telecommunications through power lines When choosing a network media, you should consider availability, current and potential bandwidth, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference (EMI), or radio frequency interference (RFI) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 122

123 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 123 Networks

124 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question ____ connect computers, printers, and other computer equipment for an office, several adjacent offices, an entire building or a campus. A)MANs (metropolitan area networks) B)WANs (wide area networks) C)LANs (local area networks) D)PANs (personal area networks)

125 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question ____ connect computers, printers, and other computer equipment for an office, several adjacent offices, an entire building or a campus. A)MANs (metropolitan area networks) B)WANs (wide area networks) C)LANs (local area networks) D)PANs (personal area networks) Ref. p 203

126 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 126 Types of Networks

127 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 127 Types of Networks (continued)

128 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Types of Networks (continued) Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 128

129 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 129 Types of Networks (continued) Value-added networks (VANs): –Networks with enhanced services offered by outside vendors –Provide reliability, management, and maintenance of networks for an organization Internet service providers (ISPs): –Preferred method of conducting e-commerce –Less costly than VANs

130 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 130 PANs

131 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 131 Networking Hardware Networks use a variety of devices to connect computers and peripheral devices Network interface card (NIC): connects a device to a hub, switch, bridge, or router, which connects to a LAN or WAN Hub: central location to connect devices to LAN; broadcasts all communications to all devices Switch: a hub that sends communications only to designated devices on the network

132 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 132 Networking Hardware (continued) Bridge: connects two networks Router: routes data packets to the next node on the path to the final destination Repeater: amplifies or regenerates signals Modem: translates communication signals from analog to digital and vice versa Dial-up connection: slower type of connection through modem, usually no faster than 56 Kbps

133 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 133 Virtual Private Networks

134 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 134 Switching Techniques Specify how messages travel to their destinations Circuit switching: dedicated channel (circuit) is established for the duration of the transmission Packet switching: message broken into packets –Packet: group of bits transmitted together –Packets are transmitted independently, and may be routed through different paths –Packet numbers are used to reassemble the packets at the destination

135 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Switching Techniques (continued) Frame relay: high-speed packet-switching protocol used in WANs –Variable-sized packets routed quickly Circuit switching is ideal for real-time communications when no delay is desired Packet switching is more efficient, but introduces some delay Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS): uses packets, but all packets are routed on the same path; used for VoIP Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 135

136 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 136 Switching Techniques (continued)

137 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The most important and pervasive set of protocols for telecommunications and networks today is called ____. A)SDLC B)FTP C)TCP/IP D)NNTP

138 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The most important and pervasive set of protocols for telecommunications and networks today is called ____. A)SDLC B)FTP C)TCP/IP D)NNTP Ref. p 207

139 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 139 Protocols Protocol: set of rules governing communication between computers Some protocols are designed for WANs, LANs, and wireless communications Most important set of protocols for telecommunications and networks is called TCP/IP

140 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The process of associating a character-based name such as course.com with an IP address is called domain name resolution, and the domain name resolution service is DNS (Domain Name System). A)True B)False

141 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The process of associating a character-based name such as course.com with an IP address is called domain name resolution, and the domain name resolution service is DNS (Domain Name System). A)True B)False Ref. p 208

142 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 142 TCP/IP

143 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 143 TCP/IP (continued) DNS (Domain Name Service): associates a character- based name with an IP address Static IP address: a permanent address assigned to a device Dynamic IP address: temporary IP number assigned to a device for the duration of the connection –Provides flexibility when the number of IP addresses is limited

144 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 144 Ethernet Ethernet: LAN protocol using coaxial or Cat 5 or 6 twisted pair cable Gigabit Ethernet: faster Ethernet connection of one Gbps or greater Devices on network contend with other devices for transmission time CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol ensures there are no collisions in transmission

145 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 145 Wireless Protocols

146 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question When a call is placed on a cellular phone, the signal is first transmitted to the closest ____, which sends a signal through landlines that dial the desired phone number. A)transistor B)cell band C)transceiver D)cell transistor

147 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question When a call is placed on a cellular phone, the signal is first transmitted to the closest ____, which sends a signal through landlines that dial the desired phone number. A)transistor B)cell band C)transceiver D)cell transistor Ref. p 197

148 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Wireless Protocols (continued) Encryption: ability to scramble and encode messages –Uses encryption keys shared only between sender and receiver Bluetooth: allows devices to communicate within 10 meters –Transmits voice and data –Considered a PAN technology Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 148

149 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The purpose of ____ is to provide mobile communication that is compatible with IP services. A)IrDA B)MBWA C)Bluetooth D)WiMAX

150 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. MIS Textbook Question The purpose of ____ is to provide mobile communication that is compatible with IP services. A)IrDA B)MBWA C)Bluetooth D)WiMAX Ref. p 211

151 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 151 Wireless Protocols (continued)

152 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 152

153 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 153 Generations in Mobile Communications

154 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 154 Internet Networking Services Variety of options to choose from when subscribing to network services Downstream: speed of receiving from network Upstream: speed of transmitting to network Services with lower rates for upstream than downstream are suitable for most individuals and businesses

155 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 155 Cable Internet links provided by television cable firms Cable connected to Internet server At residence, cable is split into TV set and computer via a bridge called a cable modem Cable shared by all subscribers connected to the node –Communication speeds may slow during peak times and as more subscribers join the service

156 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 156 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

157 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 157 T1 and T3 Lines T1 and T3 lines: point-to-point dedicated digital circuits provided by telephone companies –T1 line is made up of 24 channels of 64 Kbps –T3 line is made up of 672 channels of 64 Kbps T1 and T3 service is expensive Used by universities and large companies for backbone and Internet connections

158 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 158 Satellite

159 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 159 Fixed Wireless Fixed wireless: point-to-point transmission between two stationary devices, typically between buildings Wireless Internet service provider (WISP) –Specializes in fixed wireless service Highly modular and scalable Suitable for both rural and urban areas

160 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Fiber to the Premises Connects a building to the Internet via optical fibers Fiber to the Home (FTTH): when the optical fiber reaches the subscriber’s living or work space Subscribers connect computers or LAN routers to an optical fiber socket Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 160

161 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 161 Optical Carrier

162 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 162 Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) Broadband over Power Lines (BPL): uses electric power lines to carry digital signals Used by utility companies to: –Monitor power consumption down to household –Detect power failure in real time –Track power outages by region –Automate some customer services –Remotely control substations Speeds are similar to those of DSL

163 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 163 The Future of Networking Technologies Trends likely to have a significant impact on businesses and management of information –Broadband telephony –Radio frequency identification –Convergence of digital technologies

164 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition164 Broadband Telephony Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): uses Internet connection to conduct telephone conversations Flat monthly charge instead of per call charge Different quality of sound from traditional telephone services May not allow direct calls to emergency numbers such as 911 When Internet link or power is down, no phone service

165 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 165 RFID tags are tiny and need little power Objects are embedded with tags that contain a transponder (a radio transceiver activated by a signal transmitted to it) Tags are encoded with electronic product code Readers decode data stored in tag’s memory and pass the data to a host computer Efficient for large companies, but expensive for smaller companies

166 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 166

167 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 167

168 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 168 Converging Technologies Convergence occurs in networking technology Cell phones can act as Web phones using VoIP Television sets will connect to Internet, cable, and satellites concurrently PDAs function as televisions sets and phones Portable music/video players will communicate with PCs to download files and transmit to wireless earphones Cell phones will read RFID on products to compare prices and make purchases

169 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 169 Summary Telecommunications is communication over distance Telecommunications technology has changed the business environment Different media have different bandwidths Networks are classified according to reach and complexity Public network can be turned into a virtual private network (VPN)

170 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 170 Summary (continued) Two ways to switch a communication line: packet switching and circuit switching Network protocols are sets of rules to which all devices on a network must adhere –The Internet adheres to the TCP/IP protocol Wireless technologies make it easy and affordable to create wireless LANs and hotspots Organizations and individuals have variety of choices when subscribing to networking services

171 © REACH-CRC All Rights Reserved. Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition 171 Summary (continued) As Internet links become faster, Internet telephony (VoIP) is gaining in popularity Wireless technologies support the increasingly popular RFID technologies Much like hardware, telecommunications technologies are merging Increasing numbers of employees now telecommute


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