Africa before 1880 Europe only has a presence in coastal areas. Slave trade is in West Africa Dutch Cape Colony established in 1650s Longstanding European involvement with Mediterranean Africa We will be saving Mediterranean Africa for our unit on the Middle East and the Muslim World!
Late 19 th Century Changes 1869: Suez Canal Opens – Allows Britain to get to India more easily – Leads to British control of Egypt in 1882 In Europe: Colonies = Prestige and Power 1862 – Quinine (needed to treat malaria) becomes available outside of Peru Steamships become available – African rivers can be navigated Slave Trade ended
Late 19 th Century Changes New Age of European Exploration Trade to support the Industrial Revolution – Africa has: Rubber Coffee Sugar Palm oil Timber Gold Diamonds
Late 19 th Century Changes 1871 – Germany and Italy unified, no more room for territorial expansion in Europe… – Compete for colonies instead! New Guns and Ammunition give Europeans new military superiority over Africans. 1860-1880 – all of Africa (except Ethiopia – mountains - and Liberia - American) are somehow claimed by a European nation.
The Scramble for Africa 1870 – King Leopold of Belgium sends emissaries to the Congo. This kicks off a flurry of imperialistic activity – Belgium – Great Britain – France – Germany – Italy – Spain – Portugal
White Man’s Burden Racial attitudes helped justify colonialism – Savages needed to be civilized Missionaries
Berlin Conference 1884-1885 European Powers Agree to carve up Africa to prevent warfare – Navigation on the Niger and Congo Rivers will be free for all – To claim a territory, European nation must actually “hold” that territory
Types of Colonial Rule Economic Companies – Chartered by European Powers – British East Africa Company, British South Africa Company – Colonial rule – expensive! Direct Rule – French/Belgians/Germans/Portuguese – “Divide and Rule” Indirect Rule – Indigenous rulers – Gave power to select tribal authorities
Types if Colonial Rule Settler Rule – Direct Rule – Relied on immigration of European (white) settlers – Created permanent white settlements in Africa – South Africa Holland, Britain – Characterized by harsh policies towards indigenous population.
Tribalism European Nations carved up Africa with no regard for tribal boundaries Europeans often turned tribes against each other to stop them from uniting against them – created artificial enemies who would later turn on each other when the Europeans had left.
End of Colonial Era World War II No one has the taste or strength for Empire any longer 1950s – 1970s, African nations gain independence. United Nations – Charter asserts “self- determination” as a universal right.
Our Unit: Consequences of Colonialism South Africa – Apartheid was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments of South Africa,, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party. – Afrikaner an ethnic group in Southern Africa whose native tongue is Afrikaans; a Germanic language which derives primarily from 17th century Dutch; In South Africa, they constitute approximately 5% of the total population.
Uganda Idi Amin Lord’s Resistance Army – Joseph Kony – Acholi Genocide 2007
Sudan Darfur Genocide, 2003 Desertification/Global Warming Creation of South Sudan Ongoing Civil War Refugee Crisis
Rwanda Hutu and Tutsi 1994 Genocide Hotel Rwanda
Conflict Diamonds Blood Diamonds Sierra Leone / Congo Resource Curse – countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources - especially minerals and fuels - tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. – Corruption, compounded with civil war
Africa: States of Independence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbT44HwzNr I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbT44HwzNr I