Presentation on theme: "Starter (November 28) Copy Vocabulary Terms due Tuesday December 6 FIND YOUR NEW ASSIGNED SEAT!!! 1.Spheres of influence 2.Protectionism 3.Afrikaans 4.Great."— Presentation transcript:
Starter (November 28) Copy Vocabulary Terms due Tuesday December 6 FIND YOUR NEW ASSIGNED SEAT!!! 1.Spheres of influence 2.Protectionism 3.Afrikaans 4.Great Trek 5.Shaka 6.Berlin Conference 7.Fashoda Crisis 8.Boer War 9.Cecil Rhodes 10.Sepoys 11.Raj 12.Memsahibs 13.Mutiny 14.Opium War 15.extraterritoriality 16.Taiping Rebellion 17.Tongji Restoration 18.Boxer Rebellion 19.Open Door Policy 20.Meiji Restoration 21.Zaibatsu 22.Manifest Destiny 23.Mercantilism 24.Alfred Thayer Mahan (Influence of Sea Power Upon History) 25.Social Darwinism 26.Rudyard Kipling 27.Spanish-American War
Imperialism Imperialism is the belief that a nation should expand its borders and acquire colonies or territories. Reasons for imperialism were economic, political, strategic, religious, and humanitarian since the 1400s. – New nationalism and the technologies of the Industrial Revolution intensified the competition to build larger empires.
Technology and Empire-Building In the 1850s, ships allowed Europeans to travel almost anywhere worldwide. – Advances in medicine allowed them to travel to areas that had been unhealthy. – Navies were built with steamships that required coaling stations around the world.
Humanitarian and Cultural Imperialism Different countries have always had different ideas about what civilization means. Westerners felt that civilization was based around Christian values. – Christian missionaries traveled to continents such as Asia and Africa to spread their faith. Most Western nations had constitutional governments by the end of the 1800s. – It was debated whether these rights should extend their empires. – Many justified their injustices by arguing they were helped uplift the inferior people of their colonies/territories.
“We happen to the be the best people in the world, with the highest ideals of decency and justice and liberty and peace, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for humanity.” Cecil Rhodes
Literature Through Time Read “Literature Through Time” in page 569 which discusses Rudyard Kipling. Answer the Understanding Literature questions that follow.
Acrostic Poetry Create an Acrostic Poem for Imperialism based on the information in Chapter 21 Section 1.
Early European Settlement in Africa Most interaction between Europeans and Africans had occurred along the coasts before 1870. – West African coasts held European slave-trading posts. – The Portuguese were involved in many East African countries. – The French were present in North Africa—partially in attempts to end the Muslim raids. In the late 1800s, Europeans went to the interior of South Africa. – The Boers (original Dutch settlers in Africa) settled in the areas beginning in 1652. – New European immigrants to Africa strengthened the Boer influence. Afrikaans: language developed from a blending of African, French, German, English, and Dutch Christians surrounded by pagans—they felt obligated to rule Africa The English sought to abolish slavery in the 1830s—the Boers moved further inward (Great Trek) setting up independent republics.
African Empire-Builders Drought and famine led to competition for resources in the late 1700s and early 1800s in Southern Africa. – Zulu: a clan led by Shaka; wished to expand their rule by force – Muslims: In West Africa, there was an Islamic revival; in the early 1800s there was a holy war (_______) against non-Muslims – Egypt gained their independence from France (under Napoleon) and tried to expand the Egyptian empire Egypt’s new military threw them into debt. – European powers established a system to pay off loans upsetting Egyptians – British troops invaded in the 1880s to protect control of the Suez Canal
The Scramble for Africa Britain’s occupation of Egypt triggered responses from other European powers creating a scramble for African colonies. The Berlin Conference (1884- 1885) attempted to resolve conflicts between European powers by establishing rules for carving Africa. – Liberia and Ethiopia remained free between 1885-1900—the rest was divided between European powers.
Reading and Comprehension Read “Geography and History” on page 574. Answer: Linking Geography and History? Location?
African Resistance Write a letter protesting imperialism in Africa as if you were an African in the late 1800s. Your letter must be a minimum of 2 paragraphs and free of grammatical errors. Use details explaining what has occurred that you do not like about imperialism in your country to provide historical knowledge.
Starter (November 30) Copy the definition and provide the term being defined. Use your book if you need assistance. 1.Period of reform in China meant to strengthen the country against the West 2.Mass migration of the Boers into the African interior 3.Period of Japanese history in which the shogunate was overthrown, and the emperor was placed on the throne once more, and many Western-style reforms were enacted 4.Right of Europeans to be exempt from Chinese law 5.Rule of the British in India which was first applied to the British East India Company and later to the British government
British India The British began to trade in Asia in the 1600s. – Bases were built along the coast – The British East India Company formed alliances with Indian rulers and created an Indian army (Indian soldiers=sepoys). The raj (power of the East India Co.) spread over India and took over the government. – Overtime, the British government took control of the East India Co. and therefore, India as well.
British Rule in India An Indian Civil Service was developed in the 1800s to fill lower positions in government. – Arguments occurred over how to teach these Indian civil servants They were taught in English Settlers from Britain to India – In the 1800s, women and children moved to India – Memsahbibs (European women) changed the relationships between men and women Fear of affairs created racism The British government began to change laws to “benefit” India
Indian Mutiny Indian rulers who lost power led rebellions. – These rulers used the fears of Indians to gain support. (Fear that the British would end the caste system and convert all of India to Christianity.) Rumors spread claiming new shell casings were coated with beef and pork fat triggered a revolt from the peasant soldiers. – The British executed anyone suspected of being involved in the mutiny.
The British Raj The Indian Mutiny convinced British officials to abandon policies forcing Western ideas on the Indians. – The East India Co. was disbanded. – The ICS continued to operate. – Focus of the British became protecting India from invasion.
French Indochina, Siam, and Dutch Expansion in Indonesia Work within your seated section to create bulleted notes on an assigned section. We will rotate groups and share information. ALL THREE SETS OF INFORMATION MUST BE IN YOUR NOTES!
Foreign Influence in China In the late 1700s and early 1800s, Europeans began to show increasing interest in Chinese goods (particularly tea). The Chinese feared that interaction with “foreign devils” could damage Chinese culture. – Trade was greatly limited with other countries. Chinese merchants sold to Europeans. Chinese consumers did not buy much from European merchants. **Mercantilism: policy of exporting more than you import; Europeans believed power depended on wealth (gold and silver)
Opium War British and American merchants discovered that the Chinese would buy opium. – By the 1830s, the sale of opium reversed the imbalance of trade. Chinese leaders began active suppression of Opium. – Chinese silver was being drained – Health issues – 1839: Was between Britain and China Britain wished to gain equal trade agreements Britain won and China was forced to accept new trade agreements. – China ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
“Unequal Treaties” Chinese resistance to western influence after the Opium War ended. – The British navy threatened the Chinese coastline. Britain, France, the US, and Russia were granted extraterritoriality due to treaties. Continued resistance led to force from the British and French in 1860 to end the tribute system.
The Boxer Rebellion Boxer Rebellion During the video, find the cause and effect of the Boxer Rebellion. Open Door Policy: US Senator John Hay created a system of equal trade for all countries with China
Japan and Western Influence The US pushed for open trade with Japan. – The Japanese had isolated themselves since the 1600s. – Until 1825, Japanese officials were required to turn around all foreign ships. – 1851, US president Fillmore sent Commodore Mathew Perry to negotiate relations with Japan. – 1854, Japan signed a treaty with the US. In the following years, European powers forced Japan into similar treaties. Result: Meiji Restoration
Japanese Imperialism Japan remained independent and tried to expand their imperial power. – Japan was victorious over China in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) gaining Taiwan and giving Korea their independence from China. Korea soon became a target of Russian imperialists. – Japan formed an alliance with Great Britain. – The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) made Japan a world power when they defeated the Russians.
Begin Reading and Analyzing “White Man’s Burden”
Key Imperialism Presidents Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 doubling the size of the US. James K. Polk (1845-1849) is known as the Manifest Destiny President”) for expanding the US to the Pacific Coast and into areas in Mexico previously owned by the Spanish. William McKinley (1897-1901) was the Spanish- American War president gaining territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) expanded US influence into Latin America through his “Big Stick” Diplomacy and the Roosevelt Corollary. (made the US the “police force” of the Western Hemisphere) William Howard Taft (1909-1913) pumped money into Latin American and Caribbean countries to keep peace. (dollar diplomacy) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) wanted to create a more democratic world along with moral progress (moral/missionary diplomacy).
Reasons for US Imperialism Manifest Destiny (belief that the US would extend their borders to the west coast at the Pacific) was met in the 1850s. The expansionist spirit didn’t die. Naval power (Influence of Sea Power) Racial Superiority (“White Man’s Burden”) Social Darwinism Raw Materials Markets for US goods
Alaska: 1867 Many Americans called Alaska “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox” when the Secretary of State William Seward negotiated the purchase from Russia. Alaska did not become a state until 1958.
Hawaii Stopping point between the US and Asia Sugar plantations became an interest for American businessmen – Overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and took over the government 1898: The United States annexed Hawaii Hawaii did not become a state until 1959
Spanish-American War 1898 “Splendid Little War” Reasons for involvement: – Yellow journalism (exaggeration/lies) – Cuban condition – USS Maine* – De Lome letter (suggested that the US was weak by calling President McKinley Weak)
Splendid Little War Overview The US fought against the Spanish in the countries they possessed. The US navy was not prepared. Theodore Roosevelt became a national hero for leading the Rough Riders up San Juan (Kettle) Hill. War lasted only 100 days. – Ended Dec. 10, 1898 with the Treaty of Paris
Effects of the Spanish-American War The Treaty of Paris (1898) Cuba was to become independent. – The US set up amendments to the treaty permanently involving the US. – Guantanamo Bay was established. US would take over Puerto Rico and Guam as protectorates. – STILL US TERRITORIES TODAY! US took over Spain’s role as the ruler of the Philippines. – Gained independence in 1949. US promised to pay Spain $20 million.
Other Imperial Actions Open Door Policy with China Building of the Panama Canal Theodore Roosevelt expanded the power of the US into Latin America through his “Big Stick Diplomacy”