Presentation on theme: "Crossroads. EUROPE 1812 & 1815 CHINA & CONCESSIONS."— Presentation transcript:
EUROPE 1812 & 1815
CHINA & CONCESSIONS
THE DECLINE AND PARTITION OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
True or False? 1.A British army faced a Sudanese army twice its size. The British won the battle, losing only 48 men while killing 10, Mountains of guano, sold to Europeans, created an unprecedented class of millionaires in Peru.
True or False? 3. The King of Belgium ran a private rubber- collecting company in the Congo that secretly killed 8 million people. 4. England ruled India by committing only one soldier per 10,000 Indian subjects.
True or False? 5. Three out of ten people in southern China became addicted to opium as a result of British merchants illegally shipping it there from India. 6. British railway builders in East Africa provoked the biggest killing spree by lions in history: two lions killed 135 men.
True or False? 7. The British Customs department grew an impenetrable hedge across India to prevent the smuggling of salt. This hedge, made mostly of thorny bushes, was from ten to fourteen feet high and from six to twelve feet deep. It stretched 2,504 miles and was guarded by nearly 12,000 men. 8. The biggest holes in the world were dug by hand in South Africa. One was over 2.5 miles wide and 720 feet deep. It yielded thousands of pounds of diamonds.
IMPERIALISM Motives of imperialism – Modern imperialism Refers to domination of industrialized countries over subject lands Domination achieved by trade, investment, business activities – Two types of modern colonialism Colonies ruled and populated by migrants Colonies controlled without significant settlement – Economic motives of imperialism European merchants made personal fortunes Expansion to obtain raw materials Colonies were potential markets for products – Political motives Strategic purpose: harbors, supply stations Overseas expansion used to defuse internal tensions – Cultural justifications of imperialism Christian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia "Civilizing mission“/"white man's burden“ justified expansion Tools of empire – Transportation technologies supported imperialism Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and Asia Railroads organized local economies to serve imperial power – Western military technologies increasingly powerful Firearms: from muskets to rifles to machines guns In Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hours – Communication technologies linked imperial lands with colonies Oceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India to weeks Telegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900 Difference between colonialism and imperialism
SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 1875 and 1900 – European powers seized almost the entire continent – Early explorers charted the waters, gathered information on resources – Missionaries like David Livingstone set up mission posts – Henry Stanley sent by Leopold II of Belgium to create colony in Congo, 1870s – To protect their investments and Suez Canal, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882 South Africa – Settled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth century – By 1800 was a European settler colony with enslaved black African population – British seized Cape Colony in early nineteenth century, abolished slavery in 1833 – British-Dutch tensions led to Great Trek of Afrikaners inland to claim new lands – Mid-19 TH century, they established Orange Free State in 1854, Transvaal in 1860 – Discovery of gold and diamonds in Afrikaner lands; influx of British settlers – Boer War, : British defeated Afrikaners, Union of South Africa The Berlin Conference, – European powers set rules for carving Africa into colonies, Africans not invited – Occupation, supported by European armies, established colonial rule in Africa – By 1900 all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, was controlled by European powers Colonial rule challenging and expensive – "Concessionary companies": granted considerable authority to private companies empowered to build plantations, mines, railroads made use of forced labor and taxation, as in Belgian Congo unprofitable, often replaced by more direct rule – Direct rule: replacing local rulers with Europeans--French model justified by "civilizing mission" hard to find enough European personnel – Indirect rule: control over subjects through local institutions--British model worked best in African societies that were highly organized assumed firm tribal boundaries where often none existed
AFRICA 1880 & 1914
EMPIRE IN ASIA The British empire in India – Company rule under the English East India Company EIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750s Built trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay Ruled with small British force, Indian troops called sepoys Sepoy Rebellion, 1857: attacks on British led to reprisals – British imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858 British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled India British appointed viceroy, ran all domestic, foreign policy Indians held low-level bureaucratic positions – Economic restructuring of India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Introduction of commercial crops: tea, coffee, opium Built railroads, telegraph lines, canals, harbors, irrigation – Did not interfere with Indian culture, religion Established English-style schools for Indian elites Outlawed Indian customs considered offensive, (sati) Imperialism in central Asia and southeast Asia – "Great Game" refers to competition between Britain, Russia in central Asia By 1860s Russian expansion reached northern frontiers of British India Russian and British explorers mapped, scouted, but never colonized Afghanistan Russian dominance of central Asia lasted until 1991 – Dutch East India Company held tight control of Indonesia (Dutch East India) – British colonies in southeast Asia Established colonial authority in Burma, 1880s Port of Singapore founded 1824; was base for conquest of Malaya, 1870s – French Indochina created, Consisted of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos--former tribute states of Qing dynasty French encouraged conversion to Christianity, established western-style schools – Thailand left in place as buffer between Burma and Indochina
IMPERIALISM IN ASIA
EMPIRES IN THE PACIFIC Australia and New Zealand – Both became settler colonies in the Pacific – 1770, Captain Cook reached Australia, reported it suitable for settlement 1788, one thousand settlers established colony of New South Wales Became a penal colony after loss of Georgia in American Revolution 1851, gold discovered; surge of European migration to Australia – Fertile soil and timber of New Zealand attracted European settlers Europeans diseases dramatically reduced aboriginal populations European flora and fauna replaced most native species – Large settler societies forced indigenous peoples onto marginal lands Pacific Islands – Spain and the Pacific Pacific had been a Spanish possession until 19 th century (Philippines, Micronesia) Spanish yearly shipments of silver from Mexico to China ended in 1812 – Colonization of Pacific Islands delayed until late nineteenth century – Early American visitors to the Pacific American Whalers throughout region after American revolution American merchants on way to China began in 19 th century California Gold Rush open Pacific coast to immigrants from Europe, China US challenged rule in 1854 when Commodore Perry forced Japan to open ports Some missionaries active especially in Hawaii and on way to China – Late nineteenth century, European states sought coaling stations and naval ports 1867: USA acquires Alaska, Wake Island 1898: USA acquires Hawaii, Philippines, Guam 1899: German buys remaining Spanish islands By 1900, all islands claimed by France, Britain, Germany and United States. – Island plantations produced sugarcane, copra, guano
EMPIRES IN THE PACIFIC
U.S. IMPERIALISM Westward Expansion, Manifest Destiny precede overseas imperialism – Americans push west after American revolution – Drove Indians from land – US purchases Louisiana from France – Opened up West to settlement – Americans saw it as God-given right to occupy continent The Monroe Doctrine and Latin America – 1823: proclamation by U.S. president James Monroe – Opposed European imperialism in the Americas – Justified American interventions in late 19 th, 20 th century – Used doctrine to tell France to withdraw from Mexico in 1867 – United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 – Hawaii became a protectorate in 1875, formally annexed in 1898 – Tended to leave area open only for American investments, loans The Mexican American War 1846 – 1848 – US annexation of Texas set off conflict with Mexico – US defeats Mexico, annexed 1/3 of Mexican territory – Settlement of Far West, Pacific Coast, Great Basin follows 1867 – 1898 – Acquires small Pacific Islands, Alaska from Russia in 1867 – Economic interests in Hawaii lead to revolution, annexation in 1898 The Spanish-American War ( ) – US defeated Spain and took over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines – US and Philippines Backed Filipino revolt against Spain, purchased and took over the colony , bitter civil war killed two hundred thousand Filipinos, ended in U.S. victory The Panama Canal, – Colombian government refused U.S. request to build canal at Panama isthmus – US helped rebels establish the state of Panama for the right to build a canal – Completed in 1914; gave United States access to Atlantic and Pacific
MAP OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
IMPERIAL JAPAN Japan and the West – 1854: US Commodore Perry forces Japan out of isolation – Japanese resented unequal treaties of 1860s – Borrowed western knowledge – Resolved to become imperial power Early Japanese expansion in nearby islands – 1870s, to the north: Hokkaido, Kurile islands – By 1879, to the south: Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands Meiji Government – Prussia trained Japanese army, Britain trained Japanese navy – Bought British warships, built up navy, began building own ships – Established military academies – 1876, imposed unequal treaties on Korea at gunpoint – Made plans to invade China The Sino-Japanese War ( ) – Rebellion in Korea: Chinese army sent to restore order, reassert authority – Meiji leaders declared war against China, demolished Chinese fleet – China forced to cede Korea, Taiwan, Pescadores, Liaodong peninsula Japan helps suppress Boxer Rebellion, creates own zones in China The Russo-Japanese War ( ) – Russia had territorial ambitions in Liaodong peninsula, Korea, Manchuria – Japanese navy destroyed local Russian forces – Reinforcements from Baltic sunk at Battle of Tushima – Japan now a major imperial power – Made an alliance with Great Britain 1910: Annexes Korea
Emergence of Ideologies
NATIONALISM Born in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad during French Revolution Idea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used by conservatives – An idea which could unify society across social classes – Many aspects similar to religion, faith – Loyalty to state often replaces loyalty to church, monarch – Dominated 19 th century Cultural nationalism – An expression of national identity – Emphasized common historical experience – Used folk culture, literature, music – Illustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
NATIONALISM, cont. Political nationalism more intense in the nineteenth century – Demanded loyalty, solidarity from national group – Minorities sought independence as national community – Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini World-wide spread – Contact with Europeans introduced others to idea of nationalism – Nationalism often brought with it western ideas, structures – Strongest in Middle East, India, Japan Zionism – Jewish nationalism as a response to European anti-Semitism – Movement founded by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in Palestine – Jewish state of Israel finally created in 1948
Conservatism – Called the Ancien Regime – Resisted change, opposed revolutions – Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy – Edmund Burke Viewed society as organism that changed slowly over time American Revolution: natural, logical outcome of history French Revolution: violent and irresponsible – Congress of Vienna was a Conservative restoration Restored Balance of Power; ruled through great powers Monarchy was at heart of conservatism
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES Liberalism – Welcomed controlled change as an agent of progress – Strongly middle class, support economic reform, education to help industrialization – Wanted to reform political structure, increase electorate slightly – Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written constitutions – Limits on state power, interference in individual freedoms – John Stuart Mill championed individual freedom and minority rights
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES Radicalism – Accepted liberal ideas but wanted universal voting rights – Many wanted outright democracy, social reforms in interests of lower classes – A few were socialists, attacked all private property, class status – Saw radical solutions (revolution) as only way to change the status quo – Represented by French Revolution, democracy, early nationalism
IMAGINED COMMUNITIES Concert of Europe – Congress of Vienna, Conservative victory: restore old order after defeat of Napoleon Maintained balance of power in Europe for a century Failed in repressing nationalist and revolutionary ideas – Concert of European great powers called Holy Alliance UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in “concert” Attempted to prevent revolutions, change Intervened militarily to oppose change Often forced to limit, control changes Nationalist rebellions – Against old order throughout nineteenth century – 1800s: Haiti, Latin America – 1820s Greek Revolution: rebels overcame Ottoman rule in 1827 Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English, Russians – 1830/1848 Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Austria, Germany Conservatism usually restored but revolutionary ideals persisted Imagined Communities – Groups begin to form based on a perceived sense of community – Each group defined by agreed upon set of values, goals
UNIFICATION OF ITALY Italy – After Congress of Vienna Italy divided into small states: all states except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign dynasties Austria was the preeminent power in Italy Mazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired uprisings against foreign rule – 1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian troops – Sardinia and Cavour Italian Sardinia only ethnic Italian state Prime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of nationalists Expelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy, 1859 with French aide – Garibaldi Revolutionary nationalist, democrat Staged revolutions, later seized control of Southern Italy – : Italian states united under Sardinia
MAP OF UNIFICATION
UNIFICATION OF GERMANY Germany – After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian von Metternich German Confederacy a collection of independent states dominated by Austria Prussia the largest German state but limited in action by Austria Metternich’s System: preserved conservatism, persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism – 1848 Revolution Destroyed by Austria Ended hope of liberalism, constitutionalism, national unification Left Prussia humiliated, looking for revenge – Prussian and Otto von Bismarck ( ) Created a united Germany through blood and iron Used conservatism, militarism married with nationalism Bismarck provoked three wars that swelled German pride Defeated Austria, France to unify Germany under Prussia – 1871, Prussian king proclaimed emperor of the Second Reich
MAP OF UNIFICATION
Balance of Power
DIPLOMACY: BALANCE OF POWER & HEGEMONY Century: Era of Western hegemony in all areas Balance of Power dominates century – After Napoleon, great powers kept peace – Intervened in European affairs to maintain balance – Goals and Policies No one power should dominate No nation should be eliminated No permanent ideologies threaten peace Brokered conferences to decide touchy issues International Organizations – Non-governmental Organizations new in history Try to promote international accord Establish cooperation – Red Cross Established at end of Crimean War Provide health care, relief following catastrophes – Olympics Resurrected in 1896 Healthy competition – International Laws Diplomacy reaches highest level during period Rules of Peace and War – Hague Conferences and Conventions – Agreements create standards, rules of war, peace – Neutrality was a key concept – Civilians were not to be touched
PRE-WAR ALLIANCES Rival systems of alliance – Germany forms alliances Bismarck attempts to isolate France Until 1890, Germany had alliances with all except France Obligated allies to come to one another's defense – France and Russia Found themselves isolated, fearful of Germany Formed Double Entente to end their isolation The Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Germany, Austria allied 1879 Italy joined in 1882 (Triple Alliance) – Others Allied States Ottoman Empire: German railroads, reforms of military Bulgaria and Rumania fearful of Russia and Serbia The Double and Later Triple Entente – France, Russia Common enemy: Germany, common war plans Worked together diplomatically – Why the United Kingdom joined Due to rivalry with Germany over colonies and German construction of a navy After German pre-war diplomacy seemed to lead to war Shifting series of treaties ended with a military pact, 1914 Japan had a separate alliance with Great Britain for Asia Pacific War plans: each power poised and prepared for war – Military leaders devised inflexible military plans and timetables – France's Plan XVII focused on offensive maneuvers and attacks – Germany's Schlieffen plan: swift attack on France, defend against Russia