8 True or False?A British army faced a Sudanese army twice its size. The British won the battle, losing only 48 men while killing 10,000.Mountains of guano, sold to Europeans, created an unprecedented class of millionaires in Peru.
9 True or False?3. The King of Belgium ran a private rubber-collecting company in the Congo that secretly killed 8 million people. 4. England ruled India by committing only one soldier per 10,000 Indian subjects.
10 True or False?5. Three out of ten people in southern China became addicted to opium as a result of British merchants illegally shipping it there from India. 6. British railway builders in East Africa provoked the biggest killing spree by lions in history: two lions killed 135 men.
11 True or False?7. The British Customs department grew an impenetrable hedge across India to prevent the smuggling of salt. This hedge, made mostly of thorny bushes, was from ten to fourteen feet high and from six to twelve feet deep. It stretched 2,504 miles and was guarded by nearly 12,000 men. 8. The biggest holes in the world were dug by hand in South Africa. One was over 2.5 miles wide and 720 feet deep. It yielded thousands of pounds of diamonds.
12 IMPERIALISM Motives of imperialism Tools of empire Modern imperialismRefers to domination of industrialized countries over subject landsDomination achieved by trade, investment, business activitiesTwo types of modern colonialismColonies ruled and populated by migrantsColonies controlled without significant settlementEconomic motives of imperialismEuropean merchants made personal fortunesExpansion to obtain raw materialsColonies were potential markets for productsPolitical motivesStrategic purpose: harbors, supply stationsOverseas expansion used to defuse internal tensionsCultural justifications of imperialismChristian missionaries sought converts in Africa and Asia"Civilizing mission“/"white man's burden“ justified expansionTools of empireTransportation technologies supported imperialismSteam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of Africa and AsiaRailroads organized local economies to serve imperial powerWestern military technologies increasingly powerfulFirearms: from muskets to rifles to machines gunsIn Battle of Omdurman 1898, British troops killed eleven thousand Sudanese in five hoursCommunication technologies linked imperial lands with coloniesOceangoing steamships cut travel time from Britain to India to weeksTelegraph invented in 1830s, global reach by 1900Difference between colonialism and imperialism
13 SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 1875 and 1900 South Africa European powers seized almost the entire continentEarly explorers charted the waters, gathered information on resourcesMissionaries like David Livingstone set up mission postsHenry Stanley sent by Leopold II of Belgium to create colony in Congo, 1870sTo protect their investments and Suez Canal, Britain occupied Egypt, 1882South AfricaSettled first by Dutch farmers (Afrikaners) in seventeenth centuryBy 1800 was a European settler colony with enslaved black African populationBritish seized Cape Colony in early nineteenth century, abolished slavery in 1833British-Dutch tensions led to Great Trek of Afrikaners inland to claim new landsMid-19TH century, they established Orange Free State in 1854, Transvaal in 1860Discovery of gold and diamonds in Afrikaner lands; influx of British settlersBoer War, : British defeated Afrikaners, Union of South AfricaThe Berlin Conference,European powers set rules for carving Africa into colonies, Africans not invitedOccupation, supported by European armies, established colonial rule in AfricaBy 1900 all of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, was controlled by European powersColonial rule challenging and expensive"Concessionary companies": granted considerable authority to private companiesempowered to build plantations, mines, railroadsmade use of forced labor and taxation, as in Belgian Congounprofitable, often replaced by more direct ruleDirect rule: replacing local rulers with Europeans--French modeljustified by "civilizing mission"hard to find enough European personnelIndirect rule: control over subjects through local institutions--British modelworked best in African societies that were highly organizedassumed firm tribal boundaries where often none existed
20 EMPIRE IN ASIA The British empire in India Company rule under the English East India CompanyEIC took advantage of Mughal decline in India, began conquest of India in 1750sBuilt trading cities and forts at Calcutta, Madras, BombayRuled with small British force, Indian troops called sepoysSepoy Rebellion, 1857: attacks on British led to reprisalsBritish imperial rule replaced the EIC, 1858British viceroy and high-level British civil service ruled IndiaBritish appointed viceroy, ran all domestic, foreign policyIndians held low-level bureaucratic positionsEconomic restructuring of India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)Introduction of commercial crops: tea, coffee, opiumBuilt railroads, telegraph lines, canals, harbors, irrigationDid not interfere with Indian culture, religionEstablished English-style schools for Indian elitesOutlawed Indian customs considered offensive, (sati)Imperialism in central Asia and southeast Asia"Great Game" refers to competition between Britain, Russia in central AsiaBy 1860s Russian expansion reached northern frontiers of British IndiaRussian and British explorers mapped, scouted, but never colonized AfghanistanRussian dominance of central Asia lasted until 1991Dutch East India Company held tight control of Indonesia (Dutch East India)British colonies in southeast AsiaEstablished colonial authority in Burma, 1880sPort of Singapore founded 1824; was base for conquest of Malaya, 1870sFrench Indochina created,Consisted of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos--former tribute states of Qing dynastyFrench encouraged conversion to Christianity, established western-style schoolsThailand left in place as buffer between Burma and Indochina
22 EMPIRES IN THE PACIFIC Australia and New Zealand Pacific Islands Both became settler colonies in the Pacific1770, Captain Cook reached Australia, reported it suitable for settlement1788, one thousand settlers established colony of New South WalesBecame a penal colony after loss of Georgia in American Revolution1851, gold discovered; surge of European migration to AustraliaFertile soil and timber of New Zealand attracted European settlersEuropeans diseases dramatically reduced aboriginal populationsEuropean flora and fauna replaced most native speciesLarge settler societies forced indigenous peoples onto marginal landsPacific IslandsSpain and the PacificPacific had been a Spanish possession until 19th century (Philippines, Micronesia)Spanish yearly shipments of silver from Mexico to China ended in 1812Colonization of Pacific Islands delayed until late nineteenth centuryEarly American visitors to the PacificAmerican Whalers throughout region after American revolutionAmerican merchants on way to China began in 19th centuryCalifornia Gold Rush open Pacific coast to immigrants from Europe, ChinaUS challenged rule in 1854 when Commodore Perry forced Japan to open portsSome missionaries active especially in Hawaii and on way to ChinaLate nineteenth century,European states sought coaling stations and naval ports1867: USA acquires Alaska, Wake Island1898: USA acquires Hawaii, Philippines, Guam1899: German buys remaining Spanish islandsBy 1900, all islands claimed by France, Britain, Germany and United States.Island plantations produced sugarcane, copra, guano
24 U.S. IMPERIALISMWestward Expansion, Manifest Destiny precede overseas imperialismAmericans push west after American revolutionDrove Indians from landUS purchases Louisiana from FranceOpened up West to settlementAmericans saw it as God-given right to occupy continentThe Monroe Doctrine and Latin America1823: proclamation by U.S. president James MonroeOpposed European imperialism in the AmericasJustified American interventions in late 19th, 20th centuryUsed doctrine to tell France to withdraw from Mexico in 1867United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867Hawaii became a protectorate in 1875, formally annexed in 1898Tended to leave area open only for American investments, loansThe Mexican American War 1846 – 1848US annexation of Texas set off conflict with MexicoUS defeats Mexico, annexed 1/3 of Mexican territorySettlement of Far West, Pacific Coast, Great Basin follows1867 – 1898Acquires small Pacific Islands, Alaska from Russia in 1867Economic interests in Hawaii lead to revolution, annexation in 1898The Spanish-American War ( )US defeated Spain and took over Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and PhilippinesUS and PhilippinesBacked Filipino revolt against Spain, purchased and took over the colony, bitter civil war killed two hundred thousand Filipinos, ended in U.S. victoryThe Panama Canal,Colombian government refused U.S. request to build canal at Panama isthmusUS helped rebels establish the state of Panama for the right to build a canalCompleted in 1914; gave United States access to Atlantic and Pacific
26 IMPERIAL JAPAN Japan and the West 1854: US Commodore Perry forces Japan out of isolationJapanese resented unequal treaties of 1860sBorrowed western knowledgeResolved to become imperial powerEarly Japanese expansion in nearby islands1870s, to the north: Hokkaido, Kurile islandsBy 1879, to the south: Okinawa and Ryukyu IslandsMeiji GovernmentPrussia trained Japanese army, Britain trained Japanese navyBought British warships, built up navy, began building own shipsEstablished military academies1876, imposed unequal treaties on Korea at gunpointMade plans to invade ChinaThe Sino-Japanese War ( )Rebellion in Korea: Chinese army sent to restore order, reassert authorityMeiji leaders declared war against China, demolished Chinese fleetChina forced to cede Korea, Taiwan, Pescadores, Liaodong peninsulaJapan helps suppress Boxer Rebellion, creates own zones in ChinaThe Russo-Japanese War ( )Russia had territorial ambitions in Liaodong peninsula, Korea, ManchuriaJapanese navy destroyed local Russian forcesReinforcements from Baltic sunk at Battle of TushimaJapan now a major imperial powerMade an alliance with Great Britain1910: Annexes Korea
29 NATIONALISMBorn in France (Joan of Arc), spread abroad during French RevolutionIdea began as radical, adopted by liberals, used by conservativesAn idea which could unify society across social classesMany aspects similar to religion, faithLoyalty to state often replaces loyalty to church, monarchDominated 19th centuryCultural nationalismAn expression of national identityEmphasized common historical experienceUsed folk culture, literature, musicIllustrated national spirit, distinctiveness
30 NATIONALISM, cont.Political nationalism more intense in the nineteenth centuryDemanded loyalty, solidarity from national groupMinorities sought independence as national communityYoung Italy formed by Giuseppe MazziniWorld-wide spreadContact with Europeans introduced others to idea of nationalismNationalism often brought with it western ideas, structuresStrongest in Middle East, India, JapanZionismJewish nationalism as a response to European anti-SemitismMovement founded by Theodor Herzl to create Jewish state in PalestineJewish state of Israel finally created in 1948
31 Conservatism Conservatism Called the Ancien Regime Resisted change, opposed revolutionsImportance of continuity, tradition, aristocracyEdmund BurkeViewed society as organism that changed slowly over timeAmerican Revolution: natural, logical outcome of historyFrench Revolution: violent and irresponsibleCongress of Vienna was a Conservative restorationRestored Balance of Power; ruled through great powersMonarchy was at heart of conservatism
32 EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES LiberalismWelcomed controlled change as an agent of progressStrongly middle class, support economic reform, education to help industrializationWanted to reform political structure, increase electorate slightlyChampioned freedom, equality, democracy, written constitutionsLimits on state power, interference in individual freedomsJohn Stuart Mill championed individual freedom and minority rights
33 EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES RadicalismAccepted liberal ideas but wanted universal voting rightsMany wanted outright democracy, social reforms in interests of lower classesA few were socialists, attacked all private property, class statusSaw radical solutions (revolution) as only way to change the status quoRepresented by French Revolution, democracy, early nationalism
34 IMAGINED COMMUNITIES Concert of Europe 1815 - 1860 Congress of Vienna,Conservative victory: restore old order after defeat of NapoleonMaintained balance of power in Europe for a centuryFailed in repressing nationalist and revolutionary ideasConcert of European great powers called Holy AllianceUK, Russia, Prussia, Austria, France working in “concert”Attempted to prevent revolutions, changeIntervened militarily to oppose changeOften forced to limit, control changesNationalist rebellionsAgainst old order throughout nineteenth century1800s: Haiti, Latin America1820sGreek Revolution: rebels overcame Ottoman rule in 1827Mehmet Ali in Egypt, defeated by French, English, Russians1830/1848Italy, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Austria, GermanyConservatism usually restored but revolutionary ideals persistedImagined CommunitiesGroups begin to form based on a perceived sense of communityEach group defined by agreed upon set of values, goals
35 UNIFICATION OF ITALY Italy After Congress of Vienna Italy divided into small states: all states except Sardinia, Papacy ruled by foreign dynastiesAustria was the preeminent power in ItalyMazzini, Nationalist, formed Young Italy inspired uprisings against foreign rule1848 Nationalist revolution destroyed by Austrian troopsSardinia and CavourItalian Sardinia only ethnic Italian statePrime Minister of Sardinia becomes leader of nationalistsExpelled Austrian authorities in northern Italy, 1859 with French aideGaribaldiRevolutionary nationalist, democratStaged revolutions, later seized control of Southern Italy: Italian states united under Sardinia
37 UNIFICATION OF GERMANY After Congress of Vienna Dominated by Austrian von MetternichGerman Confederacy a collection of independent states dominated by AustriaPrussia the largest German state but limited in action by AustriaMetternich’s System: preserved conservatism, persecuted liberalism, hated nationalism1848 RevolutionDestroyed by AustriaEnded hope of liberalism, constitutionalism, national unificationLeft Prussia humiliated, looking for revengePrussian and Otto von Bismarck ( )Created a united Germany through blood and ironUsed conservatism, militarism married with nationalismBismarck provoked three wars that swelled German prideDefeated Austria, France to unify Germany under Prussia1871, Prussian king proclaimed emperor of the Second Reich
40 DIPLOMACY: BALANCE OF POWER & HEGEMONY Century: Era of Western hegemony in all areasBalance of Power dominates centuryAfter Napoleon, great powers kept peaceIntervened in European affairs to maintain balanceGoals and PoliciesNo one power should dominateNo nation should be eliminatedNo permanent ideologies threaten peaceBrokered conferences to decide touchy issuesInternational OrganizationsNon-governmental Organizations new in historyTry to promote international accordEstablish cooperationRed CrossEstablished at end of Crimean WarProvide health care, relief following catastrophesOlympicsResurrected in 1896Healthy competitionInternational LawsDiplomacy reaches highest level during periodRules of Peace and WarHague Conferences and ConventionsAgreements create standards, rules of war, peaceNeutrality was a key conceptCivilians were not to be touched
41 PRE-WAR ALLIANCES Rival systems of alliance The Triple Alliance Germany forms alliancesBismarck attempts to isolate FranceUntil 1890, Germany had alliances with all except FranceObligated allies to come to one another's defenseFrance and RussiaFound themselves isolated, fearful of GermanyFormed Double Entente to end their isolationThe Triple AllianceGermany, Austria-Hungary, ItalyGermany, Austria allied 1879Italy joined in 1882 (Triple Alliance)Others Allied StatesOttoman Empire: German railroads, reforms of militaryBulgaria and Rumania fearful of Russia and SerbiaThe Double and Later Triple EntenteFrance, RussiaCommon enemy: Germany, common war plansWorked together diplomaticallyWhy the United Kingdom joinedDue to rivalry with Germany over colonies and German construction of a navyAfter German pre-war diplomacy seemed to lead to warShifting series of treaties ended with a military pact, 1914Japan had a separate alliance with Great Britain for Asia PacificWar plans: each power poised and prepared for warMilitary leaders devised inflexible military plans and timetablesFrance's Plan XVII focused on offensive maneuvers and attacksGermany's Schlieffen plan: swift attack on France, defend against Russia