Presentation on theme: "The Building of Global Empires Chapter 33. Foundations of Empire By the mid 1800s Europeans began to speak of Imperialism – Domination of European powers."— Presentation transcript:
Foundations of Empire By the mid 1800s Europeans began to speak of Imperialism – Domination of European powers over subject lands in the larger world This domination came in different ways: – Military force – Trade, Investment, Business activities With Imperialism came colonialism – Not just sending colonists, but take over of political, social, economic, and cultural structures
Crucial for Survival!! During the second half of the 19 th century, Europeans felt that imperial expansion was crucial to the survival of their states. Influences came from entrepreneurs that had already made their mark exploiting areas in Asia and Africa to make their fortunes. – Cecil Rhodes
Cecil Rhodes Rhodes was an influential figure in the development of South Africa. He became very wealthy by indulging in the huge diamond deposits By age 37, he was a diamond and gold mogul to go along with being the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
Economic Motives Europeans felt that overseas colonies could serve as a reliable source of raw materials. – Copper – Rubber – Tin – Petroleum (later) Market for manufactured goods?
Political Motives If colonies were not economically beneficial, imperialists still felt that they were important for political and military reasons. – Located on strategic sites – Harbors for commercial and naval ships Cape Town, South Africa
Political Motives (cont’d) European politicians felt that their imperialist ventures would inspire patriotism. – Exhibitions were held to show off the subject group’s dress, music, and customs New South Wales exhibit at the Chicago Exposition. 1893
Religious Justification Missionaries flocked to the new colonies to convert the natives to Christianity – Not all missionaries agreed with imperialism, but their campaigns provided the leverage to continue on with it. – Similar to past empires, religious officials often served as the communication between the natives and the European officials.
The White Man’s Burden The Christian duty of the white man is to civilize the heathen masses…
The White Man’s Burden Rudyard Kipling “Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child
Technological Advantages At the time of Imperialism, many European Countries had gone through Industrialization which made their efforts much easier. – Advanced Weapons – Transportation – New Communication tools
Steamships and Railroads Steamships drastically cut down on transportation time to the new colonies Building of Canals allowed ships to be open to the World’s oceans – Suez Canal – Panama Canal Once land was controlled, railroads helped with the organization of the colony. – Allowed for quicker transportation of the army and raw materials
British Empire in Asia Control in S. Asia and SE Asia grew out of the mercantile activities of the East India Company. – Had a monopoly on trade with India Traded for Indian pepper and cotton – In SE Asia, EIC traded for silk, porcelain and spices EIC took advantage of Mughal territory after the death of Aurangzeb and strengthened and expanded its trading posts – Enforced control with small British army and a large number of Indian troops called Sepoys. Sepoy Mutiny ended with the British declaring direct Imperial rule in India
British India The new British colony would be ruled by a viceroy Did not promote Christianity but did establish English-style schools. Built extensive railroads, and telegraph networks. Constructed canals, harbors, and irrigation systems to support commerce and agriculture
Central Asia The French and Russians began to seek ways to break up the British stronghold in India – French failed – Russia helped start the power struggle in C. Asia Weakening of the Qing and Ottoman Empires allowed Russia to enter the region – Began to explore unknown regions of N. India, started the “Great Game” with the British
Southeast Asia The Philippines came under Spanish control in the 16 th century The Dutch created their own colonies mainly during the 17 th century. – The Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia), controlled trade in the region
Southeast Asia During the 19 th century, the British established a presence in SE Asia. – 1880s-Burma Source of teak, ivory, rubies, and jade – 1870s and 1880s- Malaysia French Imperialists built large SE Asia colonies in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (1859- 1893)
Who were Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley? Why were they important to the colonization of Africa?
Livingstone and Stanley Dr. David Livingstone – Scottish minister – Traveled through much of C. and S. Africa – Searching for suitable locations for missions Henry Morton Stanley – American Adventurer – Led expedition to find Livingstone and report on his activities – Asked by King Leopold to help develop commercial ventures and develop a new colony
Africa The most striking outburst of imperialism took place in Africa – Up until 1875, Europeans had a limited presence Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique French colony of Northern Algeria Between 1875-1900 Europeans began to colonize the whole continent – The exploitation of the people and resources began to be known as the “Scramble for Africa”
What were the only two countries in Africa that were not colonized???
The Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi Rivers allowed Europeans access to inland regions – King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to establish a colony called the Congo Free State Congo region would be a free trade zone for all Europeans Working conditions were very brutal, humanitarians protested the colonial regime 4-8 million Africans died – 1908, the Belgian government took over the colony
British Presence in Africa The British quickly established themselves in Egypt – 1882, British army occupied Egypt to protect their own financial interests Suez Canal being the most important
South Africa The Dutch East India Company established Cape Town in 1652 – Supply station for trips to Asia – EIC employees and new European settlers began to move inland to farm and ranch Known as Boers (Dutch for Farmers), and later as Afrikaners (Dutch for African) More and more settlers came and kept pushing further inland which led to conflict with the Khoikhoi and Xhosa.
South Africa The British took over the Cape during the Napoleonic Wars. (1806) British abolished slavery, hurting the Afrikaners’ primary source of labor Great Trek-Afrikaners moved east and had conflicts with indigenous people
South Africa The British allowed the Afrikaner population to control their state, but with the discovery of gold and diamonds, that all changed – South African War/Boer War started – Whites against whites, but also internment of 100,000 black Africans 10,000 died – Afrikaner population defeated in 1902, the Union of South Africa was formed.
Berlin Conference (1884-1885) Delegates from 14 European states, and the US came up with rules to colonize Africa – Not 1 African was present Agreement was made that any European state could establish a colony after notifying the others of its intentions and occupying unclaimed land
Concessionary Companies Private large compaines were granted concessions of territory and were able to undertake economic activity. – Also allowed to implement labor recruitment and taxes – Brutal use of forced labor proved to be the down fall of Concessionary Companies
Switch to Direct Rule Colonies now were under direct control of European personnel. – Tax collection, labor and military recruitment, law and order Aimed at removing strong kings and replacing with more malleable personnel
Indirect Rule the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure Control over subject people is exercised through indigenous institutions and personnel
Imperialism in the Pacific Took two main forms: – Australia and New Zealand were made into settler colonies and political institutions – Bases of operations for commercial opportunities
The United States Imperialist Movement Monroe Doctrine (1823) – Proclamation that was a warning to European states against Imperialist aspirations in the Western Hemisphere – US would be a protectorate in the region – Was later the justification for Imperialism
New American Territories 1867 – Acquired Alaska from the Russians 1875 – Claimed a protectorate over the Hawaiian Islands
Spanish-Cuban-American War 1898, the US battle ship Maine exploded in Havana harbor – US declared war on Spain Easy defeat of the Spanish and the US received Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
Panama Canal US sought to build a canal across a narrow stretch in Central America – Panama was chosen as the best site – Colombia was unwilling to cede the land US helped Panamanian rebels breakaway from Colombia Allowed the US to build the Canal
Imperial Japan Resented unequal treaties Modeled navy after the British Sino-Japanese War: Fought with Qing dynasty over Korea, trading rights in China, influence in Korea Russo-Japanese War: Fought with Russia over Manchuria, land Japan was now a world power!
Labor Migrations Between 1800 and 1914, 50 million European migrants left their homes to go overseas – 32 million went to the US – In search of cheap land to cultivate
Settler Colonies Europeans created colonies across the globe – North America – Chile – Argentina – Australia – New Zealand – South Africa These colonies were influenced by European officials, agents, and businesspeople – Controlled domestic and foreign politics, and integrated local economies to be the network for world wide capitalism