2Foundations of EmpireBy the mid 1800s Europeans began to speak of ImperialismDomination of European powers over subject lands in the larger worldThis domination came in different ways:Military forceTrade, Investment, Business activitiesWith Imperialism came colonialismNot just sending colonists, but take over of political, social, economic, and cultural structures
3Crucial for Survival!!During the second half of the 19th century, Europeans felt that imperial expansion was crucial to the survival of their states.Influences came from entrepreneurs that had already made their mark exploiting areas in Asia and Africa to make their fortunes.Cecil Rhodes
4Cecil RhodesRhodes was an influential figure in the development of South Africa.He became very wealthy by indulging in the huge diamond depositsBy age 37, he was a diamond and gold mogul to go along with being the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
5Economic MotivesEuropeans felt that overseas colonies could serve as a reliable source of raw materials.CopperRubberTinPetroleum (later)Market for manufactured goods?
6Political MotivesIf colonies were not economically beneficial, imperialists still felt that they were important for political and military reasons.Located on strategic sitesHarbors for commercial and naval shipsCape Town, South Africa
7Political Motives (cont’d) European politicians felt that their imperialist ventures would inspire patriotism.Exhibitions were held to show off the subject group’s dress, music, and customsNew South Wales exhibit at the Chicago Exposition
8Religious Justification Missionaries flocked to the new colonies to convert the natives to ChristianityNot all missionaries agreed with imperialism, but their campaigns provided the leverage to continue on with it.Similar to past empires, religious officials often served as the communication between the natives and the European officials.
9The White Man’s BurdenThe Christian duty of the white man is to civilize the heathen masses…
10The White Man’s Burden Rudyard Kipling “Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child
12Technological Advantages At the time of Imperialism, many European Countries had gone through Industrialization which made their efforts much easier.Advanced WeaponsTransportationNew Communication tools
13Steamships and Railroads Steamships drastically cut down on transportation time to the new coloniesBuilding of Canals allowed ships to be open to the World’s oceansSuez CanalPanama CanalOnce land was controlled, railroads helped with the organization of the colony.Allowed for quicker transportation of the army and raw materials
16British Empire in AsiaControl in S. Asia and SE Asia grew out of the mercantile activities of the East India Company.Had a monopoly on trade with IndiaTraded for Indian pepper and cottonIn SE Asia, EIC traded for silk, porcelain and spicesEIC took advantage of Mughal territory after the death of Aurangzeb and strengthened and expanded its trading postsEnforced control with small British army and a large number of Indian troops called Sepoys.Sepoy Mutiny ended with the British declaring direct Imperial rule in India
17British India The new British colony would be ruled by a viceroy Did not promote Christianity but did establish English-style schools.Built extensive railroads, and telegraph networks.Constructed canals, harbors, and irrigation systems to support commerce and agriculture
18Central AsiaThe French and Russians began to seek ways to break up the British stronghold in IndiaFrench failedRussia helped start the power struggle in C. AsiaWeakening of the Qing and Ottoman Empires allowed Russia to enter the regionBegan to explore unknown regions of N. India, started the “Great Game” with the British
19Southeast AsiaThe Philippines came under Spanish control in the 16th centuryThe Dutch created their own colonies mainly during the 17th century.The Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia), controlled trade in the region
20Southeast AsiaDuring the 19th century, the British established a presence in SE Asia.1880s-BurmaSource of teak, ivory, rubies, and jade1870s and 1880s- MalaysiaFrench Imperialists built large SE Asia colonies in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos ( )
21Who were Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley? Why were they important to the colonization of Africa?
22Livingstone and Stanley Dr. David LivingstoneScottish ministerTraveled through much of C. and S. AfricaSearching for suitable locations for missionsHenry Morton StanleyAmerican AdventurerLed expedition to find Livingstone and report on his activitiesAsked by King Leopold to help develop commercial ventures and develop a new colony
24Africa The most striking outburst of imperialism took place in Africa Up until 1875, Europeans had a limited presencePortuguese colonies of Angola and MozambiqueFrench colony of Northern AlgeriaBetween Europeans began to colonize the whole continentThe exploitation of the people and resources began to be known as the “Scramble for Africa”
27What were the only two countries in Africa that were not colonized???
28The Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi Rivers allowed Europeans access to inland regions King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to establish a colony called the Congo Free StateCongo region would be a free trade zone for all EuropeansWorking conditions were very brutal, humanitarians protested the colonial regime4-8 million Africans died1908, the Belgian government took over the colony
29British Presence in Africa The British quickly established themselves in Egypt1882, British army occupied Egypt to protect their own financial interestsSuez Canal being the most important
30South AfricaThe Dutch East India Company established Cape Town in 1652Supply station for trips to AsiaEIC employees and new European settlers began to move inland to farm and ranchKnown as Boers (Dutch for Farmers), and later as Afrikaners (Dutch for African)More and more settlers came and kept pushing further inland which led to conflict with the Khoikhoi and Xhosa.
31South AfricaThe British took over the Cape during the Napoleonic Wars. (1806)British abolished slavery, hurting the Afrikaners’ primary source of laborGreat Trek-Afrikaners moved east and had conflicts with indigenous people
32South AfricaThe British allowed the Afrikaner population to control their state, but with the discovery of gold and diamonds, that all changedSouth African War/Boer War startedWhites against whites, but also internment of 100,000 black Africans10,000 diedAfrikaner population defeated in 1902, the Union of South Africa was formed.
33Berlin Conference ( )Delegates from 14 European states, and the US came up with rules to colonize AfricaNot 1 African was presentAgreement was made that any European state could establish a colony after notifying the others of its intentions and occupying unclaimed land
34Concessionary Companies Private large compaines were granted concessions of territory and were able to undertake economic activity.Also allowed to implement labor recruitment and taxesBrutal use of forced labor proved to be the down fall of Concessionary CompaniesSystems of Colonial Rule
35Systems of Colonial Rule Switch to Direct RuleColonies now were under direct control of European personnel.Tax collection, labor and military recruitment, law and orderAimed at removing strong kings and replacing with more malleable personnelSystems of Colonial Rule
36Systems of Colonial Rule Indirect Rulethe traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structureControl over subject people is exercised through indigenous institutions and personnelSystems of Colonial Rule
37Imperialism in the Pacific Took two main forms:Australia and New Zealand were made into settler colonies and political institutionsBases of operations for commercial opportunities
38The United States Imperialist Movement Monroe Doctrine (1823)Proclamation that was a warning to European states against Imperialist aspirations in the Western HemisphereUS would be a protectorate in the regionWas later the justification for Imperialism
39New American Territories 1867Acquired Alaska from the Russians1875Claimed a protectorate over the Hawaiian Islands
40Spanish-Cuban-American War 1898, the US battle ship Maine exploded in Havana harborUS declared war on SpainEasy defeat of the Spanish and the US received Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
41Panama CanalUS sought to build a canal across a narrow stretch in Central AmericaPanama was chosen as the best siteColombia was unwilling to cede the landUS helped Panamanian rebels breakaway from ColombiaAllowed the US to build the Canal
42Japan was now a world power! Imperial JapanResented unequal treatiesModeled navy after the BritishSino-Japanese War: Fought with Qing dynasty over Korea, trading rights in China, influence in KoreaRusso-Japanese War: Fought with Russia over Manchuria, landJapan was now a world power!
43Labor MigrationsBetween 1800 and 1914, 50 million European migrants left their homes to go overseas32 million went to the USIn search of cheap land to cultivate
45Settler Colonies Europeans created colonies across the globe North AmericaChileArgentinaAustraliaNew ZealandSouth AfricaThese colonies were influenced by European officials, agents, and businesspeopleControlled domestic and foreign politics, and integrated local economies to be the network for world wide capitalism