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The Building of Global Empires

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1 The Building of Global Empires
Chapter 33

2 Foundations of Empire By the mid 1800s Europeans began to speak of Imperialism Domination of European powers over subject lands in the larger world This domination came in different ways: Military force Trade, Investment, Business activities With Imperialism came colonialism Not just sending colonists, but take over of political, social, economic, and cultural structures

3 Crucial for Survival!! During the second half of the 19th century, Europeans felt that imperial expansion was crucial to the survival of their states. Influences came from entrepreneurs that had already made their mark exploiting areas in Asia and Africa to make their fortunes. Cecil Rhodes

4 Cecil Rhodes Rhodes was an influential figure in the development of South Africa. He became very wealthy by indulging in the huge diamond deposits By age 37, he was a diamond and gold mogul to go along with being the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony

5 Economic Motives Europeans felt that overseas colonies could serve as a reliable source of raw materials. Copper Rubber Tin Petroleum (later) Market for manufactured goods?

6 Political Motives If colonies were not economically beneficial, imperialists still felt that they were important for political and military reasons. Located on strategic sites Harbors for commercial and naval ships Cape Town, South Africa

7 Political Motives (cont’d)
European politicians felt that their imperialist ventures would inspire patriotism. Exhibitions were held to show off the subject group’s dress, music, and customs New South Wales exhibit at the Chicago Exposition

8 Religious Justification
Missionaries flocked to the new colonies to convert the natives to Christianity Not all missionaries agreed with imperialism, but their campaigns provided the leverage to continue on with it. Similar to past empires, religious officials often served as the communication between the natives and the European officials.

9 The White Man’s Burden The Christian duty of the white man is to civilize the heathen masses…

10 The White Man’s Burden Rudyard Kipling
“Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child


12 Technological Advantages
At the time of Imperialism, many European Countries had gone through Industrialization which made their efforts much easier. Advanced Weapons Transportation New Communication tools

13 Steamships and Railroads
Steamships drastically cut down on transportation time to the new colonies Building of Canals allowed ships to be open to the World’s oceans Suez Canal Panama Canal Once land was controlled, railroads helped with the organization of the colony. Allowed for quicker transportation of the army and raw materials

14 British Empire

15 The Sun Never Sets

16 British Empire in Asia Control in S. Asia and SE Asia grew out of the mercantile activities of the East India Company. Had a monopoly on trade with India Traded for Indian pepper and cotton In SE Asia, EIC traded for silk, porcelain and spices EIC took advantage of Mughal territory after the death of Aurangzeb and strengthened and expanded its trading posts Enforced control with small British army and a large number of Indian troops called Sepoys. Sepoy Mutiny ended with the British declaring direct Imperial rule in India

17 British India The new British colony would be ruled by a viceroy
Did not promote Christianity but did establish English-style schools. Built extensive railroads, and telegraph networks. Constructed canals, harbors, and irrigation systems to support commerce and agriculture

18 Central Asia The French and Russians began to seek ways to break up the British stronghold in India French failed Russia helped start the power struggle in C. Asia Weakening of the Qing and Ottoman Empires allowed Russia to enter the region Began to explore unknown regions of N. India, started the “Great Game” with the British

19 Southeast Asia The Philippines came under Spanish control in the 16th century The Dutch created their own colonies mainly during the 17th century. The Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia), controlled trade in the region

20 Southeast Asia During the 19th century, the British established a presence in SE Asia. 1880s-Burma Source of teak, ivory, rubies, and jade 1870s and 1880s- Malaysia French Imperialists built large SE Asia colonies in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos ( )

21 Who were Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley?
Why were they important to the colonization of Africa?

22 Livingstone and Stanley
Dr. David Livingstone Scottish minister Traveled through much of C. and S. Africa Searching for suitable locations for missions Henry Morton Stanley American Adventurer Led expedition to find Livingstone and report on his activities Asked by King Leopold to help develop commercial ventures and develop a new colony

23 Livingstone and Stanley
Livingstone’s Journey

24 Africa The most striking outburst of imperialism took place in Africa
Up until 1875, Europeans had a limited presence Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique French colony of Northern Algeria Between Europeans began to colonize the whole continent The exploitation of the people and resources began to be known as the “Scramble for Africa”

25 Africa before the Scramble

26 Africa in 1914

27 What were the only two countries in Africa that were not colonized???

28 The Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi Rivers allowed Europeans access to inland regions
King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to establish a colony called the Congo Free State Congo region would be a free trade zone for all Europeans Working conditions were very brutal, humanitarians protested the colonial regime 4-8 million Africans died 1908, the Belgian government took over the colony

29 British Presence in Africa
The British quickly established themselves in Egypt 1882, British army occupied Egypt to protect their own financial interests Suez Canal being the most important

30 South Africa The Dutch East India Company established Cape Town in 1652 Supply station for trips to Asia EIC employees and new European settlers began to move inland to farm and ranch Known as Boers (Dutch for Farmers), and later as Afrikaners (Dutch for African) More and more settlers came and kept pushing further inland which led to conflict with the Khoikhoi and Xhosa.

31 South Africa The British took over the Cape during the Napoleonic Wars. (1806) British abolished slavery, hurting the Afrikaners’ primary source of labor Great Trek-Afrikaners moved east and had conflicts with indigenous people

32 South Africa The British allowed the Afrikaner population to control their state, but with the discovery of gold and diamonds, that all changed South African War/Boer War started Whites against whites, but also internment of 100,000 black Africans 10,000 died Afrikaner population defeated in 1902, the Union of South Africa was formed.

33 Berlin Conference ( ) Delegates from 14 European states, and the US came up with rules to colonize Africa Not 1 African was present Agreement was made that any European state could establish a colony after notifying the others of its intentions and occupying unclaimed land

34 Concessionary Companies
Private large compaines were granted concessions of territory and were able to undertake economic activity. Also allowed to implement labor recruitment and taxes Brutal use of forced labor proved to be the down fall of Concessionary Companies Systems of Colonial Rule

35 Systems of Colonial Rule
Switch to Direct Rule Colonies now were under direct control of European personnel. Tax collection, labor and military recruitment, law and order Aimed at removing strong kings and replacing with more malleable personnel Systems of Colonial Rule

36 Systems of Colonial Rule
Indirect Rule the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure Control over subject people is exercised through indigenous institutions and personnel Systems of Colonial Rule

37 Imperialism in the Pacific
Took two main forms: Australia and New Zealand were made into settler colonies and political institutions Bases of operations for commercial opportunities

38 The United States Imperialist Movement
Monroe Doctrine (1823) Proclamation that was a warning to European states against Imperialist aspirations in the Western Hemisphere US would be a protectorate in the region Was later the justification for Imperialism

39 New American Territories
1867 Acquired Alaska from the Russians 1875 Claimed a protectorate over the Hawaiian Islands

40 Spanish-Cuban-American War
1898, the US battle ship Maine exploded in Havana harbor US declared war on Spain Easy defeat of the Spanish and the US received Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.

41 Panama Canal US sought to build a canal across a narrow stretch in Central America Panama was chosen as the best site Colombia was unwilling to cede the land US helped Panamanian rebels breakaway from Colombia Allowed the US to build the Canal

42 Japan was now a world power!
Imperial Japan Resented unequal treaties Modeled navy after the British Sino-Japanese War: Fought with Qing dynasty over Korea, trading rights in China, influence in Korea Russo-Japanese War: Fought with Russia over Manchuria, land Japan was now a world power!

43 Labor Migrations Between 1800 and 1914, 50 million European migrants left their homes to go overseas 32 million went to the US In search of cheap land to cultivate


45 Settler Colonies Europeans created colonies across the globe
North America Chile Argentina Australia New Zealand South Africa These colonies were influenced by European officials, agents, and businesspeople Controlled domestic and foreign politics, and integrated local economies to be the network for world wide capitalism

46 The Scramble for Africa

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