Presentation on theme: "The Age of Imperialism (1850 – 1914)"— Presentation transcript:
1The Age of Imperialism (1850 – 1914) Late Nineteenth Century European Imperialism
2ObjectiveTo understand the causes of European imperialism of the late 19th centuryTo understand the extent of European imperial expansionTo understand the consequences of European imperialism for Europe and the developing world
3Definitions Imperialism Colonialism Nationalism “extending a nation’s influence directly or indirectly over weaker areas”ColonialismTaking direct control of an area and turning it into a colony under a nation’s authorityNationalismBelief that an ethnic group should rule itselfBelief that one nation is better than all the others
4European Motives For Colonisation European Nationalism Source forRawMaterialsMissionary ActivityIndustrialRevolutionEuropeanMotivesFor ColonisationMarkets for Finished GoodsMilitary & Naval BasesSocial DarwinismEuropean RacismPlaces to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul.Humanitarian ReasonsSoc. & Eco. Opportunities“White Man’s Burden”
5Motivations for Imperialism Money / ResourcesRaw materialsCotton, Oil, Rubber, Tea, Iron, gold, diamonds, silk, copper etcPeople (cheap workers)MarketsColonies with people who will buy your stuffDumping GroundSend your excess population / criminals thereCanada, AustraliaStrategicControl strategic seas and land areas to gain powerKeep OTHER countries from gaining them
6Causes of Late 19th Century European Imperialism Culture / ReligionBelief in European / Christian superiorityDesire to “spread civilization and Christianity to the heathens”Social DarwinismPrestigeWhoever has the most must be the best“He who dies with the most toys wins!”The Industrial RevolutionIndustrialized nations took control of less developed nationsTo gain raw materials for industryCotton, coal, metals, etc.To gain markets for goodsManufactured goods could be sold in the colonies
7Political and Social Origins of Imperialism NationalismCompetition between industrial nations led to a race for overseas empiresThe “White Man’s Burden”Many believed it was their duty to “civilize” people of other nations by introducing Christianity and Western cultureSocial DarwinismMany claimed it was natural for “the weak to be taken over by the strong”
8Social Darwinism and Imperialism Some thought the theory of evolution justified the exploitation of “lesser breeds” by “superior races.”Europeans (and Americans) would suggest that they had evolved more than Indians, Africans and AsiansAfter all, our countries are more developed and richer – doesn’t that prove it?Thus, nature gave them the right to rule others.
9Social Darwinism Social Darwinists – sounds rather racist. They applied evolution to the social order.Europeans felt they must “save the savages” and “civilize” themMissionaries sought to convert “heathen” unbelievers in faraway lands.“The white man’s burden” – introducing civilization to the “colored” races of the world.In their view, war was nature’s way of eliminating the unfit.Using terms such as “survival of the fittest”, Social Darwinists insisted that nations and races were engaged in a struggle for survival in which only the fittest survive and deserve to win.
10Social Darwinism: Lasting Implications It promoted the military build-up that led to World War I.It would become the core doctrine of the Nazi party before World War II.Holocaust and EugenicsProvided a “scientific” and “ethical” justification for genocides in the 20th century.
11Common advertisement during Imperialism What is being advertised?Where is this taking place?How can you tell?What is going on?What does it tell us about imperialism / colonialism?Who was the queen at the time?
12Major Imperial Powers Great Britain France Germany Russia The United StatesJapan
13Imperialized Areas Powerful industrial nations established empires in: AfricaAsiaOceania (Australia, New Zealand, and surrounding islands)
16Britain (United Kingdom) Includes England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland Largest colonial empire“Sun never sets on the British Empire”Colonies established to protect trading interests in Africa and AsiaTwo kinds of colonies“White” Colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) Populated mainly by people that moved there from BritainGiven self-rule“Non-white” Colonies (India, Africa)Under indirect rulePopulated mainly by people who are native to the areaFew people from Britain actually live there – but control the government
17All the territories the British ever owned Note: They also had a “sphere of influence” in China as well
18France Northwest Africa and Southeast Asia Took colonies to make up for loss of Alsace-Lorraine in 1870Tended to use “Direct Rule”Control all aspects of the colony from Paris.
19French Colonial Empire - 1905 Ignore these parts
20Germany Bismarck originally opposed colonial expansion Unnecessary for GermanyDid not want to threaten France or BritainGermany eventually took colonies in 1880s for status symbolsIn Africa and Asia
21United States Did not get involved in European affairs Became colonial power after 1898Spanish-American WarU.S. gains control of Puerto Rico, Guam, PhilippinesMonroe Doctrine allows US to extend influence into Latin America
23The Spanish-American War (1898) CausesU.S. wanted to help Cuba win independence from SpainU.S. had economic interests in CubaU.S. saw Spain’s control of Cuba as a test of the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine: stated that the Americas were off limits to further European colonisationU.S. wanted to build an empireU.S. needed raw materials and markets for its goodsStrong nationalismAmericans wanted their nation to be powerful, wealthy, and competitive with the European powersU.S. newspapers blamed Spain for explosion of USS MaineEffectsU.S. quickly defeated Spain and became a world powerU.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and GuamU.S. temporarily occupied Cuba and set up a military governmentCuba and the Philippines eventually gained independence
24Intervention in Latin America Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineDeclared the U.S. as the police power of the Western HemisphereEstablished U.S. “economic imperialism” throughout Latin AmericaPanamaU.S. supported Panama’s independence from Colombia in exchange for the right to build and control the Panama Canal
26Japanese ImperialismSince the 1600’s, Japan had practiced a policy of isolationism, in which it cut itself off from the outside worldIn the 1850’s, the United States Navy forced Japan to open its ports to tradeModernized economy and militaryJapan built factories and needed raw materials to make manufactured goodsJapan quickly built a modern navy
27War with China Russo-Japanese War Japan and China competed for trading rights in KoreaJapan defeated China and took control of Korea and ManchuriaRusso-Japanese WarRussia tried to step in and take control of Korea and ManchuriaJapan defeated Russia and became a world power
32Scramble for Africa Europe had been interested in Africa for centuries Through the slave tradeMuch of Africa still unexplored until 1880sEuropean influence restricted to coastlineInitially difficult to get to interior due to geographyDiseases made exploration difficult. (malaria, yellow fever etc)
33The Scramble for Africa During the late 1800s Europeans began exploring the interior parts of AfricaBy the 1880s, European nations were racing to colonize African lands
35Scramble for Africa By 1914, 90% of Africa is under European control France Northwest AfricaBritain from Egypt to South AfricaBelgium in the Congo (central Africa)Italy in Libya and Eastern AfricaPortugal in southern AfricaGermany in scattered areasBerlin Conference in 1885 sets ground rules for European colonisation of Africa
36The Berlin Conference The scramble threatened European stability. Bismarck called an international conference in Berlin in 1884 to lay some ground rules for the development of Africa.European nations met to settle arguments over African landsEuropean powers divided all of Africa (except Ethiopia and Liberia) and drew up new bordersThey made the Congo a free trade zoneOutlawed slavery and the slave trade that the Arabs and Africans were still practicingDid not consider ethnic or language differences of African tribesAfricans had no say in the decisions
37Scramble for Africa Consequences Traditional way of life disrupted Economic exploitation of AfricansEuropean racism imported into AfricaSpread of European cultureSpread of Western technology
39Technology Encourages Europeans to explore African interior SteamboatsAdvances in medicineQuinine – stops malariaSuez Canal
40Geographical Impact of the Suez Canal, 1869 AFRICAEUROPESuez CanalEAST ASIAIndian Ocean16,000 KM10,000 KMSee why the Suez canal is a “strategic” location?
41Conquest of AfricaThe consequences of European partitioning (dividing up) of the continent were devastating to Africanewly drawn borders don’t match up with ethnicity, language, culture of people living there.In the decades before World War I, opposition to European colonial rule in Africa gathered strength.
44British in South Africa Dutch had first settled the Cape Colony in South AfricaDutch settlers called Boers (Dutch word for “farmer”)Early 1800s -British take over South Africa from DutchBoers move north into the Transvaal Area to get away from BritishTransvaal“The Great Trek”
45British in South Africa Native Zulus and Dutch fightingBritish push into Zulu’s landsDutch Boers ally with BritsZululand
46The Zulu WarThe British and the Zulus (a native tribe of Southern Africa) fought a war over landThe Zulus put up fierce resistance and won a major battle even though they were fighting with spears against gunsEventually the British overwhelmed and defeated the Zulus and took control of their lands
47The Zulu Wars Rorke’s Drift British pick a fight with Zulus You lose some, you win someIsandlwanaRorke’s Drift
48Discovery of Gold!1880s Boers find gold and diamonds on their new lands in the “Transvaal” areaBrits want that gold and diamondsThe “Boer War”
49New methods of warfare Boers use guerrilla tactics Hit and runOperate in small units called“commando’s”British counter this by rounding up Boer in “concentration camps” to keep an eye on themRemember this one – it will come back again
50End of the Boer WarBritish win and consolidate their lands in South AfricaEventually South Africa is given autonomyMost of the white settlers in South Africa are Dutch, but the land is owned by Britain.Most of the population is blackMinority, white dominated, government establishes system of “Apartheid”Complete separation of the racesNon-whites made into second class citizens in their own landStays in place until 1996 when international pressure forces South Africa to eliminate Apartheid
52Resistance to Imperialism Natives of Africa, Asia, and OceaniaLiked improvements made by imperialist rulersroads, railroads, schools, peace, etc.Disliked the way they were treated by rulersWanted to rule themselvesDisliked racism of imperialist nationsFelt foreign culture was being forced on themSometimes fought against imperialismMost natives were easily defeatedIndustrialized nations were more united and had better weapons and technologySome natives put up fierce resistance
54European Imperialism in India Britain trading in India since 1600sBritish East India Co. gradually took over parts of IndiaBritish government gradually took over India in the 1800sSepoy MutinyIndian soldiers revolt against British East India CoRebellion put down by British armyBritish government takes over control from British East India Co.Consequences of British Imperialism in IndiaBritish educational system establishedSpread of English languageRailroads tie India togetherRise of Indian middle class
56India“The Jewel of the Crown” for the British Empire
57British IndiaThe British East India Company was given permission by the British government to run the colony of IndiaIndian soldiers called Sepoys were hired by the East India Company to protect their businessMost Sepoys were Muslim or HinduIndians did not have same rights as BritishMany British looked down on Indians because of their race
59The Sepoy RebellionSepoys were ordered to use rifle cartridge that was rumored to be greased with cow and pig fatThey refused to follow orders and were being thrown in jailHindus believe cows are sacred animalsMuslims believe pigs are uncleanSepoys rioted and captured part of IndiaIt took over 1 year for the British to regain control
60Sepoy Rebellion Results: Rebellion was unsuccessful British government took full control of IndiaIndian nationalism and desire for independence grewBritish mistreatment Indians grew
61European Imperialism in Asia ChinaPotentially huge marketClosed to European trade until 1800sOpium War (1840)Britain forces China to open trade to opiumMillions of addictsUnequal Treaties (Treaty of Nanking) – China forced openBy 1900, China divided into European “spheres of influence”Parts of China under European controlChinese monarchy seriously weakened
63ChinaIn the early 1900’s China’s government was very weak and could not keep other countries from taking control of its portsOpen Door Policy: the policy of allowing all nations access to trade in ChinaForeign countries controlled trade and had a great deal of influence in ChinaMissionaries spread Christianity to Chinese
64The Boxer RebellionRighteous and Harmonious Fists: a group of Chinese warriors (called “Boxers” by Europeans) who wanted to end foreign influence and the spread of Christianity in ChinaBoxers attacked Chinese Christians and foreignersSeveral nations sent soldiers to protect their interestsThe foreigners defeated the BoxersResultsForeign powers gained even more control of ChinaGrowth in Chinese nationalism
65Reaction to Imperialism -1 Rise of Nationalist MovementsIndiaIndian National Congress (1885)Group of middle class Indians begin to demand independence (Mohandas Gandhi)ChinaBoxer Rebellion (1900)Nationalist Party
66Reaction to Imperialism -2 JapanLong isolated from Western tradeU.S. opens Japan to trade in 1854Meiji Restoration (1868)Faction overthrows Shogun and restores Emperor to powerJapan imports Western ideas and technologyDefeats China in 1895Takes over TaiwanDefeats Russia in 1905Gains control of KoreaJapanese imperialism worries Europeans“Yellow Peril”
67ConclusionDifferent reasons for European imperialism during late 19th centuryEuropean imperialism causes reactions in Africa and AsiaEuropean imperialism disrupts traditional way of life and continues to affect the world today
69A troublesome experience DecolonisationA troublesome experience1. The economic problems they inherited2. The need to find political systems that work for the individual nations.
70Popular perceptions of Colonialism (arguments for and against) Impact of ImperialismImperialism did:Created infrastructure in colonies – e.g. British railway systemsIncrease levels of formal education (albeit not universally)Gave people access to Western medicines and hospitals (but sometimes only after introducing Western viruses)Bring with it ideas of freedom and liberty in the sense that the European colonial countries were almost all liberal democracies.Plunder natural resourcesCreate of dual economiesCreate the loss of independent political powerEventually bring about ‘imperial over-reach’
71Criticisms of imperialism Colonialism as a Theory of oppression:Colonialism is a distinctly western evilThe West became rich and the coloniesbecame impoverished.The descendants of colonialism are worse off thanthey would’ve been if colonialism had never occurred.Walter Rodney : “White hoards have sallied forth fromtheir western homelands to assault, loot, occupy, ruleand exploit the world. Even now the fury of theirexpansionist assault on the rest of us has not abated”Activists such as Jesse Jackson have called on the West to pay repatriations for slavery and colonialism to minorities of the third world.The West is in possession of the ‘stolen goods’ of other cultures and has a moral and legal obligation to make some form of repayment.The above notions suggest that the Westbecame dominant because it was oppressive.
72Arguments In Defence of Colonialism There is nothing uniquely Western about imperialismE.g. India was preceded by at least six colonial powers.Those who identify imperialism with the West have no sense of history.The West did not become rich and powerful through colonial oppression.
73In Defence of Colonialism ScienceIt is a basic shared human trait. But science, requiring experiments, labs, the scientific method, induction, verification – THE INVENTION OF INVENTION – is a western institution.DemocracyTribal participation is universal but democracy involving free elections, peaceful transitions of power, and separation of powers is a western ideaCapitalismAgain the impulse to trade is universal, and there is nothing western about the use of money, but capitalism – which requires property rights, contracts, courts to enforce them, corporations, stock exchanges, patents, insurance -, this practice was developed in the west.Colonialism and imperialism are not the cause of the west’s success;they are the results of that success.
74DON’T BE COLONISING ANYONE!!! THE ENDDON’T BE COLONISING ANYONE!!!