4Africa in the early 1800’s Hundreds of ethnic groups Over 1,000 languages spokenMost followed traditional beliefs and religionsSociety: Large empires to small villagesRivers were wild and difficult to navigateJungles were dense and made travel difficultAfricans were experts at trading rare natural resources (gold-salt Sahara; Swahili East Coast trade)
5Scramble for AfricaMain Idea: Europeans established colonies by ignoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states.Why it matters now: African nations continue to feel the effects of the colonization more than 100 years later.
6Scramble for AfricaEuropean countries colonized areas in Africa south of the Saharalocal populations were enslaved, exploited, and sometimes exterminated.Video: 7CC88-0EDE-43C4-98DC-2B720A85BA1B
7How it all began…David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary, traveled to promote Christianity in Africa and DISAPPEARED!An American journalist, Henry Stanley was hired to find him and did!Made headlines and helped bring Africa’s undiscovered wealth to the attention of the world.Stanley continued to explore on behalf of Belgium“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
8Motives behind Imperialism 1. Belief in European Superiority (racism!)Non-Europeans were considered to be a “lesser race” because they had not achieved European scientific and technological progress.This was a reflection of Social Darwinism (humans/societies who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success)Thus, Europeans had a “obligation” to better these “lesser races”.
9An example….don’t write this down I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race. … It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honorable race the world possesses.— Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 18871 – Is Cecil Rhodes in favor of or opposed to imperialism, and what rationale (reason) does he give for his stance?2 – What one idea does Rhodes think Great Britain should be focused on?
10Motives behind Imperialism 2. Economic Competition—need for natural resources and new markets to feed the expanding Industrial RevolutionRubber, Ivory, lumber, etc.Forced Africans to grow cash crops; causes food shortages.3. Missionary Spirit—a divine duty spread Christianity to those still practicing indigenous beliefs
11Motives behind Imperialism 4. Nationalism- to gain power and prestige for their country, Europeans sought to acquire colonies. Famous political cartoon of Cecil Rhodes.
12Factors that made Imperialism successful Steam engines on boats and trains allowed Europeans to travel throughout the continent.Telegraph enabled colonizing Europeans to communicate with homelandUse of quinine helped protect Europeans from malariaAdvanced weaponry ensured military dominance over Africans
16Berlin Conference ( )To avoid wars between European countries over territory in Africa…14 European countries meet to discuss rules for division.Countries must publicly claim land and prove ability to control it (ex: military & infrasturcture in place)No African ruler was invitedNo attention was given to ethnic or linguistic divisionsCreated indigenous tensions that would EXPLODE once the countries gained independence in the 20th century.
17Resistance to Imperialism Despite Eur. advantages, Africans fight colonizationZulu nation’s highly centralized state nearly defeats English armyBoer War ( )—Long established Dutch Farmers pushed out of South Africa by British. Later fight back in a bloody “total” war. Dutch lose.Ethiopia successfully defeats Italy and remains free. They then gathered modern weapons to use in the future.
19Systems of Imperial Control COLONY: A COUNTRY OR TERRITORY GOVERNED BY A FOREIGN POWER (EX: THE BRITISH IN INDIA)SPHERE OF INFLUENCE: A REGION IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY WHERE ANOTHER NATION CLAIMS EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC RIGHTS (EX. = BRITISH IN AREAS OF CHINA)ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM: A COUNTRY CONTROLLED BY A PRIVATE BUSINESS FOR ECONOMIC GAIN (EX: BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY)
21British Imperialism in India Seeking spices and profit, England establishes trading posts in India in the 1600’s.English government allows Br. East India Company to increase territory and govern the entire colony.Company army made up of sepoy soldiers (Indians) and led by British officers.“Jewel of the Crown”—India is the most valuable of all coloniesserves crucial role as supplier of raw materials and new markets for British goods
22Sepoy Mutiny Indian soldiers rebel against the British Cartridges of new rifles were greased with beef and pork fat. (ends must be bitten off to be used)Muslims and Hindus refuse to use themEast India Co. handled situation badly, but still won.Internal conflicts prevent Indian unityBritish gov’t takes over rule in 1858 from E.I.C.This is a turning point in Indian history
23Legacy of British rule in India Positive:RAILROADS CONNECTED INDIA = MODERN ECONOMY AND UNITYINFRASTRUCTURE: ROADS, DAMS, BRIDGES, IRRIGATION CANALS, TELEGRAPH LINESSCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS BUILTMADE COUNTRY SAFERNegative:INDIA LOST POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC POWERFAMINE : BRITISH PUSHED CASH CROPS OVER FOOD THAT FED INDIANSRACISM: INDIANS TREATED LIKE 2ND CLASS CITIZENS
24China in IsolationSince the Great Wall was built, China practiced a policy of isolationism (policy avoiding political and military involvement with other countries)China was self-sufficient; they needed nothing from the outside worldUnable to trade traditional goods, the British introduced OPIUM (a highly addictive drug) to Chinese markets.By 1835, 12 million Chinese are addicted
25Opium War (1839) British win, leading to Treaty of Nanjing Chinese Emperor is concerned/angry that the addictions have harmed his subjectsBritish ignore his claims, leading to war.British win, leading to Treaty of NanjingBritish gain island of Hong KongForeigners gain freedom from Chinese law in spheres of influence.
26Taiping Rebellion 1850’s-1864Chinese population growth exceeds food supply causing famine (leads to increase in opium addiction)Hong Xiuquan begins a rebellion to bring prosperity and equality to all ChineseHong’s million-man rebel army controls SE ChinaImperial, British, and French troops put down rebellion at great cost (20 million dead Chinese)
27Foreign Influence 1862-1908 Empress Cixi rules and starts reforms Foreign powers take advantage of mixed results of reforms and “strong-arm” China into accepting foreign trade advantagesOpen Door Policy (1899): U.S. proposal that China be open to trading by all countries and would not be colonizedweakens idea of “spheres of influence”
28Boxer Rebellion Ordinary Chinese feel humiliated Push for reforms which lead creation of secret society (Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists)Erupts into wide-spread revolt against Empress and all foreigners (“Death to the foreign devils!”)Multi-national force finally defeats rebelsChinese nationalism surges after Boxer Rebellion and carries on into early 1900’s