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IMPERIALISM World History. Imperialism  “When a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries or territories”  Control over: Economy Politics Society.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPERIALISM World History. Imperialism  “When a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries or territories”  Control over: Economy Politics Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPERIALISM World History

2 Imperialism  “When a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries or territories”  Control over: Economy Politics Society (social issues)

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4 Africa in the early 1800’s  Hundreds of ethnic groups  Over 1,000 languages spoken  Most followed traditional beliefs and religions  Society: Large empires to small villages  Rivers were wild and difficult to navigate  Jungles were dense and made travel difficult  Africans were experts at trading rare natural resources (gold-salt Sahara; Swahili East Coast trade)

5 Scramble for Africa  Main Idea: Europeans established colonies by ignoring the claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states.  Why it matters now: African nations continue to feel the effects of the colonization more than 100 years later.

6 Scramble for Africa  European countries colonized areas in Africa south of the Sahara  local populations were enslaved, exploited, and sometimes exterminated.  Video: 7CC88-0EDE-43C4-98DC-2B720A85BA1B

7 How it all began…  David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary, traveled to promote Christianity in Africa and DISAPPEARED!  An American journalist, Henry Stanley was hired to find him and did!  Made headlines and helped bring Africa’s undiscovered wealth to the attention of the world.  Stanley continued to explore on behalf of Belgium “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

8 Motives behind Imperialism  1. Belief in European Superiority (racism!)  Non-Europeans were considered to be a “lesser race” because they had not achieved European scientific and technological progress.This was a reflection of Social Darwinism (humans/societies who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success) Thus, Europeans had a “obligation” to better these “lesser races”.

9 An example….don’t write this down I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race. … It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honorable race the world possesses. — Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, – Is Cecil Rhodes in favor of or opposed to imperialism, and what rationale (reason) does he give for his stance? 2 – What one idea does Rhodes think Great Britain should be focused on?

10 Motives behind Imperialism  2. Economic Competition—need for natural resources and new markets to feed the expanding Industrial Revolution Rubber, Ivory, lumber, etc. Forced Africans to grow cash crops; causes food shortages.  3. Missionary Spirit—a divine duty spread Christianity to those still practicing indigenous beliefs

11 Motives behind Imperialism  4. Nationalism- to gain power and prestige for their country, Europeans sought to acquire colonies.  Famous political cartoon of Cecil Rhodes.

12 Factors that made Imperialism successful  Steam engines on boats and trains allowed Europeans to travel throughout the continent.  Telegraph enabled colonizing Europeans to communicate with homeland  Use of quinine helped protect Europeans from malaria  Advanced weaponry ensured military dominance over Africans

13 Maxim Gun—first automatic machine gun

14  Diversity of cultures discouraged African unity  History of conflict between tribes  Europeans take advantage of this vulnerability Factors that made Imperialism successful

15 Berlin Conference ( )

16  To avoid wars between European countries over territory in Africa…  14 European countries meet to discuss rules for division.  Countries must publicly claim land and prove ability to control it (ex: military & infrasturcture in place)  No African ruler was invited  No attention was given to ethnic or linguistic divisions  Created indigenous tensions that would EXPLODE once the countries gained independence in the 20 th century.

17 Resistance to Imperialism  Despite Eur. advantages, Africans fight colonization  Zulu nation’s highly centralized state nearly defeats English army  Boer War ( )—Long established Dutch Farmers pushed out of South Africa by British. Later fight back in a bloody “total” war. Dutch lose.  Ethiopia successfully defeats Italy and remains free. They then gathered modern weapons to use in the future.

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19 Systems of Imperial Control  COLONY: A COUNTRY OR TERRITORY GOVERNED BY A FOREIGN POWER (EX: THE BRITISH IN INDIA)  SPHERE OF INFLUENCE: A REGION IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY WHERE ANOTHER NATION CLAIMS EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC RIGHTS (EX. = BRITISH IN AREAS OF CHINA)  ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM: A COUNTRY CONTROLLED BY A PRIVATE BUSINESS FOR ECONOMIC GAIN (EX: BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY)

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21 British Imperialism in India  Seeking spices and profit, England establishes trading posts in India in the 1600’s.  English government allows Br. East India Company to increase territory and govern the entire colony. Company army made up of sepoy soldiers (Indians) and led by British officers.  “Jewel of the Crown”—India is the most valuable of all colonies  serves crucial role as supplier of raw materials and new markets for British goods

22 Sepoy Mutiny  Indian soldiers rebel against the British  Cartridges of new rifles were greased with beef and pork fat. (ends must be bitten off to be used)  Muslims and Hindus refuse to use them  East India Co. handled situation badly, but still won.  Internal conflicts prevent Indian unity  British gov’t takes over rule in 1858 from E.I.C.  This is a turning point in Indian history

23 Legacy of British rule in India  Positive:  RAILROADS CONNECTED INDIA = MODERN ECONOMY AND UNITY  INFRASTRUCTURE: ROADS, DAMS, BRIDGES, IRRIGATION CANALS, TELEGRAPH LINES  SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS BUILT  MADE COUNTRY SAFER  Negative:  INDIA LOST POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC POWER  FAMINE : BRITISH PUSHED CASH CROPS OVER FOOD THAT FED INDIANS  RACISM: INDIANS TREATED LIKE 2 ND CLASS CITIZENS

24 China in Isolation  Since the Great Wall was built, China practiced a policy of isolationism (policy avoiding political and military involvement with other countries)  China was self-sufficient; they needed nothing from the outside world  Unable to trade traditional goods, the British introduced OPIUM (a highly addictive drug) to Chinese markets. By 1835, 12 million Chinese are addicted

25 Opium War (1839)  Chinese Emperor is concerned/angry that the addictions have harmed his subjects British ignore his claims, leading to war.  British win, leading to Treaty of Nanjing British gain island of Hong Kong Foreigners gain freedom from Chinese law in spheres of influence.

26 Taiping Rebellion 1850’s-1864  Chinese population growth exceeds food supply causing famine (leads to increase in opium addiction)  Hong Xiuquan begins a rebellion to bring prosperity and equality to all Chinese  Hong’s million-man rebel army controls SE China  Imperial, British, and French troops put down rebellion at great cost (20 million dead Chinese)

27 Foreign Influence  Empress Cixi rules and starts reforms  Foreign powers take advantage of mixed results of reforms and “strong-arm” China into accepting foreign trade advantages  Open Door Policy (1899): U.S. proposal that China be open to trading by all countries and would not be colonized  weakens idea of “spheres of influence”

28 Boxer Rebellion  Ordinary Chinese feel humiliated  Push for reforms which lead creation of secret society (Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists)  Erupts into wide-spread revolt against Empress and all foreigners (“Death to the foreign devils!”)  Multi-national force finally defeats rebels  Chinese nationalism surges after Boxer Rebellion and carries on into early 1900’s


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