2 Chapter 25 section 3: The Scramble for Africa In the late 1800s and early 1900s, European powers claimed land in much of Africa.What factors led to the new imperialism?How did European powers claim territory in Africa?How did Africans resist European imperialism?
3 New Imperialism = The Scramble for Africa The domination of European powers(and US and Japan) over subjectlands in the larger world byvarious methodsNew Imperialism = The Scramble for AfricaNot necessarily interested in colonizingEuropeans looked to govern large areas of non-European peopleMotivated by political interests, economic interests, cultural motives
7 The Scramble for Africa Economic interests= raw materials, slave labor, new marketsEntrepreneurs expect home countries to support these effortsPolitical interests= Reflected long time rivalry between France and Great Britain, and growing nationalism in EuropeCultural interest= Social Darwinism and “The White Man’s Burden”New Imperialism
8 Social Darwinism? Cecil Rhodes: “I content that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race… What an alteration there would be if they (Africans) were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence.”RACIST VIEW = People of European descent superior to people of African, Asian descent
13 “Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun and they have not.” - Hilaire BellocQuinine?
14 The French and British gain control of the Suez Canal 1876 British remained in Egypt until 1954
15 King Leopold I of Belgium Berlin ConferenceKing Leopold I of BelgiumBoer War
16 The Berlin Conference 1884-1885 Coordinated by German (von Bismarck), called for by Portugal14 European nations and the United States were involved: no Africans were invitedGenerally agreed to represent the formalization of the Scramble for AfricaOrganized in response to Stanley’s mapping of the Congo Basin and to King Leopold’sassertion that the Congo region would be a trade free zone.The General Act of the Berlin Conference proclaimed:1. The Free State of Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society andessentially the private property of King Leopold.(because of the terror regime established, it would eventually become a Belgian colony 1908).The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo Basin and the Niger andCongo Rivers were made free for ship traffic.3. An international prohibition of the slave trade was signed.4. Any European country could establish colonies as long as they told everyone, andoccupied previously unoccupied territories.
17 (Death toll estimates 3-15 million Africans) “The baskets of severed hands, set down at the feet of theEuropean post commanders, became the symbol of the Congo Free State. ...The collection of hands became an end in itself. Force Publique soldiers brought them to the stations in place of rubber; they even went out to harvest them instead of rubber... They became a sort of currency.They came to be used to make up for shortfalls in rubber quotas, to replace... the people who were demanded for the forced labor gangs; and the Force Publique soldiers were paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they collected.” - Belgian Commissioner(Death toll estimates 3-15 million Africans)African men were murdered, women were raped and murdered, if they did not fill their quota of rubber and ivory
19 World History Notebook Organization! Start Organizing!!3 ring binder with dividersDividers labeled as follows: (you already have geographyand Europe Chapters 15, 16 and 18)EuropeChapter 19 section 1 (The Scientific Revolution)Chapter 19 section 2 (The Enlightenment)Chapter 20 sections 1-4(The French Revolution and Napoleon)Chapter 21 (The Industrial Revolution)Latin AmericaChapter 7 sections 2 and 3Chapter 23 section 3Chapter 25 section 4Chapter 32 sections 1-3AfricaChapter 10 sections 1-3Chapter 25 section 3Chapter 31 sections 1 and 2DUEFRIDAYMARCH25th50 points:20 = proper organization20 = neatness, attention10 = completeAll MapsAll HomeworkAll Notes
20 The Scramble for Africa New ImperialismEuropean Nations in AfricaResistance to imperialismEconomic interests= raw materials, slave labor, new marketsEntrepreneurs expect home countries to support these effortsPolitical interests= Reflected long time rivalry between France and Great Britain, and growing nationalism in EuropeCultural interest= Social Darwinism and “The White Man’s Burden”Aided by advances in medicine, weapons, communication and transportationSuez Canal influenced Britain’s interests in EgyptBelgian king controlled Congo with brutal methodsBerlin Conference mediated European disputesBoer War fought over southern AfricaZulu fought the British (50 hyrs!)but ultimately failedEthiopians defeated the ItaliansMalinke people fought against French rule in West Africa but ultimately failedMaji Maji Rebellion was put down by the Germans in East Africa- tens of thousands of Africans were killed
22 1895 = Italians invaded Ethiopia over a treaty dispute Menelik II amassed 100,000 soldiers with modern technologyEthiopians easily defeated the ItaliansONLY example of an African nation that was able to remain independent after European attempt to colonize