before this meeting 80% of Africa was under local & traditional control… …after this meeting 90% of Africa was under European control.
The purpose was for European countries to have spheres of influence over areas To gain their raw materials for industry As a status symbol Clashes between Germany and France over Morocco, between Britain and France over Sudan Tension from this colonial system led to WWI, which is why Wilson’s 14 Points included a part about adjusting colonies to take care of the people inside them
Another name for imperialism/colonialism? Victorious nations would “administer” (rule?) old colonies See LoN document—answer: 1. According to Source A, why was the mandate system established? 2. In what ways could it be argued that Article 22 still allowed the victorious powers to increase their influence and power? 3. What other name does Source A give to the victorious powers?
Category A: most developed; Turkish colonies (Syria-France, Iraq-Britain, Palestine-Britain); should be administered for a short period Category B: former Germany colonies in Africa; need more time and supervision before independence Category C: Pacific colonies; pretty much stayed colonies
No real authority to watch over the mandates Mandatory powers (Britain, France, etc) were supposed to send an annual report When there was unrest in a mandate country, the LoN set up a committee to check it out, and did a pretty good job of it
The former Ottoman territories were turned into mandates: Syria to France (never able to control it very well— remember Faisal had a stint as ruler, then left) Iraq to Britain (brought in Faisal eventually to rule) Transjordan to Britain Palestine to Britain Series of bad/contradictory promises led to tension between Jews and Palestinian Arabs
Britain gained Eastern territories of Africa from Germany France ended up with most of West Africa ^ Supports the idea that the mandate system was just imperialism But, the African mandates (and former colonies) did all gain independence (1950s & 1960s) Bigger but, the mandate system did not reduce the gap between the “advanced” people and the “backward” people, so the aim of establishing racial equality failed.
Choose an African mandate during the inter-war years. Decide if the mandate system helped or hindered its development.