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Central Dogma of Biology DNA  mRNA  protein DNA TRANSCRIBES to mRNA What does transcribe mean??? To COPY Process is called transcription Copy the message.

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Presentation on theme: "Central Dogma of Biology DNA  mRNA  protein DNA TRANSCRIBES to mRNA What does transcribe mean??? To COPY Process is called transcription Copy the message."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Central Dogma of Biology DNA  mRNA  protein DNA TRANSCRIBES to mRNA What does transcribe mean??? To COPY Process is called transcription Copy the message from DNA mRNA TRANSLATES to proteins To go from the language of “nucleic acids” to the language of “proteins” we need to TRANSLATE the message Process is called translation mRNA actually makes amino acids, which come together to make proteins

3 DNA Transcribes mRNA Translates Polypeptide chain (1* structure aka sequence of amino acids) 2* Structure (aplha helix and beta pleated sheet) 3* Tertiary Structure (protein gains 3D shape…now it has a function) 4* Structure (if needed…2 or more polypeptide chains come together to make a mega protein)

4 Monomer: Nucleotide Structure of a Nucleotide Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids) Contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and nitrogen Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) FUNCTION: Store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information…makes PROTEINS that do everything! Nucleic Acids

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9 DNA vs. RNA: What’s The Difference??? DNA genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms Instructions to make RNA and proteins long-term storage of information NITROGENOUS BASES: Pyrimidines: cytosine and thyminecytosine thymine Purines: guanine and adenineguanine adenine A binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNA RNA messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes essential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesis Three types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA NITROGENOUS BASES: Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracilcytosine Purines: guanine and adenineguanineadenine A binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA

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12 mRNA to Polypeptide Chain Every 3 bases on mRNA= a CODON CODON Three sequential nitrogenous bases on mRNA that code for a specific Amino acid that a tRNA (transfer RNA) molecule will bring over to the ribosome Ribosome slowly starts forming PEPTIDE bonds between the amino acids that each tRNA shuttles over until we finally have a long POLYPEPTIDE chain that is twisted and folded and eventually gets a 3-D shape.

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14 tRNA is kinda like an amino acid “Limo service” he brings over the SPECIFIC Amino Acids mRNA requests mRNA is patiently waiting at the Ribosome mRNA puts this AA in the right order for their final presentation as a POLYPEPTIDE Chain Who told mRNA what order to put the AA in? The director DNA!!!

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18 Building Macromolecules Create the following macromolecules and/or linkages with the supplies provided Glucose Triglyceride Phospholipid Amino Acid The following must be done with a partner: Ester linkage Glycosidic linkage Peptide bond In your lab note book: Copy the key showing what each material symbolizes Name the molecule Sketch your model and explain its function in your lab notebooks

19 Macromolecule Legend Green = CARBON atom Yellow = OXYGEN atom White = HYDROGEN atom Pink = NITROGEN atom Orange = SULFUR atom One tooth pick= SINGLE COVALENT BOND Two toothpicks= DOUBLE COVALENT BOND ******Do NOT use whole toothpicks for bonds, break them in half!!!!

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