2 Central Dogma of Biology DNAmRNAproteinDNA TRANSCRIBES to mRNAWhat does transcribe mean???To COPYProcess is called transcriptionCopy the message from DNAmRNA TRANSLATES to proteinsTo go from the language of “nucleic acids” to the language of “proteins” we need to TRANSLATE the messageProcess is called translationmRNA actually makes amino acids, which come together to make proteins
3 Polypeptide chain (1* structure aka sequence of amino acids) DNAmRNAPolypeptide chain (1* structure aka sequence of amino acids)2* Structure (aplha helix and beta pleated sheet)3* Tertiary Structure (protein gains 3D shape…now it has a function)4* Structure (if needed…2 or more polypeptide chains come together to make a mega protein)
4 Central Dogma Of Biology Monomer: NucleotideStructure of a NucleotideMade of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous basePolymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)Contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and nitrogenDeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)FUNCTION: Store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information…makes PROTEINS that do everything!Nucleic AcidsCentral Dogma Of BiologyDNA RNAProtein
9 DNA vs. RNA: What’s The Difference??? genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organismsInstructions to make RNA and proteinslong-term storage of informationNITROGENOUS BASES:Pyrimidines: cytosine and thyminePurines: guanine and adenineA binds to T and G binds to C in the polymer DNARNAmessenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomesessential carrier molecule for amino acids to be used in protein synthesisThree types: mRNA, tRNA, rRNANITROGENOUS BASES:Pyrimidines: cytosine and uracilPurines: guanine and adenineA binds to U and G binds to C in the polymer RNA
12 mRNA to Polypeptide Chain Every 3 bases on mRNA= a CODONCODONThree sequential nitrogenous bases on mRNA that code for a specific Amino acid that a tRNA (transfer RNA) molecule will bring over to the ribosomeRibosome slowly starts forming PEPTIDE bonds between the amino acids that each tRNA shuttles over until we finally have a long POLYPEPTIDE chain that is twisted and folded and eventually gets a 3-D shape.
14 Protein Synthesis is like a Pagent tRNA is kinda like an amino acid “Limo service”he brings over the SPECIFIC Amino Acids mRNA requestsmRNA is patiently waiting at the RibosomemRNA puts this AA in the right order for their final presentation as a POLYPEPTIDE ChainWho told mRNA what order to put the AA in?The director DNA!!!
18 Building Macromolecules Create the following macromolecules and/or linkages with the supplies providedGlucoseTriglyceridePhospholipidAmino AcidThe following must be done with a partner:Ester linkageGlycosidic linkagePeptide bondIn your lab note book:Copy the key showing what each material symbolizesName the moleculeSketch your model and explain its function in your lab notebooks
19 ******Do NOT use whole toothpicks for bonds, break them in half!!!! Macromolecule LegendGreen= CARBON atomYellow= OXYGEN atomWhite= HYDROGEN atomPink= NITROGEN atomOrange= SULFUR atomOne tooth pick= SINGLE COVALENT BONDTwo toothpicks= DOUBLE COVALENT BOND******Do NOT use whole toothpicks for bonds, break them in half!!!!