Presentation on theme: "Effects of Decolonization"— Presentation transcript:
1Effects of Decolonization Lasting Legacy of Imperialism
2Factors that Impacted the Economic and Political Success of Newly Liberated Nations: Did the nation fight to become free?How enlightened had the colonizing power been? Had it educated a native elite, leaving behind politicians, economists, and trained personnel with practical skills?Were there serious ethnic, cultural, or religious divisions?Did a country have natural resources to exploit? Did the government exploit them efficiently or were they unable to diversify its economy?Did a newly liberated country take sides in the Cold War, i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union? Superpowers often intervened in the affairs of decolonized nations.
3Left Side ActivityPairs: Look at the following political cartoon on Modern Africa.What is the message of the political cartoon?How can you tell?What problems are identified?How do you think they are tied in to imperialism?
5Overview of Why Modern African Nations Facing So Many Problems: Unityinherited borders drawn up by imperial powers, split ethnic groups and tribesFinding Professionalsbefore independence Europeans dominated professionsfew Africans had training as educators, doctors, scientists, engineers, etc…Maintaining Government:When independence came, Africans had little experience running a government
7Economic ChallengesAfter achieving independence, many African nations faced economic challenges that came with their new status.After independence most African nations’ economies fragileDepended on only one, two exports for supportStruggling EconomiesAfrican nations not industrialized, depended on farming, mining raw materialsExample: Ghana depended on cocoa; Nigeria, oilFarming, MiningFor loans, turned to international organizations, like World Bank; bad planning, corrupt leaders left nations with huge debts, no infrastructureDevelopment Loans
8Economic Problems Structural Legacies --Economies based on raw material exports--Aid/dependency--Migrant labor/labor compounds--Tension between “tradition” and “modernity”
9Economic ProblemsDuring imperialism European nations set up export type economies.Economies depended on the export of raw materials.Cash Crops Raw materials
10Economic ProblemsMany African nations still relied on these export goods.ProblemWhen no demand/prices fall/countries become poor.
11Economic ProblemsAfrican nations relied on buying manufactured goods and had no industrial base.
12Economic Problems Economic Policies Failed socialist economy Cash crops instead of food cropsLack of funding for rural areas.
13Economic ProblemsAfrican nations have to import manufactured goods and incurred a large debt.
14Economic Problems Economic Dependence Need for foreign aid Need for imported goodsHigh debt
16Origins of African Debt For some countries (Ghana, for example), debt began with ambitious development projects in the 1960sIn most cases, however, serious indebtedness began in the early 1970sOil crisis dramatically increased the price of importsWorldwide recession decreased the willingness of the US and former colonial powers to distribute aid in grants
17Origins of African Debt World prices for exports (especially agricultural exports) fellThe public sector grew, especially with increased bureaucracy (in Ghana, for example, by 150 percent between 1957 and 1979)Between 1970 and 1976, Africa’s public debt quadrupled
18State Contraction in the 1980s: Trying to Pay Off Debt Debt servicing began to take a substantial portion of many countries’ GDPsAmbitious development plans were largely scrappedGovernments tended to focus on maintaining power and preserving order
19Structural Adjustment: Trying to Pay Off Debt Implemented by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank beginning in roughly 1981Required substantial cuts in state servicesTended to promote industrialization as a path to economic growthOften involved the devaluation of currency
20Debt, Structural Adjustment and Legitimacy The demands of debt and structural adjustment often rendered governments less able to supply the needs of their people and less able to claim grassroots legitimacyDebt seen as attached to a country, not to a particular government—transferred even when a government was deemed illegitimate
21International Aid to Help African Debt Since the 1970s, the general trend has been a decrease in aid to Africa—monetary aid fell by almost half in the 1990sA large proportion of what is counted as aid by donor countries is known “phantom aid”—for example, some 50% of all technical assistance is said to be wasted because of inappropriate usage on expensive consultants, their living expenses, and trainingAid frequently carries restrictions with regard to its use
22Aid Donors to AfricaMost donor countries use aid as part of a broader foreign policy focused on “national interests”The US has directed aid to regions where it has concerns related to its national security, e.g. Middle EastSweden has targeted aid to “progressive societies”France has sought to promote maintenance or preserve and spread of French culture, language, and influence, especially in West Africa, while disproportionately giving aid to those that have extensive commercial ties with France
24African Trade Imbalance Many aid packages require receiving countries to purchase goods from the donor country, often in a way that disadvantages the economy of the recipientReports have suggested that aid tied with conditions cut the value of aid to recipient countries by some percent, because it obliges them to purchase imports from the richer nations at uncompetitive pricesAs of 2000, over two-thirds of United States aid was tied to requirements to purchase goods and services from the USAid generally fails to increase the export side of receiving countries’ economies
26Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa The Combined Gross Domestic Product for all of Sub-Saharan Africa in 2000 was US$ Billion—less than the GDP for the Netherlands (and considerably smaller than the GDP for the state of California)Between 1990 and 2000 GNP per capita declined .7 per cent in Sub-Saharan AfricaHowever, since 2000 a number of African countries have experienced a annual growth rate of around 5%Nearly 40% of Africa’s GNP is from agriculture, less than 15% from manufacturing: lowest of any region in the world.Africa counts for less than 2% of global tradeIn 1960 average service debt of an African country was 2% of exports; in % of exports
27Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on $1 or less a day)World Region199019992015#*%#S-S Afr241473154940446L. Amer4811577.5S. Asia506454883726416M East & N Afr5268
28Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on $2 or less a day)World Region199019992015#*%#S-S Afr386764807561870L. Amer121281322611719S. Asia101090112885113968M East & N Afr5021236216
29Economic Realities: Congo Mineral Rich: Copper, Cobalt, Coltan, Diamonds, TinAgriculture: wide variety of food and cash crops including coffee, tea, rubber and commercial lumber.Industry: very little manufacturing, mineral processingYet: GDP per Capita is $88 compared to an average of $541 in Sub-Saharan Africa; Per Capita Income $110 per capita compared to $600 for Sub-Saharan Africa
30Economic Problems in Africa Population and PovertyPopulation explosionWidespread hunger
34Political Problems in Africa Power hungry and greedy leadersMilitary takeoversHarsh dictatorsEthnic and regional conflict.
35Military Dictatorships End of 1960s, nearly all newly independent African nations adopted one-party systemSingle political party controls governmentElections rarely competitiveOpposition parties outlawed in many countriesDictators ruled many nations, maintained power through patronage, giving loyal followers well-paid positions in governmentOne–Party SystemSome corrupt officials required bribes for government contracts, licensesAlso ran government enterprises for personal profitNew generation of dictators robbed countries of wealthMobutu Sese Seko, dictator of Congo, amassed personal fortune of about $5 billion, while his people fell into povertyBribery and Corruption
37Democracy for Some Elections Results Despite conflicts, war throughout late 1900s, many African countries still dictatorshipsCold War: U.S., Soviets gave large amounts of money to dictators friendly to their sideCold War ended, money dried up; weakened some dictators’ governmentsMany Africans saw weakness as opportunity to create democratic governments, demanded electionsBy 2005, more than 30 African countries had abandoned one-party systems, held electionsElectionsElection results mixedSome former dictators resorted to fraud, intimidation to win electionsOthers elected because people preferred them to alternativesResults
42Results for Africa of aid from U.S. and the West during the Cold War US gave at least $1.5 bill weapons to Africa during Cold War ( )- incl $400 mill to dictator Mobutu in Congo$250 mill to Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA movement AngolaHalf the US aid went to governments with known human rights abuses including Congo, Rwanda, Uganda atrocities (perhaps 3 million)
43Militarization Across Africa Portuguese soldiers planting and unearthing land mines in Angola, 1970s
44Militarization Across Africa: Curse of landmines Angola: more than 70,000 amputees and more than 16,000 killed.Estimates of total number of land mines = millionAngola is the one most heavily impacted by 1-2 land mines per personWhatever you want to do, whether it's plant a field or rehabilitate a school or open a road, you've first got to clear away the mines. The threat of mines has paralyzed the countryMore than 70 types of mines - manufactured in at least 22 countries - have been planted in Angola during recent decades.Mines were installed by the government military, the South Africans, the Cubans, the Russians, UNITA, the police, by neighboring governments, and several other Angolan armed groups.The numbers of mine layers makes demining - which includes understanding the strategy and patterns of mine laying - even more complicated.Mine clearance experts say only the Cubans made accurate maps of their mine fields.Tens of thousands of one-legged Angolans hobbling around their country on crutches provide graphic evidence that most of the mines laid here are small anti-personnel mines designed to maim rather than kill.Yet the explosives are often targeted at civilians, most often women and children, rather than soldiers.Planted near water sources and under shade trees in the savannah, they are designed to terrorize, often with the goal of depopulating the countryside.
45Militarization in Africa—The Cost An average of $22 billion is being spent each year by the nations of Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America on arms.If this were redirected, it would be enough to reach the UN targets of Universal Primary EducationAnd reducing infant and maternal mortality.And Meeting all of the Millennium Development Goals
46Militarization of Africa –Arms Sales Out of Control The U.S., France, Russia, China and the UK together account for 88% of all the world’s conventional arms exports.There are 639 MILLION small arms and light weapons in the worldToday, eight million more are produced every year.From , the USA, UK, and France earned more income from arms sales to developing countries than they gave in all kinds of emergency, disaster, and economic assistance aid.
53Ethnic Conflicts and Civil War When the European powers divided Africa into colonies, preexisting political units were not maintained.After independence, rival ethnic groups competed for control, some by destructive civil wars1967, Igbo-speaking group of eastern Nigeria proclaimed independent state of BiafraBloody civil war erupted; 2 million died from fighting, another 2 million from starvationEthnic Conflicts1992, civil war, drought led to suffering in SomaliaHundreds of thousands of Somalis died when warring militias stole food sent from international relief agencies1990s, tensions between Hutu, Tutsi erupted in violence1994, 1 million Tutsi, moderate Hutus massacred in Hutu-led government genocideCivil Wars
54Example: Nigeria In Nigeria this tribalism lead to a civil war. More than 200 ethnic groups live within Nigeria.During independence many of these tribes fought for control of the country.
55Example: Nigeria The two main groups fighting for control were the Muslim Hausa and Fulani people of the northVs.Christian Ibo and Yoruba of the southIn ,000 Ibo were massacred by the Hausa controlled government.In a several year period about 1 million people had been killed or starved to death.Military leaders took control in the 70’s and 80’sIn 1999 Nigeria elected a civilian government.
65The Rwandan Genocide 100 Days of Slaughter April 6, 1994-July 18, 1994 Source: David Simon, The Teaching of Africa, PIER, Yale University , July 11, 2005
66Genocide in Rwanda Rwanda Belgium grants independence in 1962 Hutus are resentful of Tutsi rule and take over government
67Genocide in Rwanda Tutsi refugees form Rwandan Patriotic Front 1994: Hutus slaughter close to a million TutsisRPF fights back and takes over government
68Classification (Rwanda) Belgian colonialists believed Tutsis were a naturally superior nobility, descended from the Israelite tribe of Ham. The Rwandan royalty was Tutsi.Belgians distinguished between Hutus and Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type. Another indicator to distinguish Hutu farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the number of cattle owned.
69Stage 2: Symbolization (Rwanda) “Ethnicity” was first noted on cards by Belgian Colonial Authorities in 1933.Tutsis were given access to limited education programs and Catholic priesthood. Hutus were given less assistance by colonial authorities.At independence, these preferences were reversed. Hutus were favored.These ID cards were later used to distinguish Tutsis from Hutus in the 1994 massacres of Tutsis and moderate Hutus that resulted in 800,000+ deaths.
70Stage 3: Dehumanization One group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the victim group seem subhuman.Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.Der Stürmer Nazi Newspaper:“The Blood Flows; The Jew Grins”Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda: “The Solution for Tutsi Cockroaches”.
71DehumanizationHate propaganda in speeches, print and on hate radios vilify the victim group.Members of the victim group are described as animals, vermin, and diseases.Hate radio, Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, broadcast anti-Tutsi messages like “kill the cockroaches” and “If this disease is not treated immediately, it will destroy all the Hutu.”Dehumanization invokes superiority of one group and inferiority of the “other.”Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it “ethnic cleansing,” or “purification.”Such euphemisms hide the horror of mass murder.
72Organization (Rwanda) “Hutu Power” elites armed youth militias called Interahamwe ("Those Who Stand Together”).The government and Hutu Power businessmen provided the militias with over 500,000 machetes and other arms and set up camps to train them to “protect their villages” by exterminating every Tutsi.
73Extermination (Genocide) Government organized extermination of Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994
74The KillingsKilled in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagersMilitia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes, although some army units used riflesThe victims were often hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu gangs massacred themOrdinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors and those who refused to kill were often killed themselvesEveryone killed so they weren’t killed themselves:MayorsPriestsEVERYONE
75Rwanda 1994“Hutu Mobs armed with machetes and other weapons killed roughly 8,000 Tutsis a day during a three-month campaign of terror. Powerful nations stood by as the slaughter surged on despite pleas from Rwandan and UN observers” National Geographic 2006.
77Genocide in Rwanda April-July 1994 Many Tutsis ran to churches and missions to hide, thinking that they would be protected there. These became the sites of some of the worst massacres because they were trapped.In many local villages, Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors or risk death for themselves and their families.They also forced Tutsis to kill their own families.By mid-May, over 500,000 Tutsis had been murdered. The UN, under media pressure, agreed to send up to 5,000 troops to Rwanda, but never sent them in time to stop the massacre.The butchering did not stop until July of 1994 when 200,000 Tutsis from neighboring countries invaded and attacked Hutu forces, stopping the genocide.The total death toll ended at 800,000 people.
78Number Killed Unlike Nazis they didn’t keep record The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of which were Hutu (determined in February 2008)Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one millionUnited Nations lists the toll as 800,000African Rights estimates the number as "around 750,000,"Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500,000
90DiseaseAfrican nations also challenged by management of deadly diseasesMalaria continues to be one of most common causes of death today1980s, new disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) spread rapidly throughout AfricaAIDSHIV virus that causes AIDS weakens body’s immune system, results in deathSocial costs in sub-Saharan Africa staggering; millions of orphaned children because parents died from AIDSOnly small percentage of infected Africans receiving AIDS treatment
9270% of the world’s estimated 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS are located in Sub-Saharan Africa.
93Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of the world’s HIV infected children.
94Of 30 children born in sub-Saharan Africa- 10 will acquire the virus simply by being born- 4 will be infected from breast feeding .
95Most of these children will not live to see their 5th birthdays.
96Health Realities of Contemporary Africa The Scourge of HIV-AIDSHIV-AIDS: Out of approximately 40 million HIV-AIDS victims in the world 29.4 victims reside in Sub-Saharan African countries.Nearly three million children under the age of 15 are HIV positiveFour countries in southern Africa have HIV infection rates of 25% or higher of adult populationIn the last decade 12 million people died of AIDS in AfricaLife expectancy in southern Africa increased throughout the region to nearly 60 years of age in 1990 (from 44 years in 1950); life expectancy expected to drop to years of age by 2005.Rays of hope: decline in infection rate in a number of countries, stabilization in South Africa; reduction in the price of anti-retrovirals.
97AIDS in AfricaData suggests AIDS began in Africa in the late 1970s, spreading south from equatorial areas over the 1980sSouthern Africa has been hit particularly hard by the AIDS epidemic—Botswana has approx. 38% of the adult population infectedUganda is often cited as a model for the control of AIDS—percentage of the population infected has dropped to 5% from a high of 14%
98History of AIDS in Africa Between 1999 and 2000 more people died of AIDS in Africa than in all the wars on the continent.The year 2000 began with 24 million Africans infected with the virus.Each day, 6,000 Africans die from AIDS.Each day, an additional 11,000 are infected.
99History of AIDS in Afirca 32.8 million living with HIV2.5 million new infections of HIV2 million deaths from AIDSOver two-thirds of HIV cases, and some 80% of deaths, were in Sub-Saharan Africa.
103AIDS and Government Stability Describe the impact of government stability on the distribution of resources to combat AIDS and famine across Africa.In highly affected regions, HIV/AIDS also places huge strains on state institutions and the economy.AIDS most frequently strikes at the most productive members of society, those years old.Their deaths have left Africa with over 11 million orphansNumber of deaths and infection rate to increase over the next 10 yearsTherefore, the acute impact of the AIDS pandemic may result in the widespread economic and political destabilization of societies, states, and entire regions.
104Impact of AIDSPoor health care systems, poverty, and lack of government organizationLack of knowledge about the disease and its preventionAntiretroviral drugs that are able to slow down the progress of the disease are expensive
10712 million African children have been orphaned due to the AIDS virus.
10817 million Africans have already died since the epidemic began in the late 1970’s.
109Within 10 years the average life expectancy in 11 countries in Africa will drop below 40 as HIV/AIDS continues to shorten life spans.
110The Paradox of Botswana: Stable Government and Economy, but AIDS Rampant Botswana has maintained a stable, democratic government since 1965The country’s diamond resources and strong beef industry have produced a middle-class standard of living for many residentsEven as Botswana thrives, however, it has the second highest rate of HIV infection in Africa (after Swaziland)—over 1/3 of people between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected
111AIDS and Famine Describe the impact of government stability on the distribution of resources to combat AIDS and famine across Africa.If people are sick, what happens?Aids kills young adults, especially women - the people whose labor is most needed. When the rains come, people must work 16 hours a day planting and weeding the crop. If that critical period is missed, the family will go hungry. In a community depleted by Aids, each working adult must produce more to feed the same number of dependents - not just children but sick adults, too.Just as HIV destroys the body's immune system, the epidemic of HIV and Aids has disabled African countries.As a result of HIV, the worst-hit African countries have undergone a social breakdown that is now reaching a new level: African societies' capacity to resist famine is fast eroding.Hunger and disease have begun reinforcing each other.
112Health Realities of Contemporary Africa Diseases of Poverty:Malaria kills over 1 million people in Africa each year with an estimated cost to African economies of over $2 billionSleeping Sickness (trypanosomasis) threat to 60 million, infects 300,000 each yearRiver Blindness (onchocerciasis) 17.5 million in Africa (99%) of world totalBiharziasis impacts estimated 80 million in Africa
113Malaria has not received adequate attention and is a major cause of death of children
114Effects: Social Issues Affecting Women, Children, Urbanization, and Education
115Social Realities of Contemporary Africa Severe Social Dislocation:Male (productive age) labor migration: short term and long termUrbanization:unplanned, minimal social services (health, education, housing, sanitation)Gender/family relations:change in social relations of production and reproduction (male migration, “male cash crops,”)absence of fathers/husbands;rural poverty (women & children most severely impacted);survival strategies (prostitution, beer-making).
116Additional Social Problems Facing Independent Africa Treatment of women: In African’s more developed countries and especially in cities, women have attained a certain degree of economic and social equality.However, progress has been slow and women are still dominated by men, especially in rural areas.
117Education Realities of Contemporary Africa Colonial Heritage:Education for a very few (at independence, no colony had more than 60% of the elementary school age population in school, most less than 30%; even lower for high school and tertiary educationPortuguese had most restrictive educational program. In rural Mozambique less than 20% of school age cohort had full seven years of elementary education at independence in 1975At independence in 1960 the D.R. Congo had an extensive primary school system (70% enrollment) but less than 10% went to secondary school and only 50 university graduates!French followed policy of “assimilation”—targeted 10-20% of population with relatively good education system, but vast majority little or no schooling.British generally most “progressive” but great differences between “protectorates” (Nigeria, Ghana) where in-direct rule was practiced, and settler colonies (Rhodesias, Kenya) where educational expenditure was very limited.Curriculum heavily biased to humanities—limited opportunities in science, math, technology
118Education Realities of Contemporary Africa Education: Post-Independence Example of Zimbabwe:1980: 60% of primary school age cohort in school, less than 40% finished primary education1995: 100% of primary school age cohort in school, over 90% finished seven years of primary school1980: only 64,000 students in secondary school; 1995 over 800,000 in secondary schoolNegative Impact of ESAP conditionalities on education
124Causes of FamineMany farmers say that rains have become less reliable in recent years, which could be the result of global warming.The Sahara Desert is certainly expanding to the south, making life increasingly difficult for farmers and pastoralists in places like Niger.Also, rising populations have led people to farm on increasingly marginal land, even more at risk from even a slight decline in rainfall.Southern Africa has the world's highest rates of HIV/Aids and this is a major factor in that region's food crisis.Some of those who should be the most productive farmers - young men and women - are either sick or have died, so their fields are being left untended, while their children go hungry.
125Causes of FamineIt is particularly striking that the FAO highlights political problems such as civil strife, refugee movements and returnees in 15 of the 27 countries it declares in need of urgent assistance.By comparison drought is only cited in 12 out of 27 countries.The implication is clear - Africa's years of wars, coups and civil strife are responsible for more hunger than the natural problems that befall it.
126In essence Africa's hunger is the product of a series of interrelated factors. Africa is a vast continent, and no one factor can be applied to any particular country.But four issues are critical:Decades of underinvestment in rural areas, which have little political cloutWars and political conflict, leading to refugees and instability.HIV/Aids depriving families of their most productive labour.Unchecked population growth
127Famine in AfricaFamine occurs when a region does not have enough food for a long period of time.People who are starving can die from malnutrition.Famines are both human-made and natural.Drought, or lack of rain, makes food scarce because crops die.
128Famine in AfricaHuman forces, like wars, can also cause food shortages.People in a region can be without food because its cost is too high.All of these factors have led to famines in Africa.
129Famine in AfricaFamines in Africa today are the result of poor food distribution and poverty.There is enough food on Earth for everyone to eat well.However, many people live where they cannot grow food.People also live where food cannot be easily transported.
131Poverty and FaminePoverty is at the heart of Africa's problems. This is an overview of some of the economic challenges facing the continent.Most of Sub-Saharan Africa is in the World Bank's lowest income category of less than $765 Gross National Income (GNI) per person per year.Ethiopia and Burundi are the worst off with just $90 GNI per person.Even middle income countries like Gabon and Botswana have sizeable sections of the population living in poverty.North Africa generally fares better than Sub-Saharan Africa.Here, the economies are more stable, trade and tourism are relatively high and AIDS is less prevalent.Development campaigners have argued that the rules on debt, aid and trade need reforming to help lift more African nations out of poverty.
132The basic problem is poverty. Poverty and FamineThe basic problem is poverty.Most Africans live in rural areas, where many are subsistence farmers, dependent on a good harvest to get enough food to eat.There are hardly any irrigation systems, so people rely on the rains.If one rainy season fails, people have very few savings - in either food or cash - to see them through.Even in good years, there is a "hungry season", when last year's harvests have run out and the next crops are not yet ripe.While people were starving in parts of Niger last year, shops in the capital, Niamey, were full of food but many could not afford to buy it.In both the Horn of Africa and Niger, some of the most vulnerable were pastoralists, whose animals quickly succumbed when there was nothing left to graze.When the animals die, their owners have no other way of getting enough food to eat.Some say that the pastoralist lifestyle is no longer sustainable.
134Debt and FamineThe Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative (HIPC) was set up in 1996 to reduce the debt of the poorest countries.Poor countries are eligible for the scheme if they face unsustainable debt that cannot be reduced by traditional methods.They also have to agree to follow certain policies of good governance as defined by the World Bank and the IMF.Once these are established the country is at "decision point" and the amount of debt relief is established.Critics of the scheme say the parameters are too strict and more countries should be eligible for HIPC debt relief.This map shows how much "decision point" HIPC countries spend on repaying debts and interest.Fourteen African HIPC countries will have their debts totally written off under a new plan drawn up by the G8 finance ministers (2005).
136Reliance on Aid and Famine Africa receives about a third of the total aid given by governments around the world, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Much of this has conditions attached, meaning governments must implement certain policies to receive the aid or must spend the money on goods and services from the donor country.The World Bank, which is reviewing its conditionality policies, argues that aid is far more effective, and less vulnerable to corruption, when coupled with improved governance.There was a sharp drop in rich countries' relative spending on aid in the late 1990s.The Make Poverty History campaign urged the G8 to raise an extra $50bn more in aid per year and to enforce earlier pledges for developed countries to give 0.7% of their annual GDP in aid.
137Famine in AfricaTens of millions of people across more than half the states in sub-Saharan Africa need urgent food aid, but the causes are often complex and varied.Food crises were once primarily triggered by natural disasters like droughts.But according to research by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, man-made causes are increasingly to blame.These include conflict and poor governance, as well as HIV/Aids.Rural poverty, international trade barriers, overpopulation, deforestation, poor use of land and environmental problems can also be factors.
138Famine in Africa Many famines have taken place in the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa is a large peninsula in the northeast region of the continent.Famines in this region include the Ethiopian Famine of the mid-1980s, which is estimated to have killed over a million people.This famine was made worse by high food prices and overpopulation,
141Famine in AfricaOn the continent, the risk of famine is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.Today, Niger, southern Sudan, Somalia, and Zimbabwe are areas with emergency famine status.Africa’s greatest humanitarian crisis is in Darfur, in western Sudan.A humanitarian crisis is one in which many human lives are at risk in a region.
142Africa's Permanent Food Crisis More than 30 million people are going hungry across Africa from the west, to the horn and the south, says the UN's World Food Programme.Poor rains have contributed to the problem but the root causes are many and complex.
143Which countries are worst affected? At the moment, the Horn of Africa is worst hit, especially Somalia, north-eastern Kenyan and Ethiopia.Some 11 million people need food aid in the region after poor rains, the WFP says.About half of these are on the brink of starvation and need urgent help.In West Africa, the WFP plans to help about 10 million people. Last year's rains and harvests were not too bad but aid workers say that endemic poverty and conflict mean lots of people still need help.Aid workers do not want to repeat the mistakes made in Niger last year (2005), when little was done to help the hungry until television pictures of starving children shocked the world.Further south, about 12 million need food aid in countries such as Malawi and Zimbabwe, says the WFP.
158ETHIOPIA NIGER Estimated population: 77.43m Projected number needing food aid: 1.7mKey underlying reasons:DroughtRefugeesHigh food pricesOverpopulationEstimated population: 13.95mProjected number needing food aid: 3mKey underlying reasons:After-effects of 2004 drought and locusts
159DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO SUDANDEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGOEstimated population: 36.23mProjected number needing food aid: 6.1mKey underlying reasons:Conflict in western Darfur region has displaced 2m peopleSouth recovering from long-running civil warDrought in partsWhere farming is taking place, it is on a very small scale with most people cultivating with a simple hand tool called a 'maloda'.Estimated population: 57.54mProjected number needing food aid: 3mKey underlying reasons:ConflictRefugeesWar, malnutrition and disease have killed at least 3.8m people in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the last seven years.
160Ethiopia Difficult Environment: Deep Canyons Isolated Villages Crops Depend on Erratic RainfallProlonged Drought Famine
161Nutritional problems of children in Ethiopia Ethiopia is one of the most food insecure countries in the world having both chronic and transitory food insecurity and frequent attacks of famine in the recent pastFood insecurity incorporates- low food intake , variable access to food, and vulnerabilityFood insecurity is mostly associated with drought, poor land management practices, diseases, attack by pests, destruction of crops by flood, etc..
162Current estimated food security conditions: January to March 2009 Source: FEWS NET and WFP Ethiopia
163Nutritional problems …. Nutritional problems continue to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childrenManifest byProtein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM)Micronutrient malnutritionVitamin A deficiency ( VAD )Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDDS)Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA)
164Nutritional problems …. The plight usually starts during intrauterine life with maternal malnutrition(during and prior to pregnancy)Continues to childhood with the same condition(Feeding, Health Care, Environment)
165«Hidden» death due to malnutrition in Ethiopia SevereMild &Moderate80% of the death due to malnutrition is contributed for by Mild and Moderate MalnutritionOnly 1 in 5 malnutrition-related deaths is due to severe malnutrition
166Malnutrition and intellectual development Reduced:Learning abilitySchool performanceRetention rates
169More Problems in African Nations Living Standardsmost in poverty, lack capital for developmentForeign investors deterred by political instabilityAfrican UnityHaile Selassie believed that the differences (linguistic, racial, economic, and political) too vast and recommended a loose organization of nationsOAU (Organization of African Unity)
170Goals of OAU: African Unity Loose ConfederationHeads of state meet once a yearCouncil meets every 6 monthsCommission of Mediation and Conciliation to settle inter-African disputesAfrican CooperationForeign policy, defense, economics, educationLiberation of all African territories still under foreign ruleWorked to end white rule in S. Africa