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Effects of Decolonization

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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Decolonization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effects of Decolonization
Lasting Legacy of Imperialism

2 Factors that Impacted the Economic and Political Success of Newly Liberated Nations:
Did the nation fight to become free? How enlightened had the colonizing power been? Had it educated a native elite, leaving behind politicians, economists, and trained personnel with practical skills? Were there serious ethnic, cultural, or religious divisions? Did a country have natural resources to exploit? Did the government exploit them efficiently or were they unable to diversify its economy? Did a newly liberated country take sides in the Cold War, i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union? Superpowers often intervened in the affairs of decolonized nations.

3 Left Side Activity Pairs: Look at the following political cartoon on Modern Africa. What is the message of the political cartoon? How can you tell? What problems are identified? How do you think they are tied in to imperialism?


5 Overview of Why Modern African Nations Facing So Many Problems:
Unity inherited borders drawn up by imperial powers, split ethnic groups and tribes Finding Professionals before independence Europeans dominated professions few Africans had training as educators, doctors, scientists, engineers, etc… Maintaining Government: When independence came, Africans had little experience running a government

6 Economic Problems Facing Modern Africa

7 Economic Challenges After achieving independence, many African nations faced economic challenges that came with their new status. After independence most African nations’ economies fragile Depended on only one, two exports for support Struggling Economies African nations not industrialized, depended on farming, mining raw materials Example: Ghana depended on cocoa; Nigeria, oil Farming, Mining For loans, turned to international organizations, like World Bank; bad planning, corrupt leaders left nations with huge debts, no infrastructure Development Loans

8 Economic Problems Structural Legacies
--Economies based on raw material exports --Aid/dependency --Migrant labor/labor compounds --Tension between “tradition” and “modernity”

9 Economic Problems During imperialism European nations set up export type economies. Economies depended on the export of raw materials. Cash Crops Raw materials

10 Economic Problems Many African nations still relied on these export goods. Problem When no demand/prices fall/countries become poor.

11 Economic Problems African nations relied on buying manufactured goods and had no industrial base.

12 Economic Problems Economic Policies Failed socialist economy
Cash crops instead of food crops Lack of funding for rural areas.

13 Economic Problems African nations have to import manufactured goods and incurred a large debt.

14 Economic Problems Economic Dependence Need for foreign aid
Need for imported goods High debt

15 Debt and Structural Adjustment

16 Origins of African Debt
For some countries (Ghana, for example), debt began with ambitious development projects in the 1960s In most cases, however, serious indebtedness began in the early 1970s Oil crisis dramatically increased the price of imports Worldwide recession decreased the willingness of the US and former colonial powers to distribute aid in grants

17 Origins of African Debt
World prices for exports (especially agricultural exports) fell The public sector grew, especially with increased bureaucracy (in Ghana, for example, by 150 percent between 1957 and 1979) Between 1970 and 1976, Africa’s public debt quadrupled

18 State Contraction in the 1980s: Trying to Pay Off Debt
Debt servicing began to take a substantial portion of many countries’ GDPs Ambitious development plans were largely scrapped Governments tended to focus on maintaining power and preserving order

19 Structural Adjustment: Trying to Pay Off Debt
Implemented by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank beginning in roughly 1981 Required substantial cuts in state services Tended to promote industrialization as a path to economic growth Often involved the devaluation of currency

20 Debt, Structural Adjustment and Legitimacy
The demands of debt and structural adjustment often rendered governments less able to supply the needs of their people and less able to claim grassroots legitimacy Debt seen as attached to a country, not to a particular government—transferred even when a government was deemed illegitimate

21 International Aid to Help African Debt
Since the 1970s, the general trend has been a decrease in aid to Africa—monetary aid fell by almost half in the 1990s A large proportion of what is counted as aid by donor countries is known “phantom aid”—for example, some 50% of all technical assistance is said to be wasted because of inappropriate usage on expensive consultants, their living expenses, and training Aid frequently carries restrictions with regard to its use

22 Aid Donors to Africa Most donor countries use aid as part of a broader foreign policy focused on “national interests” The US has directed aid to regions where it has concerns related to its national security, e.g. Middle East Sweden has targeted aid to “progressive societies” France has sought to promote maintenance or preserve and spread of French culture, language, and influence, especially in West Africa, while disproportionately giving aid to those that have extensive commercial ties with France


24 African Trade Imbalance
Many aid packages require receiving countries to purchase goods from the donor country, often in a way that disadvantages the economy of the recipient Reports have suggested that aid tied with conditions cut the value of aid to recipient countries by some percent, because it obliges them to purchase imports from the richer nations at uncompetitive prices As of 2000, over two-thirds of United States aid was tied to requirements to purchase goods and services from the US Aid generally fails to increase the export side of receiving countries’ economies


26 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
The Combined Gross Domestic Product for all of Sub-Saharan Africa in 2000 was US$ Billion—less than the GDP for the Netherlands (and considerably smaller than the GDP for the state of California) Between 1990 and 2000 GNP per capita declined .7 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa However, since 2000 a number of African countries have experienced a annual growth rate of around 5% Nearly 40% of Africa’s GNP is from agriculture, less than 15% from manufacturing: lowest of any region in the world. Africa counts for less than 2% of global trade In 1960 average service debt of an African country was 2% of exports; in % of exports

27 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on $1 or less a day) World Region 1990 1999 2015 #* % # S-S Afr 241 47 315 49 404 46 L. Amer 48 11 57 7.5 S. Asia 506 45 488 37 264 16 M East & N Afr 5 2 6 8

28 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on $2 or less a day) World Region 1990 1999 2015 #* % # S-S Afr 386 76 480 75 618 70 L. Amer 121 28 132 26 117 19 S. Asia 1010 90 1128 85 1139 68 M East & N Afr 50 21 23 62 16

29 Economic Realities: Congo
Mineral Rich: Copper, Cobalt, Coltan, Diamonds, Tin Agriculture: wide variety of food and cash crops including coffee, tea, rubber and commercial lumber. Industry: very little manufacturing, mineral processing Yet: GDP per Capita is $88 compared to an average of $541 in Sub-Saharan Africa; Per Capita Income $110 per capita compared to $600 for Sub-Saharan Africa

30 Economic Problems in Africa
Population and Poverty Population explosion Widespread hunger

31 Political Problems

32 Left Side Activity Pairs: Look at the following political cartoon.
What is the message of the political cartoon? How can you tell?


34 Political Problems in Africa
Power hungry and greedy leaders Military takeovers Harsh dictators Ethnic and regional conflict.

35 Military Dictatorships
End of 1960s, nearly all newly independent African nations adopted one-party system Single political party controls government Elections rarely competitive Opposition parties outlawed in many countries Dictators ruled many nations, maintained power through patronage, giving loyal followers well-paid positions in government One–Party System Some corrupt officials required bribes for government contracts, licenses Also ran government enterprises for personal profit New generation of dictators robbed countries of wealth Mobutu Sese Seko, dictator of Congo, amassed personal fortune of about $5 billion, while his people fell into poverty Bribery and Corruption


37 Democracy for Some Elections Results
Despite conflicts, war throughout late 1900s, many African countries still dictatorships Cold War: U.S., Soviets gave large amounts of money to dictators friendly to their side Cold War ended, money dried up; weakened some dictators’ governments Many Africans saw weakness as opportunity to create democratic governments, demanded elections By 2005, more than 30 African countries had abandoned one-party systems, held elections Elections Election results mixed Some former dictators resorted to fraud, intimidation to win elections Others elected because people preferred them to alternatives Results



40 Political “Realities” of Contemporary Africa: Regime Types Today: Africa’s Second Revolution/Independence Democratic (17) Partially Democratic (15) Undemocratic (16) Benin Botswana Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Sao Tome Senegal Seychelles South Africa Tunisia Zambia Chad Camoros Congo (Brazzaville) Gabon Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Lesotho Madagascar Morocco Rwanda Sierra Leone Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Algeria Angola Burundi Cameroon Congo (Democratic Republic) ? Cote D’Ivoire Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Guinea Libya Mauritania Niger Somalia Sudan Togo Zimbabwe

41 Impact of Cold War Funding on Africa

42 Results for Africa of aid from U.S. and the West during the Cold War
US gave at least $1.5 bill weapons to Africa during Cold War ( ) - incl $400 mill to dictator Mobutu in Congo $250 mill to Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA movement Angola Half the US aid went to governments with known human rights abuses including Congo, Rwanda, Uganda atrocities (perhaps 3 million)

43 Militarization Across Africa
Portuguese soldiers planting and unearthing land mines in Angola, 1970s

44 Militarization Across Africa: Curse of landmines
Angola: more than 70,000 amputees and more than 16,000 killed. Estimates of total number of land mines = million Angola is the one most heavily impacted by 1-2 land mines per person Whatever you want to do, whether it's plant a field or rehabilitate a school or open a road, you've first got to clear away the mines. The threat of mines has paralyzed the country More than 70 types of mines - manufactured in at least 22 countries - have been planted in Angola during recent decades. Mines were installed by the government military, the South Africans, the Cubans, the Russians, UNITA, the police, by neighboring governments, and several other Angolan armed groups. The numbers of mine layers makes demining - which includes understanding the strategy and patterns of mine laying - even more complicated. Mine clearance experts say only the Cubans made accurate maps of their mine fields. Tens of thousands of one-legged Angolans hobbling around their country on crutches provide graphic evidence that most of the mines laid here are small anti-personnel mines designed to maim rather than kill. Yet the explosives are often targeted at civilians, most often women and children, rather than soldiers. Planted near water sources and under shade trees in the savannah, they are designed to terrorize, often with the goal of depopulating the countryside.

45 Militarization in Africa—The Cost
An average of $22 billion is being spent each year by the nations of Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America on arms. If this were redirected, it would be enough to reach the UN targets of Universal Primary Education And reducing infant and maternal mortality. And Meeting all of the Millennium Development Goals

46 Militarization of Africa –Arms Sales Out of Control
The U.S., France, Russia, China and the UK together account for 88% of all the world’s conventional arms exports. There are 639 MILLION small arms and light weapons in the world Today, eight million more are produced every year. From , the USA, UK, and France earned more income from arms sales to developing countries than they gave in all kinds of emergency, disaster, and economic assistance aid.


48 Tribalism and Nationalism Causing Civil Wars and Genocide


50 Tribalism and Nationalism
African boundaries had been set by imperialistic nations not African nations Berlin Conference 1885.

51 Tribalism and Nationalism
Many tribes and nations were split by these European boundaries. Because of these splits there is more loyalty to one’s tribe then the country they live in.


53 Ethnic Conflicts and Civil War
When the European powers divided Africa into colonies, preexisting political units were not maintained. After independence, rival ethnic groups competed for control, some by destructive civil wars 1967, Igbo-speaking group of eastern Nigeria proclaimed independent state of Biafra Bloody civil war erupted; 2 million died from fighting, another 2 million from starvation Ethnic Conflicts 1992, civil war, drought led to suffering in Somalia Hundreds of thousands of Somalis died when warring militias stole food sent from international relief agencies 1990s, tensions between Hutu, Tutsi erupted in violence 1994, 1 million Tutsi, moderate Hutus massacred in Hutu-led government genocide Civil Wars

54 Example: Nigeria In Nigeria this tribalism lead to a civil war.
More than 200 ethnic groups live within Nigeria. During independence many of these tribes fought for control of the country.

55 Example: Nigeria The two main groups fighting for control were the
Muslim Hausa and Fulani people of the north Vs. Christian Ibo and Yoruba of the south In ,000 Ibo were massacred by the Hausa controlled government. In a several year period about 1 million people had been killed or starved to death. Military leaders took control in the 70’s and 80’s In 1999 Nigeria elected a civilian government.



58 The costs of the new wars to Africa’s children
Up to 20,000 children are fighting in Africa’s conflicts today…..

59 Civil War and Piracy in Somalia
Notes will come from the powerpoint uploaded on Ms. Barben’s teacher page…Homework to take notes from

60 Somalia Somalia Warlord Mohamed Aidid throws Somalia into civil war
Keeps UN food from people, starving them



63 Rwanda Genocide


65 The Rwandan Genocide 100 Days of Slaughter April 6, 1994-July 18, 1994
Source: David Simon, The Teaching of Africa, PIER, Yale University , July 11, 2005

66 Genocide in Rwanda Rwanda Belgium grants independence in 1962
Hutus are resentful of Tutsi rule and take over government

67 Genocide in Rwanda Tutsi refugees form Rwandan Patriotic Front
1994: Hutus slaughter close to a million Tutsis RPF fights back and takes over government

68 Classification (Rwanda)
Belgian colonialists believed Tutsis were a naturally superior nobility, descended from the Israelite tribe of Ham. The Rwandan royalty was Tutsi. Belgians distinguished between Hutus and Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type. Another indicator to distinguish Hutu farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the number of cattle owned.

69 Stage 2: Symbolization (Rwanda)
“Ethnicity” was first noted on cards by Belgian Colonial Authorities in 1933. Tutsis were given access to limited education programs and Catholic priesthood. Hutus were given less assistance by colonial authorities. At independence, these preferences were reversed. Hutus were favored. These ID cards were later used to distinguish Tutsis from Hutus in the 1994 massacres of Tutsis and moderate Hutus that resulted in 800,000+ deaths.

70 Stage 3: Dehumanization
One group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the victim group seem subhuman. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. Der Stürmer Nazi Newspaper: “The Blood Flows; The Jew Grins” Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda: “The Solution for Tutsi Cockroaches” .

71 Dehumanization Hate propaganda in speeches, print and on hate radios vilify the victim group. Members of the victim group are described as animals, vermin, and diseases. Hate radio, Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, broadcast anti-Tutsi messages like “kill the cockroaches” and “If this disease is not treated immediately, it will destroy all the Hutu.” Dehumanization invokes superiority of one group and inferiority of the “other.” Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it “ethnic cleansing,” or “purification.” Such euphemisms hide the horror of mass murder.

72 Organization (Rwanda)
“Hutu Power” elites armed youth militias called Interahamwe ("Those Who Stand Together”). The government and Hutu Power businessmen provided the militias with over 500,000 machetes and other arms and set up camps to train them to “protect their villages” by exterminating every Tutsi.

73 Extermination (Genocide)
Government organized extermination of Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994

74 The Killings Killed in their villages or in towns, often by their neighbors and fellow villagers Militia members typically murdered their victims by hacking them with machetes, although some army units used rifles The victims were often hiding in churches and school buildings, where Hutu gangs massacred them Ordinary citizens were called on by local officials and government-sponsored radio to kill their neighbors and those who refused to kill were often killed themselves Everyone killed so they weren’t killed themselves: Mayors Priests EVERYONE

75 Rwanda 1994 “Hutu Mobs armed with machetes and other weapons killed roughly 8,000 Tutsis a day during a three-month campaign of terror. Powerful nations stood by as the slaughter surged on despite pleas from Rwandan and UN observers” National Geographic 2006.


77 Genocide in Rwanda April-July 1994
Many Tutsis ran to churches and missions to hide, thinking that they would be protected there. These became the sites of some of the worst massacres because they were trapped. In many local villages, Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors or risk death for themselves and their families. They also forced Tutsis to kill their own families. By mid-May, over 500,000 Tutsis had been murdered. The UN, under media pressure, agreed to send up to 5,000 troops to Rwanda, but never sent them in time to stop the massacre. The butchering did not stop until July of 1994 when 200,000 Tutsis from neighboring countries invaded and attacked Hutu forces, stopping the genocide. The total death toll ended at 800,000 people.

78 Number Killed Unlike Nazis they didn’t keep record
The RPF government has stated that 1,071,000 were killed, 10% of which were Hutu (determined in February 2008) Gourevitch agrees with an estimate of one million United Nations lists the toll as 800,000 African Rights estimates the number as "around 750,000," Human Rights Watch states that it was "at least 500,000

79 Tutsi Refugee Camp

80 Tutsi Refugee Camp

81 Genocide in Darfur, Sudan
Notes come from documentary

82 Darfur, Sudan Ethnic and religious conflict began in 2003
Between Arab-speaking, Islamic nomads and militants from the north and non-Arabic farmers to the south.



85 Darfur, Sudan Violence, genocide, and ethnic cleansing has killed an estimated 200,000 people and displaced over two million



88 Effects: Health Issues


90 Disease African nations also challenged by management of deadly diseases Malaria continues to be one of most common causes of death today 1980s, new disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) spread rapidly throughout Africa AIDS HIV virus that causes AIDS weakens body’s immune system, results in death Social costs in sub-Saharan Africa staggering; millions of orphaned children because parents died from AIDS Only small percentage of infected Africans receiving AIDS treatment


92 70% of the world’s estimated 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS are located in Sub-Saharan Africa.

93 Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of the world’s HIV infected children.

94 Of 30 children born in sub-Saharan Africa- 10 will acquire the virus simply by being born- 4 will be infected from breast feeding .

95 Most of these children will not live to see their 5th birthdays.

96 Health Realities of Contemporary Africa
The Scourge of HIV-AIDS HIV-AIDS: Out of approximately 40 million HIV-AIDS victims in the world 29.4 victims reside in Sub-Saharan African countries. Nearly three million children under the age of 15 are HIV positive Four countries in southern Africa have HIV infection rates of 25% or higher of adult population In the last decade 12 million people died of AIDS in Africa Life expectancy in southern Africa increased throughout the region to nearly 60 years of age in 1990 (from 44 years in 1950); life expectancy expected to drop to years of age by 2005. Rays of hope: decline in infection rate in a number of countries, stabilization in South Africa; reduction in the price of anti-retrovirals.

97 AIDS in Africa Data suggests AIDS began in Africa in the late 1970s, spreading south from equatorial areas over the 1980s Southern Africa has been hit particularly hard by the AIDS epidemic—Botswana has approx. 38% of the adult population infected Uganda is often cited as a model for the control of AIDS—percentage of the population infected has dropped to 5% from a high of 14%

98 History of AIDS in Africa
Between 1999 and 2000 more people died of AIDS in Africa than in all the wars on the continent. The year 2000 began with 24 million Africans infected with the virus. Each day, 6,000 Africans die from AIDS. Each day, an additional 11,000 are infected.

99 History of AIDS in Afirca
32.8 million living with HIV 2.5 million new infections of HIV 2 million deaths from AIDS Over two-thirds of HIV cases, and some 80% of deaths, were in Sub-Saharan Africa.




103 AIDS and Government Stability Describe the impact of government stability on the distribution of resources to combat AIDS and famine across Africa. In highly affected regions, HIV/AIDS also places huge strains on state institutions and the economy. AIDS most frequently strikes at the most productive members of society, those years old. Their deaths have left Africa with over 11 million orphans Number of deaths and infection rate to increase over the next 10 years Therefore, the acute impact of the AIDS pandemic may result in the widespread economic and political destabilization of societies, states, and entire regions.

104 Impact of AIDS Poor health care systems, poverty, and lack of government organization Lack of knowledge about the disease and its prevention Antiretroviral drugs that are able to slow down the progress of the disease are expensive



107 12 million African children have been orphaned due to the AIDS virus.

108 17 million Africans have already died since the epidemic began in the late 1970’s.

109 Within 10 years the average life expectancy in 11 countries in Africa will drop below 40 as HIV/AIDS continues to shorten life spans.

110 The Paradox of Botswana: Stable Government and Economy, but AIDS Rampant
Botswana has maintained a stable, democratic government since 1965 The country’s diamond resources and strong beef industry have produced a middle-class standard of living for many residents Even as Botswana thrives, however, it has the second highest rate of HIV infection in Africa (after Swaziland)—over 1/3 of people between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected

111 AIDS and Famine Describe the impact of government stability on the distribution of resources to combat AIDS and famine across Africa. If people are sick, what happens? Aids kills young adults, especially women - the people whose labor is most needed. When the rains come, people must work 16 hours a day planting and weeding the crop. If that critical period is missed, the family will go hungry. In a community depleted by Aids, each working adult must produce more to feed the same number of dependents - not just children but sick adults, too. Just as HIV destroys the body's immune system, the epidemic of HIV and Aids has disabled African countries. As a result of HIV, the worst-hit African countries have undergone a social breakdown that is now reaching a new level: African societies' capacity to resist famine is fast eroding. Hunger and disease have begun reinforcing each other.

112 Health Realities of Contemporary Africa
Diseases of Poverty: Malaria kills over 1 million people in Africa each year with an estimated cost to African economies of over $2 billion Sleeping Sickness (trypanosomasis) threat to 60 million, infects 300,000 each year River Blindness (onchocerciasis) 17.5 million in Africa (99%) of world total Biharziasis impacts estimated 80 million in Africa

113 Malaria has not received adequate attention and is a major cause of death of children

114 Effects: Social Issues Affecting Women, Children, Urbanization, and Education

115 Social Realities of Contemporary Africa
Severe Social Dislocation: Male (productive age) labor migration: short term and long term Urbanization: unplanned, minimal social services (health, education, housing, sanitation) Gender/family relations: change in social relations of production and reproduction (male migration, “male cash crops,”) absence of fathers/husbands; rural poverty (women & children most severely impacted); survival strategies (prostitution, beer-making).

116 Additional Social Problems Facing Independent Africa
Treatment of women: In African’s more developed countries and especially in cities, women have attained a certain degree of economic and social equality. However, progress has been slow and women are still dominated by men, especially in rural areas.

117 Education Realities of Contemporary Africa
Colonial Heritage: Education for a very few (at independence, no colony had more than 60% of the elementary school age population in school, most less than 30%; even lower for high school and tertiary education Portuguese had most restrictive educational program. In rural Mozambique less than 20% of school age cohort had full seven years of elementary education at independence in 1975 At independence in 1960 the D.R. Congo had an extensive primary school system (70% enrollment) but less than 10% went to secondary school and only 50 university graduates! French followed policy of “assimilation”—targeted 10-20% of population with relatively good education system, but vast majority little or no schooling. British generally most “progressive” but great differences between “protectorates” (Nigeria, Ghana) where in-direct rule was practiced, and settler colonies (Rhodesias, Kenya) where educational expenditure was very limited. Curriculum heavily biased to humanities—limited opportunities in science, math, technology

118 Education Realities of Contemporary Africa
Education: Post-Independence Example of Zimbabwe: 1980: 60% of primary school age cohort in school, less than 40% finished primary education 1995: 100% of primary school age cohort in school, over 90% finished seven years of primary school 1980: only 64,000 students in secondary school; 1995 over 800,000 in secondary school Negative Impact of ESAP conditionalities on education

119 Effects: Famine



122 More than half of Africa is now in need of urgent food assistance.
The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) is warning that 27 sub-Saharan countries now need help. BBC News 31st January 2006


124 Causes of Famine Many farmers say that rains have become less reliable in recent years, which could be the result of global warming. The Sahara Desert is certainly expanding to the south, making life increasingly difficult for farmers and pastoralists in places like Niger. Also, rising populations have led people to farm on increasingly marginal land, even more at risk from even a slight decline in rainfall. Southern Africa has the world's highest rates of HIV/Aids and this is a major factor in that region's food crisis. Some of those who should be the most productive farmers - young men and women - are either sick or have died, so their fields are being left untended, while their children go hungry.

125 Causes of Famine It is particularly striking that the FAO highlights political problems such as civil strife, refugee movements and returnees in 15 of the 27 countries it declares in need of urgent assistance. By comparison drought is only cited in 12 out of 27 countries. The implication is clear - Africa's years of wars, coups and civil strife are responsible for more hunger than the natural problems that befall it.

126 In essence Africa's hunger is the product of a series of interrelated factors. Africa is a vast continent, and no one factor can be applied to any particular country. But four issues are critical: Decades of underinvestment in rural areas, which have little political clout Wars and political conflict, leading to refugees and instability. HIV/Aids depriving families of their most productive labour. Unchecked population growth

127 Famine in Africa Famine occurs when a region does not have enough food for a long period of time. People who are starving can die from malnutrition. Famines are both human-made and natural. Drought, or lack of rain, makes food scarce because crops die.

128 Famine in Africa Human forces, like wars, can also cause food shortages. People in a region can be without food because its cost is too high. All of these factors have led to famines in Africa.

129 Famine in Africa Famines in Africa today are the result of poor food distribution and poverty. There is enough food on Earth for everyone to eat well. However, many people live where they cannot grow food. People also live where food cannot be easily transported.

130 Causes: Poverty

131 Poverty and Famine Poverty is at the heart of Africa's problems. This is an overview of some of the economic challenges facing the continent. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa is in the World Bank's lowest income category of less than $765 Gross National Income (GNI) per person per year. Ethiopia and Burundi are the worst off with just $90 GNI per person. Even middle income countries like Gabon and Botswana have sizeable sections of the population living in poverty. North Africa generally fares better than Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, the economies are more stable, trade and tourism are relatively high and AIDS is less prevalent. Development campaigners have argued that the rules on debt, aid and trade need reforming to help lift more African nations out of poverty.

132 The basic problem is poverty.
Poverty and Famine The basic problem is poverty. Most Africans live in rural areas, where many are subsistence farmers, dependent on a good harvest to get enough food to eat. There are hardly any irrigation systems, so people rely on the rains. If one rainy season fails, people have very few savings - in either food or cash - to see them through. Even in good years, there is a "hungry season", when last year's harvests have run out and the next crops are not yet ripe. While people were starving in parts of Niger last year, shops in the capital, Niamey, were full of food but many could not afford to buy it. In both the Horn of Africa and Niger, some of the most vulnerable were pastoralists, whose animals quickly succumbed when there was nothing left to graze. When the animals die, their owners have no other way of getting enough food to eat. Some say that the pastoralist lifestyle is no longer sustainable.

133 Causes: Debt

134 Debt and Famine The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative (HIPC) was set up in 1996 to reduce the debt of the poorest countries. Poor countries are eligible for the scheme if they face unsustainable debt that cannot be reduced by traditional methods. They also have to agree to follow certain policies of good governance as defined by the World Bank and the IMF. Once these are established the country is at "decision point" and the amount of debt relief is established. Critics of the scheme say the parameters are too strict and more countries should be eligible for HIPC debt relief. This map shows how much "decision point" HIPC countries spend on repaying debts and interest. Fourteen African HIPC countries will have their debts totally written off under a new plan drawn up by the G8 finance ministers (2005).

135 Causes: Reliance on aid

136 Reliance on Aid and Famine
Africa receives about a third of the total aid given by governments around the world, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Much of this has conditions attached, meaning governments must implement certain policies to receive the aid or must spend the money on goods and services from the donor country. The World Bank, which is reviewing its conditionality policies, argues that aid is far more effective, and less vulnerable to corruption, when coupled with improved governance. There was a sharp drop in rich countries' relative spending on aid in the late 1990s. The Make Poverty History campaign urged the G8 to raise an extra $50bn more in aid per year and to enforce earlier pledges for developed countries to give 0.7% of their annual GDP in aid.

137 Famine in Africa Tens of millions of people across more than half the states in sub-Saharan Africa need urgent food aid, but the causes are often complex and varied. Food crises were once primarily triggered by natural disasters like droughts. But according to research by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, man-made causes are increasingly to blame. These include conflict and poor governance, as well as HIV/Aids. Rural poverty, international trade barriers, overpopulation, deforestation, poor use of land and environmental problems can also be factors.

138 Famine in Africa Many famines have taken place in the Horn of Africa.
The Horn of Africa is a large peninsula in the northeast region of the continent. Famines in this region include the Ethiopian Famine of the mid-1980s, which is estimated to have killed over a million people. This famine was made worse by high food prices and overpopulation,



141 Famine in Africa On the continent, the risk of famine is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Today, Niger, southern Sudan, Somalia, and Zimbabwe are areas with emergency famine status. Africa’s greatest humanitarian crisis is in Darfur, in western Sudan. A humanitarian crisis is one in which many human lives are at risk in a region.

142 Africa's Permanent Food Crisis
More than 30 million people are going hungry across Africa from the west, to the horn and the south, says the UN's World Food Programme. Poor rains have contributed to the problem but the root causes are many and complex.

143 Which countries are worst affected?
At the moment, the Horn of Africa is worst hit, especially Somalia, north-eastern Kenyan and Ethiopia. Some 11 million people need food aid in the region after poor rains, the WFP says. About half of these are on the brink of starvation and need urgent help. In West Africa, the WFP plans to help about 10 million people. Last year's rains and harvests were not too bad but aid workers say that endemic poverty and conflict mean lots of people still need help. Aid workers do not want to repeat the mistakes made in Niger last year (2005), when little was done to help the hungry until television pictures of starving children shocked the world. Further south, about 12 million need food aid in countries such as Malawi and Zimbabwe, says the WFP.

144 4. Drought

145 Horn of Africa disaster
Caused by two consecutive poor rainy seasons begun in 2010 Complicated by war, restricted access of NGOs

146 Horn of Africa disaster
Ethiopia: 3.2 million Kenya: 3.5 million Somalia: 2.8 million Djibouti: 100,000+

147 Horn of Africa disaster
Worst impact in Somalia 15,000 fleeing daily, every month in 2011 Arriving in Kenya, Ethiopia

148 Horn of Africa disaster
Six camps in Ethiopia house 130,000 Somalis Dadaab camp in Kenya now largest refugee camp worldwide

149 Horn of Africa disaster
Food prices rising Grain in Kenya 30%-80% higher than normal Moving out of reach of households

150 Horn of Africa disaster
Refugee camps overwhelmed Conflict and clashes in camps Could destabilize border nations



153 Horn of Africa disaster
Malnutrition issue worse: 1 in 3 children malnourished Impact on local economy severe: long-term effects


155 Horn of Africa disaster
Size and scope and issues lead many countries to give up helping World Food Program short by 33%.

156 Horn of Africa disaster
Somalia has dropped ban on non-Muslim NGOs Al Shabab “welcomes non-Muslim foreign aid groups”


158 ETHIOPIA NIGER Estimated population: 77.43m
Projected number needing food aid: 1.7m Key underlying reasons: Drought Refugees High food prices Overpopulation Estimated population: 13.95m Projected number needing food aid: 3m Key underlying reasons: After-effects of 2004 drought and locusts

SUDAN DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO Estimated population: 36.23m Projected number needing food aid: 6.1m Key underlying reasons: Conflict in western Darfur region has displaced 2m people South recovering from long-running civil war Drought in parts Where farming is taking place, it is on a very small scale with most people cultivating with a simple hand tool called a 'maloda'. Estimated population: 57.54m Projected number needing food aid: 3m Key underlying reasons: Conflict Refugees War, malnutrition and disease have killed at least 3.8m people in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the last seven years.

160 Ethiopia Difficult Environment: Deep Canyons  Isolated Villages
Crops Depend on Erratic Rainfall Prolonged Drought  Famine

161 Nutritional problems of children in Ethiopia
Ethiopia is one of the most food insecure countries in the world having both chronic and transitory food insecurity and frequent attacks of famine in the recent past Food insecurity incorporates- low food intake , variable access to food, and vulnerability Food insecurity is mostly associated with drought, poor land management practices, diseases, attack by pests, destruction of crops by flood, etc..

162 Current estimated food security conditions: January to March 2009
Source: FEWS NET and WFP Ethiopia

163 Nutritional problems ….
Nutritional problems continue to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children Manifest by Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM) Micronutrient malnutrition Vitamin A deficiency ( VAD ) Iodine Deficiency disorders (IDDS) Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA)

164 Nutritional problems ….
The plight usually starts during intrauterine life with maternal malnutrition (during and prior to pregnancy) Continues to childhood with the same condition (Feeding, Health Care, Environment)

165 «Hidden» death due to malnutrition in Ethiopia
Severe Mild & Moderate 80% of the death due to malnutrition is contributed for by Mild and Moderate Malnutrition Only 1 in 5 malnutrition-related deaths is due to severe malnutrition

166 Malnutrition and intellectual development
Reduced: Learning ability School performance Retention rates

167 Effects: Question of African Unity


169 More Problems in African Nations
Living Standards most in poverty, lack capital for development Foreign investors deterred by political instability African Unity Haile Selassie believed that the differences (linguistic, racial, economic, and political) too vast and recommended a loose organization of nations OAU (Organization of African Unity)

170 Goals of OAU: African Unity
Loose Confederation Heads of state meet once a year Council meets every 6 months Commission of Mediation and Conciliation to settle inter-African disputes African Cooperation Foreign policy, defense, economics, education Liberation of all African territories still under foreign rule Worked to end white rule in S. Africa

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