Causes of Imperialism: 1)Agricultural Revolution 2)Industrial Revolution 3)Nationalism Explain… Also: 4) Social Darwinism
Causes of Imperialism: 1) Agricultural Revolution a) more food = more people b) more people need more space to live 2) Industrial Revolution a) need more and more natural resources to use in factories b) need new supplies of labor to keep wages low c) need to find new markets of people to buy products 3) Nationalism a) countries prove their greatness by acquiring colonies b) countries compete with each other to get more colonies 4) Social Darwinism a) strong countries should rule over weak countries b) spread Western Civilization
European Imperialism in Asia Crash Course in Imperialism (Minute 0-4) Crash Course in Imperialism (Minute 0-4) China – Potentially huge market – Closed to European trade until 1800s – Opium War (1840) – “Spheres of influence” – Chinese monarchy seriously weakened
Opium War effects Treaty of Nanjing – Britain given Hong Kong – Extraterritorial Rights Taiping Rebellion Empress Cixi self-strengthening movement China Carved into Spheres of Influence – Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion
Reaction to Imperialism Rise of Nationalist Movements – India – China
“Take up the White Man’s Burden – Send forth the best ye breed – Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild – Your new caught, sullen peoples Half devil and half-child.” Rudyard Kipling, author of The Jungle Book, was an Anglo-Indian – an Englishman who was born in India. His ideas about imperialism can be seen in a poem he wrote in 1889, called The White Man’s Burden:
The White Man’s Burden was the idea that Europeans had to conquer the rest of the world, to spread the benefits of Western Civilization. This was supposed to help them…
Imperialism in India Fall of Mughal Empire- Controlled by British East India Company (“Jewel in the Crown”) Negative Impacts – Loss of self-sufficiency – Cash crops leads to famine – Indian companies go out of business – Loss of traditional culture Positive Impacts – Industrialization – Education – Sanitation
Mahatma Gandhi was born in India around the same time as Rudyard Kipling. Gandhi lived in India and Africa and studied law in England, but he had different ideas about imperialism. Reporter: “What do you think about Western Civilization?” Gandhi: “I think it would be a good idea!” Gandhi led India to independence from England through nonviolent resistance.
Gandhi and others thought that Europeans were just talking about helping the people they conquered. The West wasn’t really civilized. It was brutally conquering the entire world and taking foreign countries’ natural resources.
Scramble for Africa 1882- King Leopold II of Belgium claims the Congo – Claims to end slavery 1880- Scramble for Africa begins Berlin Conference in 1884-85 – Africa divided with little thought to how African ethnic or linguistic groups were distributed By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control
Impacts on Africa Positive – Reduced Local Warfare – Improved Sanitation – Life Span and Literacy Rates Increased Negative – Loss of land and independence – Breakdown of traditional culture – Division of Continent