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Chapter 27: The New Imperialism, 1869-1914. The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods New Imperialism – territorial conquests more rapid than Conquistadors.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27: The New Imperialism, 1869-1914. The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods New Imperialism – territorial conquests more rapid than Conquistadors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 27: The New Imperialism, 1869-1914

2 The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods New Imperialism – territorial conquests more rapid than Conquistadors Political Motives  Desire for colonies/expansion of territory to “compete” with other European rivals Cultural Motives  Spread Christianity  Mark 16:15 – He said to them, Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation.  Matthew 24:14 – And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.  Matthew 10:16 - I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves.  Bring western education, medicine, technology  Racism – ranked races in a hierarchy ranging from civilized to barbarians  Scientific Justification  Social Darwinism – theory, that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection.  Eugenics – science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristic Economic motives  Industrialization needs raw materials/markets for finished products  Business ventures need safety = military protection

3 Tools of the imperialists  Shipping – steamships & submarine telegraph wires  Gunboats & quinine  Firearms – firepower gap widened (improved firearms, machine guns, artillery Colonial agents and administration  Colonialism – system of administering/exploiting colonies to benefit home country  White Settlers – in colonies with few white settlers = European autocracy  Types of colonial dominance  Direct rule – a province is controlled by the central government  Indirect rule – use of a providence's existing political structures by the colonizing country for governance.  Protectorate – protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent providence.  Sphere of influence – area over which political or economic influence is wielded by another nation.  White women – introduction increased racial segregation

4 The Scramble for Africa Scramble for Africa – wave of conquests by European powers 1880-1890’s Egypt  Borrowed from Europe – led to selling control of Suez to British  French minister of public works, British minister of finance.  Indirect rule by British  Aswan dam – regulates Nile Berlin Conference – lays down rule for peaceful division of Africa South Africa  Afrikaners – Dutch settlers on the Cape of Good Hope  Gold, diamonds, copper attract British pushing Afrikaners north  Great Trek North into Zulu country  British defeat ZuluBoer War (1899-1902)  Afrikaners eventually emerge as ruling element  Natives Land Act – Black Africans assigned to reservations, forbidden to own land

5 Political and Social Consequences  Collaborators (often minorities) – Hotel Rwanda  Those who resisted (massive deaths, tragedies such as German East Africa)  Ethiopian Success – Menelik II had European weapons  Italy trying to impose a protectorate relationship – denied; huge embarrassment for Italy (why?)  Mussolini seethed for vengeance (1935)  African Land & Labor – cash crops, taxes forced labor, “vacant” land  African women – left behind to raise the family  Mixing of rivals/enemies (present-day Africa) Cultural Responses  Mission Schools  Attempt to destroy native culture  Islam more successful at spreading (why?)

6 Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific Central Asia  Russian Imperialism – move into Central Asia (Kazakhstan) – cotton SE Asia & Indonesia  Siam – lone holdout  Tropical agriculture  Rubber, Columbia exchange products brought  Peace & reliable food supply  Social changes – folks moving farther into clear jungle areas  Nationalism – Russo-Japanese war resonated in SE Asia

7 Hawaii & the Philippines, 1878-1902  Annexation of Hawaii – Missionary kids & President McKinley  US Conquers the Philippines  Emilio Aguinaldo – fought against Spain for independence  McKinley buys from Spain for 20 Million  Aguinaldo fights US and loses

8 Imperialism in Latin America Free Trade imperialism – economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state. Railroads and the imperialism of free trade  Railroads connected ports to mine/agricultural areas  All engineers, equipment, building materials were British or American  Caudillos encouraged foreign companies in exchange for wealth

9 American expansionism and the Spanish-American War, 1898  Battleship Maine blows up in Havana  “Splendid little war” nets Puerto Rico, Guam, and purchase of Philippines American intervention in the Caribbean & central America, 1901-1914  Platt Amendment – US becomes protectorate of Cuba  Panama – US supports independence in exchange for building rights

10 The World Economy and the global environment Expansion of the World Economy  Transportation revolution – Suez & Panama lower freight costs dramatically Transformation of the Global environment  Economic botany – cocoa & coffee spread to South America & Africa  Irrigation – rivers water the world’s deserts (sorry Thomas Malthus)

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