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Implementing a research data policy in South Africa Michael Kahn Centre for Research Evaluation of Science and Technology, University of Stellenbosch,

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Presentation on theme: "Implementing a research data policy in South Africa Michael Kahn Centre for Research Evaluation of Science and Technology, University of Stellenbosch,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Implementing a research data policy in South Africa Michael Kahn Centre for Research Evaluation of Science and Technology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa BISO-BRDI-CFRS Symposium The National Academies, Washington D.C. 18-19 April 2011

2 Outline 1.South Africa – Gateway for the BRICs? 2.National innovation system & policy 3.Prospects for research data policy

3  1885 – Berlin Conference; colonization; “Scramble for Africa’  1945 – 1989 Period of decolonization; consolidation of states; elite formation  1989 – The fall of the Berlin Wall (or was it pushed?)  FDI into Africa = 2% of world total; SA #3 after EU, China? Africa 2050 = 2 billion people; SSA > 1 billion – new trade blocs; new power relations 1.South Africa – Gateway for the BRICs?


5 CO2 /cap GiniLit%< $2 Life M yr Life F yr PhD/mGERD/GD P % BR1.8.5789216775440.83 RU9.8.41991259722091.08 IN1.2.3761806364130.80 CN2.7.4791477073181.33 ZA7.6.5882344445240.95 W orld Bank World Development Report 2007; Economist 31.10.09; ISSC WSSR 2010

6 Political economy  From three decades of siege economy and racial exclusion  Post 1994 - ‘constructed crisis’ – developmental state modulated by “ inclusion”. Class tensions.  Agriculture 3%; Manufacturing 32%; Services 65%  Minerals-energy complex  Employment: 9%; 26%; 65%  Business the main actor in R&D. Evidence of Triple Helix at work:  ARC-Uni-agribusiness  CSIR-Uni-Miners  World class financial system with large carry trade.  Domestic TNCs across Africa, Middle and Near East  Open economy with symptoms of Dutch Disease

7 South Africa is the leading African source of FDI, accounting for over 70% of the region’s total outward FDI stock. As early as the 1970s it had already become a major source of FDI from developing countries. Flows have been concentrated in developed countries: three quarters of the country’s outward FDI stock is in Europe and about one tenth in North America. Although only 9% of its outward FDI goes to Africa, the country is among the leading foreign investors in many African countries. UNCTAD World Investment Report 2006 Into Africa

8 Roaring Lions: small innovation systems – but poorly measured Sources: UNESCO World Science Report, 2011; Web of Science; UIS; CountryGERDGERD/Graduates KEI rank ISI (articles)Main PPP USD m (2007 )GDP Sciences; Engineers (2009) 2006-10Field Angola--17; 7127104Health Chad----81Health Congo (D.R.)750.48--378Health Ethiopia1060.172440; 26131412 035 Agric/He alth Mozambique830.53277; 105136401Health South Africa4 0000.92 30k; 10k 4630 000 Env/eco Health Zambia3.80.036 - 123689Health


10 ZA and NO: Activity and Impact factors of two ‘Western/bio-environmental systems (2004-2008)

11 Knowledge, networks and nations (Royal Society, 2011)

12 UNIVERSITIES RESEARCH COUNCILS BUSINESS NGOs GOVT. DEPTS INSTITUTES & MUSEUMS S&T SERVICES UTILITIES INFORMAL SECTOR Regulatory framework Legal framework including IP Standards Cultural- Political norms Financial system Associations EDUCATION TRAINING SKILLS DEV 2.National innovation system & policy Information policy

13 R&D Strategy (2002) Reorganization with some refocusing HRD - SA Research Chairs; Centres of Excellence Framework conditions: IP law; Tax Incentive Innovation Plan (2008) Space Science – remote monitoring & telemetry Energy, hydrogen economy & new materials -catalysis Farmer to Pharma-biotech, plant & animal science Global dynamics – climate change – remote sensing Human and Social Dynamics – social sciences Technology Innovation Agency (2010) Employment Equity & Immigration Law New Growth Path & Industrial Policy Support for African Union-NEPAD Promotion of international networking Infrastructure – Center for High-speed Computing Innovation Policy – context & instruments

14 Data rich at system level  Input, process and output data and indicators  R&D & Innovation Survey;  Education Statistics;  Privately held bibliographic data: SA Knowledgebase  Higher Education Management Information System  Research Information Management System - pending  Regulatory frameworks and regulators  Clinical trials register  Gene banks – fauna, insecta and flora  Plant Breeders rights  Biodiversity and indigenous knowledge compliance  Ethical clearance built into funding awards process  Promotion of Access to Information Act  Patent Amendment Act 3.Prospects for research data policy

15 Data rich at sector level – Southern skies, fauna & flora, people, earth and oceans SA Earth Observation Network Optical astronomy – SAAO & SALT Radio astronomy – HART, MeerKAT & SKA Hermanus Magnetic & Seismographic Observatory Oceanographic and Antarctic data (MCM, SAAS) Geological (Council for Geosciences) Meteorological data – SA Weather Service Social science (HSRC; SADA) SA National Institute for Biodiversity SA Institute for Aquatic Diversity Statistics SA: Census; Labour Force Survey; Household Expenditure Health: Medical Research Council; clinical trials

16 Information poor at system and sector levels Two ‘natural’ problems: Bounded rationality Silos Fragmentation by default Statistics SA - coordination mandate for national surveys Department of Science and Technology has mandate to coordinate S&T budgets, but not too coordinate information National Advisory Council on Innovation – lacks authority (compare with National Council on Higher Education) The normal problem of MIS designed for one task being used to address other purposes Resource limitations – inadequate meta data and training

17 Prospects for coordination – reasonable Commitment to monitoring and evaluation at highest level Minister for M&E in the Presidency Indicator-based performance agreements for Ministers Commitment to Big Science – Square Kilometre Array Support to AMCOST CPA S&T ASTI & flagships Implies high-speed wide area networking Data sharing regionally and internationally Supportive infrastructure and legislation Commitment to OECD Guidelines for Access to Publicly Funded Research 2007 Review of Science System under way – an opportunity to accelerate progress on data sharing

18 Toward a data access policy Data sharing as the (qualified) norm Issues of sovereignty, resource protection, indigenous knowledge Ethical clearance to involve data sharing protocol? North-South relationships: Academic hunters exploiting data gatherers? African datasets hosted abroad Abuse of research permit mechanisms to restrict inquiry – security laws may be a barrier Digitization of paper MIS a priority Legislation for publication archiving in place Promotion of open access publishing Knowledge Divides (UNESCO/ISSC, 2010), but the Invisible College of Science functions – witness co-publication

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