Presentation on theme: "Implementing a research data policy in South Africa Michael Kahn Centre for Research Evaluation of Science and Technology, University of Stellenbosch,"— Presentation transcript:
Implementing a research data policy in South Africa Michael Kahn Centre for Research Evaluation of Science and Technology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa BISO-BRDI-CFRS Symposium The National Academies, Washington D.C. 18-19 April 2011 firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline 1.South Africa – Gateway for the BRICs? 2.National innovation system & policy 3.Prospects for research data policy
1885 – Berlin Conference; colonization; “Scramble for Africa’ 1945 – 1989 Period of decolonization; consolidation of states; elite formation 1989 – The fall of the Berlin Wall (or was it pushed?) FDI into Africa = 2% of world total; SA #3 after EU, China? Africa 2050 = 2 billion people; SSA > 1 billion – new trade blocs; new power relations 1.South Africa – Gateway for the BRICs?
CHINA & INDIA BRAZIL RUSSIA (USA) SOUTH AFRICA HR (EU) A New Scramble for Africa?
CO2 /cap GiniLit%< $2 Life M yr Life F yr PhD/mGERD/GD P % BR1.8.5789216775440.83 RU9.8.41991259722091.08 IN1.2.3761806364130.80 CN2.7.4791477073181.33 ZA7.6.5882344445240.95 W orld Bank World Development Report 2007; Economist 31.10.09; ISSC WSSR 2010
Political economy From three decades of siege economy and racial exclusion Post 1994 - ‘constructed crisis’ – developmental state modulated by “ inclusion”. Class tensions. Agriculture 3%; Manufacturing 32%; Services 65% Minerals-energy complex Employment: 9%; 26%; 65% Business the main actor in R&D. Evidence of Triple Helix at work: ARC-Uni-agribusiness CSIR-Uni-Miners World class financial system with large carry trade. Domestic TNCs across Africa, Middle and Near East Open economy with symptoms of Dutch Disease
South Africa is the leading African source of FDI, accounting for over 70% of the region’s total outward FDI stock. As early as the 1970s it had already become a major source of FDI from developing countries. Flows have been concentrated in developed countries: three quarters of the country’s outward FDI stock is in Europe and about one tenth in North America. Although only 9% of its outward FDI goes to Africa, the country is among the leading foreign investors in many African countries. UNCTAD World Investment Report 2006 Into Africa
Roaring Lions: small innovation systems – but poorly measured Sources: UNESCO World Science Report, 2011; Web of Science; UIS; http://info.worldbank.org/etools/kam2 CountryGERDGERD/Graduates KEI rank ISI (articles)Main PPP USD m (2007 )GDP Sciences; Engineers (2009) 2006-10Field Angola--17; 7127104Health Chad----81Health Congo (D.R.)750.48--378Health Ethiopia1060.172440; 26131412 035 Agric/He alth Mozambique830.53277; 105136401Health South Africa4 0000.92 30k; 10k 4630 000 Env/eco Health Zambia3.80.036 - 123689Health
ZA and NO: Activity and Impact factors of two ‘Western/bio-environmental systems (2004-2008)
Knowledge, networks and nations (Royal Society, 2011)
UNIVERSITIES RESEARCH COUNCILS BUSINESS NGOs GOVT. DEPTS INSTITUTES & MUSEUMS S&T SERVICES UTILITIES INFORMAL SECTOR Regulatory framework Legal framework including IP Standards Cultural- Political norms Financial system Associations EDUCATION TRAINING SKILLS DEV 2.National innovation system & policy Information policy
R&D Strategy (2002) Reorganization with some refocusing HRD - SA Research Chairs; Centres of Excellence Framework conditions: IP law; Tax Incentive Innovation Plan (2008) Space Science – remote monitoring & telemetry Energy, hydrogen economy & new materials -catalysis Farmer to Pharma-biotech, plant & animal science Global dynamics – climate change – remote sensing Human and Social Dynamics – social sciences Technology Innovation Agency (2010) Employment Equity & Immigration Law New Growth Path & Industrial Policy Support for African Union-NEPAD Promotion of international networking Infrastructure – Center for High-speed Computing Innovation Policy – context & instruments
Data rich at system level Input, process and output data and indicators R&D & Innovation Survey; Education Statistics; Privately held bibliographic data: SA Knowledgebase Higher Education Management Information System Research Information Management System - pending Regulatory frameworks and regulators Clinical trials register Gene banks – fauna, insecta and flora Plant Breeders rights Biodiversity and indigenous knowledge compliance Ethical clearance built into funding awards process Promotion of Access to Information Act Patent Amendment Act 3.Prospects for research data policy
Data rich at sector level – Southern skies, fauna & flora, people, earth and oceans SA Earth Observation Network Optical astronomy – SAAO & SALT Radio astronomy – HART, MeerKAT & SKA Hermanus Magnetic & Seismographic Observatory Oceanographic and Antarctic data (MCM, SAAS) Geological (Council for Geosciences) Meteorological data – SA Weather Service Social science (HSRC; SADA) SA National Institute for Biodiversity SA Institute for Aquatic Diversity Statistics SA: Census; Labour Force Survey; Household Expenditure Health: Medical Research Council; clinical trials
Information poor at system and sector levels Two ‘natural’ problems: Bounded rationality Silos Fragmentation by default Statistics SA - coordination mandate for national surveys Department of Science and Technology has mandate to coordinate S&T budgets, but not too coordinate information National Advisory Council on Innovation – lacks authority (compare with National Council on Higher Education) The normal problem of MIS designed for one task being used to address other purposes Resource limitations – inadequate meta data and training
Prospects for coordination – reasonable Commitment to monitoring and evaluation at highest level Minister for M&E in the Presidency Indicator-based performance agreements for Ministers Commitment to Big Science – Square Kilometre Array Support to AMCOST CPA S&T ASTI & flagships Implies high-speed wide area networking Data sharing regionally and internationally Supportive infrastructure and legislation Commitment to OECD Guidelines for Access to Publicly Funded Research 2007 Review of Science System under way – an opportunity to accelerate progress on data sharing
Toward a data access policy Data sharing as the (qualified) norm Issues of sovereignty, resource protection, indigenous knowledge Ethical clearance to involve data sharing protocol? North-South relationships: Academic hunters exploiting data gatherers? African datasets hosted abroad Abuse of research permit mechanisms to restrict inquiry – security laws may be a barrier Digitization of paper MIS a priority Legislation for publication archiving in place Promotion of open access publishing Knowledge Divides (UNESCO/ISSC, 2010), but the Invisible College of Science functions – witness co-publication
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