Presentation on theme: "IMPERIALISM The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Political = who is in charge? Economic."— Presentation transcript:
IMPERIALISM The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Political = who is in charge? Economic = who makes the money? Culture = what do they believe in?
Imperialism is NOT a new concept! Imperialism & Empires: have existed since BCE. In Greek & Roman (classical era) times; with Mongols, China, Russia, etc. By 18 th & 19 th century, many European empires were global. Spain and Portugal had ruling-empires in South & Central America from 16 th to early 19 th century. Great Britain (the union of England, Wales, Scotland, & Ireland) had the world’s largest empire!
“The sun never sets on the British empire”. Britain ruled over one-fourth of the world’s land and a third of its population!!!
Imperialism changed over time Before 19 th century, imperialism in Africa and Asia had been coastal in nature. Trading posts: refueling/repair stations – and exclusive trading privileges. Imperialism then trended toward direct conquest and formal empire. Entire continents now came under European influence The “New Imperialism” had greater European control and direct governance.
Imperialism in Africa In the nineteenth century, a new phase of Western expansion into Asia and Africa began. European nations began to view Asian and African societies as a source of natural resources and a market for Western manufactured goods. Imperialism, or the extension of ones nation's power over others lands, was not new. However, the imperialism of the late 1800's was different. This "New Imperialism", was more rapid and more dominating. Whereas nations were once content with setting up trading posts to carry on trade and missionary activities - now nations sought nothing less than direct control over vast territories.
Causes of Imperialism Military and naval bases. Nationalism: both “internal” to Europe and international “competition” for colonies. Economics of trade impacted by high tariffs, control of ports. Increased tensions between the “haves” (e.g. British Empire) and the “have-nots" (e.g. Germany & Italy) who came in late to the imperialistic competition.
Causes of Imperialism: Economic: -Industrial Revolution created a need for RAW MATERIALS (things you use to make other things) that could be found overseas. -Sold finished goods to new territories and colonies.
Causes of Imperialism: Political/Military -Need for refueling bases for navy to protect products being shipped. -Nationalism: prestige (PRIDE) for a country that conquered new territory.
Causes of Imperialism: Humanitarianism -Give aid to less technologically advanced countries. -Spread Christianity and Western (European) morals (beliefs). Dr. David Livingston Dr. David Livingston: involved with humanitarian and religious work in south and central Africa.
Causes of Imperialism: Social Darwinism -Western (European) belief that whites were superior because nature (science) made them more ‘fit’. Charles Darwin’s ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest. -It caused racist patronizing that preached that the “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” peoples in other parts of the world. “The White Man’s Burden” poem by Rudyard Kipling.
European Migration Between 1815 and 1932 more than 60 million people left Europe. Migrants went primarily to European inhabited areas: North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Siberia. European migration provided further motivation for Western expansion. Most people were poor from rural areas, though seldom from the poorest classes (due to oppressive land policies).
Success of Western Imperialism Weaknesses of Non-Western States Civilizations falling apart Weak government and armies Less advanced technology Western Advantages Strong economies Strong government Powerful armies and navies Superior technology Better medicine
Forms of Imperial Rule Colonies: Territory settled and ruled by people from another land. Protectorate: Local rulers were left in place BUT were expected to follow the advice of European advisers. Spheres of Influence: An area in which outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
Africa Continent is 4x the size of Europe. Egypt and the northern coast had long been linked to European trade (Greece and Rome) – and then the Muslim world. Portuguese discoveries: in 15th and 16th centuries, they mapped the coasts of Africa under the sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator. In 1498, Vasco da Gama led the first fleet around African Cape of Good Hope to India – Key accomplishments of the ‘little” Portugal and Dutch kingdoms 17 th and 18 th centuries: Africa primarily used for naval bases (to India, China, and “new world”) and as a source of slaves. By 1900, France held the most land – including much of the enormous Sahara desert & the fertile Mediterranean coast.
British banned the slave trade in 1807 – and the Royal Navy aggressively attacked slave traders as pirates! British Parliament embraced gradual emancipation in years before the US Civil War ended slavery in USA. US banned slave importation effective 1/1/1808. Britain’s African land was more scattered – but more densely populated and with richer resources than that of France! Egypt (and the Suez canal) and then the Sudan Acquires ‘Cape Colony’ (1915) from Dutch … and eventually wins the brutal Boer War ( ) to form Union of South Africa
Berlin Conference: At time of the conference, 80% of Africa was under local control. Arbitrary boundaries imposed over cultures and regions of Africa. Agreed to stop slavery & slave trade in Africa.
The Berlin Conference: 1884 Because of its size, surface features, climate, resources, and strategic importance, Africa became a prime candidate for conquest by ambitious European empires. The Europeans needed to establish rules for dealing with one another if they were to avoid constant bloodshed and competition for African resources. The Berlin Conference established those ground rules. By the mid-nineteenth century, Europeans had established colonies all along the African coast and competed for control. The push for overseas territories was made even more intense by the Industrial Revolution and the need for cheap labor, raw material, and new markets. The competition between the Europeans often lead to violent conflict. The conference was held in Berlin between November 15, 1884 and November 26, 1885, under the leadership of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Although controlling the slave trade and promoting humanitarian idealism were promoted as the focus of the conference, the conference only passed empty resolutions about the ending of slave trade and providing for the welfare of Africa. In truth, the result of the Conference was a method of dividing the continent of Africa between the European powers. Article 34 of the Berlin Act states that any European nation that took possession of an African coast, or named themselves as “ protectorate ” of one, had to inform the other powers of the Berlin Act of this action. If this was not done then their claim would not be recognized. This article introduced the “ spheres of influence ” doctrine.
AFRICAN POLITICAL ENTITIES BEFORE THE SCRAMBLE
Article 35 determined that in order to occupy a coastal possession, the nation also had to prove that they controlled sufficient authority there to protect existing rights such as freedom of trade and transit. This was called the doctrine of “ effective occupation ” and it made the conquest of Africa a less bloody process. The Berlin Act was an important change in international affairs. It created the rules for “ effective occupation ” of conquered lands, ensuring that the division of Africa would take place without war among the European powers. Through the Berlin Act, the European powers justified dividing a continent among themselves without considering the desires of the indigenous peoples. While this appears extremely arrogant to us now, it seemed to them to be the obvious extension of their imperialism. The Berlin Conference is one of the most clear examples of the assumptions and preconceptions of this era, and its effects on Africa can still be seen today.
European Imperialism in Africa After the slave trade was abolished, Europeans looked for new sources of wealth in Africa. In less than 50 years, Europeans took over almost all of Africa. 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa; by 1914 controlled all except Liberia & Ethiopia!
Compare MAP 2 PARTITION OF AFRICA (remember: scroll to the bottom of the page) with the map of Africa from How did the Scramble for Africa in the 1800's and 1900's effect the current borders of Africa? Partition of Africa Map The Scramble for Africa in the 1800's and 1900's effected the current borders of Africa!
Egypt French built the 100 mile sea-level canal which opened in Egypt's financial problems forced them to sell their share to Great Britain in Protectorate of Britain from 1883 until British domination of Egypt was a model for the “new imperialism”. Suez Canal Safeguarding the Suez Canal was a key for: – British control of Egypt and bloody conquest of Sudan – Trade with India and China – Subsequent “scramble” for Africa – European interventions in the Middle East