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Modern European History II HIS-107

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1 Modern European History II HIS-107
Unit 5 – Europe’s World Supremacy,

2 Imperialism Definitions
The process of extending one state’s control over another Formal imperialism Colonialism or direct control Colonizing countries annexed territories outright Established new governments Informal imperialism Conquering nations reached agreements with indigenous leaders and governed through them Allowed weaker state to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereignty Carving out zones of European sovereignty and privilege

3 Imperialism “Old imperialism” “New imperialism”
Maritime and mercantile Mostly done through informal imperialism “New imperialism” Arose during the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution Focused more on formal imperialism Demand for raw materials Built up newly acquired territories to make them more productive Aspired towards political and territorial domination Exerted influence on governments already in place

4 Imperialism Nineteenth-century imperialism
Appeared against the backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-states The need for raw materials Bringing progress to the world Imperialists sought to distance themselves from earlier histories of conquest Guided more by “settlement and discipline” than independent entrepreneurial activity Colonial resistance and rebellion forced Europeans to develop new strategies of rule British granted self-government to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand 19th empires established carefully codified racial hierarchies

5 Imperialism Why the change over?
After 1875, Europe was dominant both economically and militarily Non-European states were entering a period of decline Included the Ottomans, Persians, Chinese, and Japanese No longer had to bow down to the existing governments in non-European states Europeans had military capabilities that the non-Europeans did not possess Battles were typically one-sided in favor of the Europeans Because of this, non-Europeans were forced to accept either a new government or a European “advisor”

6 Incentives and Motives
There were many incentives for taking new colonies Acquisition of raw materials Europeans were used to a certain quality of life Many goods were only available from tropical regions Included tea, coffee, coconuts and jute (used in ropes and bags) Neomercantilism Push for the creation of new markets Wanted to create favorable balance of trade Raised tariffs to prevent buying of imports Used raw materials from colonies to make domestic goods Goal: to accumulate as much wealth as possible

7 Incentives and Motives
The profit motive Investments in non-European countries brought a higher rate of return Natives provided cheap labor Strategic and nationalist motives International rivalries fueled the belief that national interests were at stake The French supported imperialism as a means of restoring national honor The British worried about German and French industrialization and losing world markets The link between imperialism and nation-building

8 Incentives and Motives
Socialist critics J. A. Hobson (1858–1940), Imperialism (1902) Imperialism was driven by a small group of financiers International capitalists Investors sought out secure investment opportunities in colonies The manufacturing, military, and armaments interest Lenin (1870–1924) Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917) Imperialism as an essential stage in the development of capitalism Demand for raw materials made colonization a necessary investment The internal contradictions of capitalism produced imperialism The overthrow of capitalism would check imperialism

9 Incentives and Motives
Profits were a huge incentive to countries like Britain and France 1/8 of the Britain’s wealth was invested in overseas colonies France had 1/10 Most of the wealth was targeted to Egypt, South Africa and Asia Did invest in eastern Europe as well by supplying Russia with loans Germany was the only major country not heavily investing in colonies What little was invested went to the Ottoman Empire, Africa, and China

10 Incentives and Motives
Another motive was national security This was tied in to the economic well-being of the country Joseph Chamberlain ( ) believed that Britain should be “a great self-sustaining and self-protecting empire” With economic profits, the country could look after its population Wanted to strengthen the empire through economic controls Did the working class benefit from imperialism? Somewhat Higher wages due to the inflow of low-priced colonial goods Left a higher standard of living Did not produce the angry proletariat class the Marxists were hoping for

11 Incentives and Motives
Imperialism was also seen as a crusade A way for the white man to “civilize” the natives Strengthened by the concept of Social Darwinism That whites were “more fit” than other races Many traveled to the colonies not so much for profit but to improve the lives of the native populations This included building schools and hospitals This “humanitarianism” was still tied to European self-interests

12 Decline of the Ottoman Empire

13 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire in the 1850s Very diverse population Mix of religions Different forms of Islam including orthodox and Wahhabis Jews and Greek Orthodox Christians who always lived in this region Ruling class were the Turks and majority were Muslims Muslims followed their own laws Jews and Christians had their own separate system of laws and government Disputes between Europeans were held in European courts Disputes between a European and a Muslim were held in a Muslim court but with a European observer

14 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
There was no sense of national unity The “sick man of Europe” during the 1850s Russia took the Caucasus and Crimea France occupied Algeria Both Serbia and Greece received some form of independence Wahhabis were gaining control over most of Arabia The effects of the Crimean War ( ) Nationalism that bolstered Europe was going to start affecting the Ottomans Even though they were on the winning side, the war exposed its political and military weaknesses

15 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Hatt-I Humayun (1856) Ottoman’s attempt at major reform throughout the empire Created national citizenship for all persons inside the empire Abolished the civil authority of religious hierarchies Guaranteed equality before the law Opened up government and army positions to non-Muslims Led to a period of Ottoman revival For 20 years, the reform movement grew There was some resistance but was not effective The new sultan Abdülhamid II even proclaimed a new constitution in 1876

16 Sultan Abdülhamid II ( )

17 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Repression after 1876 While he initially supported the reform measures, Abdülhamid II became an autocratic ruler Became increasingly paranoid of westerners and reformers Instituted a period of repression lasting his entire regime Many were forced to leave the empire Young Turks fled to Europe in hopes of again returning to Europe to dethrone Abdul the Damned Others put up some form of resistance Included Armenians, Bulgars, Macedonians, and Cretans April Uprising (1876) led to the massacre of thousands of Bulgarians Hamidian Massacres ( ) led to the death of at least 80,000 Armenians

18 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Europeans were shocked at what was taking place in the Empire At the same time, the thought of a reformed, newly invigorated Empire was not what the Europeans had wanted Russo-Turkish War ( ) Fought mainly in the Caucuses and the Balkans Russia hoped to regain its territories lost in the Crimean War Also played on the growing pan-Slavism of the time and the April Uprisings in Bulgaria Russia easily defeated the Turks

19 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Treaty of San Stefano (1878) Ottomans recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro Also recognized the autonomy of Bulgaria The Great Powers were not enthralled with this arrangement Threw off the balance of power in eastern Europe in favor of the Russians Britain was especially fearful of Russian influence over the Middle East now that it was a major stockholder in the Suez Canal

20 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Congress of Berlin (1878) Organized by the Great Powers to reorganize the Balkans Designed to prevent an Anglo-Russian War Illustrated the growing weakness of the Ottoman Empire Conditions included those set down in the Treaty of San Stefano but: A much smaller Bulgaria Territory going to Austria-Hungary and Russia Macedonia was returned to the Turks who promised reform Not everyone was satisfied with the outcome Russia was annoyed at Europe for taking away key territories it had gained, including influence over Bulgaria

21

22 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Egypt was technically autonomous in the Empire During the 1850s and 60s, Egypt worked on economic development and reform Modernized its infrastructure and legal system Allowed the French to build the Suez Canal Borrowed most of the money for these reforms from Britain and France By 1879, Egypt was in economic distress due to its debts Paid off some by selling shares of the Suez Canal to Britain The current khedive, Ismail Pasha, was forced to abdicate under pressure from Britain and France

23 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Nationalism sparked during this period Mainly in resentment to the growing influence of foreigners Led by Colonel Arabi, riots broke out in Alexandria Britain responded by sending troops into Egypt and defeating Arabi Included a naval bombardment of Alexandria in 1882 Troops were to remain only temporarily but stayed until 1956 Britain supported a puppet government led by Tewfik Pasha Egypt became a British protectorate

24 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
France was upset about the presence of the British in Egypt Concentrated its efforts on Algeria setting up a colony there It also set up protectorates in Tunisia and in Morocco End of Abdülhamid’s Reign (1909) A Young Turk revolution broke out in the summer of 1908 Called for an end to repression and a promise for liberal reforms Abdülhamid agreed to implement the 1876 constitution In April 1909, he led a counter-revolution against the Young Turks The government finally deposed of him on April 27, 1909

25 Africa in 1870

26 Scramble for Africa Prior to 1870, Africa was a mysterious continent that had yet to reveal its secrets to the Europeans During this period, Scot David Livingstone and journalist H.M. Stanley explored the innermost regions of the continent Travelled along the Zambezi River and “discovered” Victoria Falls Stanley realized the economic opportunities of Africa and went back to Europe looking for financial backers Leopold II of Belgium ( ) Believed that overseas colonies would make Belgium a great state Worked with Stanley to gain colonies for Belgium

27 Scramble for Africa International Congo Association (1878)
Set up by Leopold II, Stanley, and a few financiers Private enterprise Stanley traveled to western Africa Signed treaties with local elites Opened the Congo to commercial exploitation (palm oil, rubber, diamonds) This led a flurry of other explorers and financiers to lay claims to the lands in inland Africa Germans began claiming east Africa French began traveling down the Congo River as well There was a mindset of get it before someone else claimed it

28 Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference of 1885 Called for by Bismarck
Goals: Set up the territories of the Congo Association as an international state Draft a code governing the way Europeans were to acquire territory in Africa The Congo would be open to free trade and commerce Terms for claiming territory: Those with coastal claims also had claims to inland territories Must have boundaries on paper and troops or administrators in place Formal notice must be given to the other European powers over what territories were being claimed

29 Scramble for Africa The Congo Free State
Actually run by Leopold’s private company Slave trade was to be suppressed in favor of free labor Leopold cared more about profits than the people Focused on rubber, which was in huge demand in Europe and the U.S. Created inhuman working conditions by using forced labor and pushing for high quotas on materials Led to the deaths of 2-15 million natives Rubber supply was eventually wiped out

30 Scramble for Africa In 1908, the Belgian government took control of the Congo Done mainly in response to the atrocities committed Made the Congo a Belgian colony Between 1885 and 1900 most of Africa was claimed by a European nation Germany focused on central Africa Took Cameroon and Tanzania Britain took positions in the north and south and then moved inland France moved from west Africa towards the east

31 Africa in 1914

32 Scramble for Africa The scramble for territory was going to lead to conflicts with the natives First Italo-Ethopian War ( ) Only time a native population was able to defeat European colonizing forces Battle of Adowa (March 1, 1896) 80,000 Ethiopians defeated the 20,000 Italian forces that were attempting to move inland Ethiopians were being assisted by Russia Kept European powers from trying to establish colonies there for over 40 years

33 Scramble for Africa Britain
In Egypt, Britain attempted to conquer the Upper Nile Also attempted to conquer southern and eastern Africa Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902) Made a fortune from South African diamond mines (DeBeers) Prime minister of Cape Colony (1890) Personal goal was to build an African empire founded on diamonds Carved out territories in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Botswana The “Cape-to-Cairo” railway Designed to transect Africa Purpose of colonization was to make Britain self-sufficient

34 Scramble for Africa The French in Algeria Algeria as a settler state
Utopian socialist communities Exiled revolutionaries of 1848 Winegrowers Not all settlers were French Under the Third Republic (1870), Algeria was made a department of France Gave French settlers full rights of republican citizenship Consolidated privileges Disenfranchised indigenous populations Differentiated “good” Berbers and “bad” Arabs

35 Scramble for Africa After 1870: the “civilizing mission”
Reinforcing the purpose of the French republic and French prestige Jules Ferry (1832–1893), argued for expansion into Indochina French acquired Tunisia in 1881 Federation of French West Africa (1893) Rationalizing the economic exploitation of the area “Enhancing the value” of the region Public programs served French interests only

36 Scramble for Africa Germany
Bismarck was a reluctant colonizer Did not enter the “race” until the 1880s Established colonies in German East Africa, the Cameroons, and Togo With the scramble, it was clear that the European powers were going to come into conflict with one another French and Germans had colonies along an east-west route Britain focused on a north-south route

37 Scramble for Africa Fashoda Crisis (1898) Afrikaners (Boers)
Britain and France faced one another for dominance of Africa General Kitchner was conquering the Nile for Britain Came upon French troops under Captain J.B. Marchand at Fashoda France eventually backed down for fear of Germany’s growing power both in Europe and in Africa Afrikaners (Boers) Dutch and Swiss settlers who had arrived in the early nineteenth century Troubled relationship with the British in South Africa Set up two free states: Transvaal and the Orange Free State

38 Scramble for Africa When diamonds were discovered in Transvaal, the government refused to pass legislation allowing mining companies into the republic Jameson Raid (1895) Rhodes sent in Dr. Leeander Jameson with a party of armed irregulars into Transvaal to spark a British uprising It failed German Kaiser William II sent the infamous “Kruger telegram” to Transvaal president Paul Kruger Congratulated him on driving off the British without the use of German aid

39 Scramble for Africa Second Boer War (1899-1902)
British army was completely unprepared for war British government refused to compromise The British eventually seized Pretoria A guerilla war dragged on for three years British used concentration camps where Afrikaner citizens were rounded up 120,000 women and children were sent to the camps Around 20,000 died In 1910, the Union of South Africa was created British and Boers shared power

40 Boers in a British concentration camp

41 European Colonies (c. 1900)

42 Imperialism in Asia Both British India and the Dutch East India colonies were profitable They continuously exported more goods than they imported Developed high level bureaucracies These were good for providing government jobs to the middle- and upper-classes The ideal form of colony for the Europeans

43 Dutch East Indies By 1815, the Dutch only controlled Java
However, incursions by the other European countries into the region forced the Dutch to seek greater claims in the East Indies They laid claim to the entire archipelago “Culture System” (aka Cultivation System) 20% of village land was dedicated to crops to be exported Form of taxation system Led to a 14% increase in exports Helped to bring the Netherlands out of the brink of bankruptcy

44 India and the British Empire
The “Jewel of the British Crown” The British East India Company Had its own military divided into European and Indian divisions Held the right to collect taxes on land from Indian peasants Held legal monopolies over trade in all goods (the most lucrative was opium) Constituted a military and repressive government Offered economic privileges to those who allied themselves with the British against others

45 India and the British Empire
British policy divided One group wanted to westernize India Another thought it safer and more practical to defer to local culture There were many social, economic, and political grievances Did not like the repressive British policies Resented that those who were pro-British received the better benefits British were against many of the Indian traditions Included an end to widow burning and suppression of the Thuggee cult (criminal assassin “caste”)

46 India and the British Empire
The Sepoy Rebellion (1857–1858) Sepoys were the native Indian troops that made up around 5/6th of the British Indian army Already unhappy with terms of their service being changed Company had terminated their pensions and forced them to serve in unfamiliar regions Rumors spread that the British were greasing gun cartridges with pig and cow fat The new cartridges needed to be bitten open Agitated the Muslim and Hindu soldiers Uprising began near Delhi Indian peasants attacked law courts and burned tax rolls Hindu and Muslim leaders denounced Christian missionaries

47 India and the British Empire
The British response Systematic campaign of repression Rebel-supported towns and villages were destroyed Reorganizing the Indian empire New strategies of British rule East India Company was abolished British raj governed directly Military reorganization Queen Victoria as empress of India Reform of the civil service Missionary activity subdued

48 India and the British Empire
India and Britain India as Britain’s largest export market India provided Britain with highly trained engineers and bureaucrats 1.2 million Indian troops fought with the British in World War I British indirect rule sought to create an Indian elite to serve British interests Large social group of British-educated Indian civil servants and businessmen Provided the leadership for an Indian nationalist movement

49 Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi
One of the key leaders of the Sepoy rebellion

50 The “Great Game” Russian colonization was through a policy of annexation Southern colonization Georgia (1801) Bessarabia, Turkestan, and Armenia Brought Russia and Britain close to war, especially over Afghanistan The “Great Game” Represented the jockeying taking place between Britain and Russia over the central Asia The “Game” was played out dramatically in Persia

51 The “Great Game” Control over Persia
Both Russia and Britain sought to control the region This was especially the case after 1900 when oil was discovered there They each provided the Persian government with loans that were to be paid back through collection of tariffs at Persian ports Persian Constitutional Revolution ( ) Started as a nationalistic movement against the influence of both the British and the Russians over the shah Ended with the creation of a new Persian constitution with a monarchy limited by a parliament Britain and Russia were forced to accept the “spheres of influence” for each other

52 Tabriz Revolutionaries

53 Europe and China Europe and China Canton System
Forcing trade agreements Set up treaty ports Established outposts of missionary activity British aimed to improving terms of the China trade Canton System Limited the ports to which Europeans could do business from Forbade trading between European merchants and Chinese civilians

54 Europe and China The opium trade A triangular trade
A direct link between Britain, British India, and China Opium one of the few products Europeans could sell in China Northeast India as richest opium-growing area A “narco-military empire” Opium production was labor-intensive A triangular trade East India Company sold opium to British, Dutch, and Chinese shippers Opium sent to southeast Asia and China Silver paid for opium was used to buy Chinese goods for the European market

55 Europe and China China banned opium imports in the 1830s
Will lead to a collision course with British opium traders First Opium War ( ) Fought between the British and the Qing Dynasty Drugs not the main focus The issue was sovereignty and economic status European rights to trade Treaty of Nanking (1842) Ended the Canton System Gave British extensive trading privileges Control of Hong Kong was given to the British China was forced to pay $21 million in reparations

56 Europe and China Second Opium War (1856-1860)
Fought between Britain, France, and the Qing Dynasty British demanded more trading rights and permission for a British ambassador to China British and French troops burned down the Summer Palace in Beijing Treaty of Tientsin (1860) Britain granted further trading rights 11 more ports were open to trade Established freedom of religion in China Legalized the opium trade China was forced to pay an indemnity of 20 million taels to Britain and France (~$743 million in 2011) 1 Canton tael = 37.5g of silver. Based on silver value in 2011, 1 tael = $37.16

57 Europe and China Other countries demand similar rights and economic opportunities French, German, and Russian demanded mining rights All begin manufacturing with Chinese labor The United States and the “open door” policy Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) Radical Christian rebels in southern China challenged the authority of the Qing Dynasty First instance of “total war” in China Every able-bodied man was conscripted in some way China’s agricultural heartland was devastated by this civil war

58 Europe and China Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) Triple Intervention
Fought between Qing Dynasty and Meiji Japan Mainly over control of Korea Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) Forced China to concede trading privileges to Japan China recognized the independence of Korea China was forced to pay 200 million taels to Japan War showed the continued weakness of the Chinese government Triple Intervention Russia, Germany, and France negotiated with Japan to not take the Liaondong Peninsula Area was later occupied by Russia

59 Europe and China The Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists
AKA the Boxers Secret society of men trained in martial arts Anti-foreign and anti-missionary Upset with the “Unequal Treaties” with the west Boxer Rebellion ( ) The Boxers attacked foreign engineers and destroyed railway lines In June 1900, they marched on Beijing Defeated by the Eight Nation Alliance Included Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the U.S.

60 Europe and China Boxer Protocol (1901)
War reparations of 450 million taels over 39 years $335 million in 1901 $6.7 billion in 2011 Qing Dynasty had to allow foreign troops in Beijing Permanent ban on memberships to anti-foreign societies Europeans were granted rights to occupy 12 cities

61 Boxer rebel (1900)

62 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
There were increasing tensions between Russia and Japan over the control of Manchuria and Korea Japan wanted the region for its raw materials and markets Russia wanted to strengthen its position in eastern Asia and protect the city of Vladivostok Russia was building a railroad to Vladivostok through Manchuria Vladivostok was not a warm water port Russia turned its attention to Port Arthur on the Liaodong Peninsula Occupied the Peninsula after the Boxer Rebellion

63 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Japan began negotiating with Russia in 1901 Hope to give Manchuria to Russia and Japan would keep Korea Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) Designed to check Russian expansion in eastern Asia Ended Britain’s period of “splendid isolation” Recognized the independence of China and Korea Each side would remain neutral if either one became involved in a war over China or Korea with only one enemy If either side was fighting two or more enemies then the other would come to its aid

64 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Franco-Russian Alliance (1902) France would technically come to the aid of Russia if attacked However, if Russia went to war with Japan, France could not do so This would cause Britain to join the war France was not willing to take that risk Negotiations continued through 1904 However, terms could not be agreed upon Russia refused to give up Port Arthur Diplomatic relations were severed in February 1904

65 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Nicolas II was interested in going to war against Japan He believed it would spark Russian patriotism However, his advisors believed that there would be strategic issues in such a war This included the transportation of soldiers to the east War began when the Japanese navy attacked Port Arthur An official declaration of war was received three hours later Russia declared war eight days later While Britain did not join the war, it did provide Japan with intelligence against the Russians Japan returned the favor Discovered that Germany was supporting the Russians Helped Britain decide that Germany was an international threat

66 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Battle of Mukden (February 20 – March 10, 1905) Largest number of participants in one battle up to that date 276,000 Russian forces versus 270,000 Japanese Russians lost the city 90,000 casualties Also lost most of their combat supplies and artillery Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 27-8, 1905) Russian fleet traveled 18,000 nautical miles First naval battle using wireless telegraphy Japanese navy destroyed 2/3 of the Russian fleet This defeat brought an end to the war

67 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) Negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt Manchuria was to be returned to China Japan received a lease to the Liaodong Peninsula and the Russian railway through Manchuria Japan received a protectorate over Korea Japan also received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin Importance of the war First war between the Great Powers since 1870 First time non-whites defeated a white power in modern era Japanese showed that they were a major world power

68 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Effects of the war Russia shifted its attention back to Europe Specifically turned to the Balkans and pan-Slavism Tsar’s power was considerably weakened He became the laughingstock of Russia due to his incompetence over the war Helped to contribute to the Revolution of 1905 Became a motivating factor for those fighting against the European powers Japan proved that they could be defeated Japan emerged as a world power

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