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Modern European History II HIS-107 Unit 5 – Europe’s World Supremacy, 1871-1914.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern European History II HIS-107 Unit 5 – Europe’s World Supremacy, 1871-1914."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern European History II HIS-107 Unit 5 – Europe’s World Supremacy, 1871-1914

2 Imperialism  Definitions  The process of extending one state’s control over another  Formal imperialism  Colonialism or direct control  Colonizing countries annexed territories outright  Established new governments  Informal imperialism  Conquering nations reached agreements with indigenous leaders and governed through them  Allowed weaker state to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereignty  Carving out zones of European sovereignty and privilege

3 Imperialism  “Old imperialism”  Maritime and mercantile  Mostly done through informal imperialism  “New imperialism”  Arose during the 19 th century with the Industrial Revolution  Focused more on formal imperialism  Demand for raw materials  Built up newly acquired territories to make them more productive  Aspired towards political and territorial domination  Exerted influence on governments already in place

4 Imperialism  Nineteenth-century imperialism  Appeared against the backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-states  The need for raw materials  Bringing progress to the world  Imperialists sought to distance themselves from earlier histories of conquest  Guided more by “settlement and discipline” than independent entrepreneurial activity  Colonial resistance and rebellion forced Europeans to develop new strategies of rule  British granted self-government to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand  19 th empires established carefully codified racial hierarchies

5 Imperialism  Why the change over?  After 1875, Europe was dominant both economically and militarily  Non-European states were entering a period of decline  Included the Ottomans, Persians, Chinese, and Japanese  No longer had to bow down to the existing governments in non-European states  Europeans had military capabilities that the non-Europeans did not possess  Battles were typically one-sided in favor of the Europeans  Because of this, non-Europeans were forced to accept either a new government or a European “advisor”

6 Incentives and Motives  There were many incentives for taking new colonies  Acquisition of raw materials  Europeans were used to a certain quality of life  Many goods were only available from tropical regions  Included tea, coffee, coconuts and jute (used in ropes and bags)  Neomercantilism  Push for the creation of new markets  Wanted to create favorable balance of trade  Raised tariffs to prevent buying of imports  Used raw materials from colonies to make domestic goods  Goal: to accumulate as much wealth as possible

7 Incentives and Motives  The profit motive  Investments in non-European countries brought a higher rate of return  Natives provided cheap labor  Strategic and nationalist motives  International rivalries fueled the belief that national interests were at stake  The French supported imperialism as a means of restoring national honor  The British worried about German and French industrialization and losing world markets  The link between imperialism and nation-building

8 Incentives and Motives  Socialist critics  J. A. Hobson (1858–1940), Imperialism (1902)  Imperialism was driven by a small group of financiers  International capitalists  Investors sought out secure investment opportunities in colonies  The manufacturing, military, and armaments interest  Lenin (1870–1924)  Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)  Imperialism as an essential stage in the development of capitalism  Demand for raw materials made colonization a necessary investment  The internal contradictions of capitalism produced imperialism  The overthrow of capitalism would check imperialism

9 Incentives and Motives  Profits were a huge incentive to countries like Britain and France  1/8 of the Britain’s wealth was invested in overseas colonies  France had 1/10  Most of the wealth was targeted to Egypt, South Africa and Asia  Did invest in eastern Europe as well by supplying Russia with loans  Germany was the only major country not heavily investing in colonies  What little was invested went to the Ottoman Empire, Africa, and China

10 Incentives and Motives  Another motive was national security  This was tied in to the economic well-being of the country  Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) believed that Britain should be “a great self-sustaining and self-protecting empire”  With economic profits, the country could look after its population  Wanted to strengthen the empire through economic controls  Did the working class benefit from imperialism?  Somewhat  Higher wages due to the inflow of low-priced colonial goods  Left a higher standard of living  Did not produce the angry proletariat class the Marxists were hoping for

11 Incentives and Motives  Imperialism was also seen as a crusade  A way for the white man to “civilize” the natives  Strengthened by the concept of Social Darwinism  That whites were “more fit” than other races  Many traveled to the colonies not so much for profit but to improve the lives of the native populations  This included building schools and hospitals  This “humanitarianism” was still tied to European self-interests

12  Decline of the Ottoman Empire

13 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Ottoman Empire in the 1850s  Very diverse population  Mix of religions  Different forms of Islam including orthodox and Wahhabis  Jews and Greek Orthodox Christians who always lived in this region  Ruling class were the Turks and majority were Muslims  Muslims followed their own laws  Jews and Christians had their own separate system of laws and government  Disputes between Europeans were held in European courts  Disputes between a European and a Muslim were held in a Muslim court but with a European observer

14 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  There was no sense of national unity  The “sick man of Europe” during the 1850s  Russia took the Caucasus and Crimea  France occupied Algeria  Both Serbia and Greece received some form of independence  Wahhabis were gaining control over most of Arabia  The effects of the Crimean War (1854-1856)  Nationalism that bolstered Europe was going to start affecting the Ottomans  Even though they were on the winning side, the war exposed its political and military weaknesses

15 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Hatt-I Humayun (1856)  Ottoman’s attempt at major reform throughout the empire  Created national citizenship for all persons inside the empire  Abolished the civil authority of religious hierarchies  Guaranteed equality before the law  Opened up government and army positions to non-Muslims  Led to a period of Ottoman revival  For 20 years, the reform movement grew  There was some resistance but was not effective  The new sultan Abdülhamid II even proclaimed a new constitution in 1876

16  Sultan Abdülhamid II  (1876-1909)

17 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Repression after 1876  While he initially supported the reform measures, Abdülhamid II became an autocratic ruler  Became increasingly paranoid of westerners and reformers  Instituted a period of repression lasting his entire regime  Many were forced to leave the empire  Young Turks fled to Europe in hopes of again returning to Europe to dethrone Abdul the Damned  Others put up some form of resistance  Included Armenians, Bulgars, Macedonians, and Cretans  April Uprising (1876) led to the massacre of thousands of Bulgarians  Hamidian Massacres (1894-1896) led to the death of at least 80,000 Armenians

18 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Europeans were shocked at what was taking place in the Empire  At the same time, the thought of a reformed, newly invigorated Empire was not what the Europeans had wanted  Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)  Fought mainly in the Caucuses and the Balkans  Russia hoped to regain its territories lost in the Crimean War  Also played on the growing pan-Slavism of the time and the April Uprisings in Bulgaria  Russia easily defeated the Turks

19 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Treaty of San Stefano (1878)  Ottomans recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro  Also recognized the autonomy of Bulgaria  The Great Powers were not enthralled with this arrangement  Threw off the balance of power in eastern Europe in favor of the Russians  Britain was especially fearful of Russian influence over the Middle East now that it was a major stockholder in the Suez Canal

20 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Congress of Berlin (1878)  Organized by the Great Powers to reorganize the Balkans  Designed to prevent an Anglo-Russian War  Illustrated the growing weakness of the Ottoman Empire  Conditions included those set down in the Treaty of San Stefano but:  A much smaller Bulgaria  Territory going to Austria-Hungary and Russia  Macedonia was returned to the Turks who promised reform  Not everyone was satisfied with the outcome  Russia was annoyed at Europe for taking away key territories it had gained, including influence over Bulgaria


22 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Egypt was technically autonomous in the Empire  During the 1850s and 60s, Egypt worked on economic development and reform  Modernized its infrastructure and legal system  Allowed the French to build the Suez Canal  Borrowed most of the money for these reforms from Britain and France  By 1879, Egypt was in economic distress due to its debts  Paid off some by selling shares of the Suez Canal to Britain  The current khedive, Ismail Pasha, was forced to abdicate under pressure from Britain and France

23 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  Nationalism sparked during this period  Mainly in resentment to the growing influence of foreigners  Led by Colonel Arabi, riots broke out in Alexandria  Britain responded by sending troops into Egypt and defeating Arabi  Included a naval bombardment of Alexandria in 1882  Troops were to remain only temporarily but stayed until 1956  Britain supported a puppet government led by Tewfik Pasha  Egypt became a British protectorate

24 The Collapse of the Ottoman Empire  France was upset about the presence of the British in Egypt  Concentrated its efforts on Algeria setting up a colony there  It also set up protectorates in Tunisia and in Morocco  End of Abdülhamid’s Reign (1909)  A Young Turk revolution broke out in the summer of 1908  Called for an end to repression and a promise for liberal reforms  Abdülhamid agreed to implement the 1876 constitution  In April 1909, he led a counter-revolution against the Young Turks  The government finally deposed of him on April 27, 1909

25  Africa in 1870

26 Scramble for Africa  Prior to 1870, Africa was a mysterious continent that had yet to reveal its secrets to the Europeans  During this period, Scot David Livingstone and journalist H.M. Stanley explored the innermost regions of the continent  Travelled along the Zambezi River and “discovered” Victoria Falls  Stanley realized the economic opportunities of Africa and went back to Europe looking for financial backers  Leopold II of Belgium (1865-1909)  Believed that overseas colonies would make Belgium a great state  Worked with Stanley to gain colonies for Belgium

27 Scramble for Africa  International Congo Association (1878)  Set up by Leopold II, Stanley, and a few financiers  Private enterprise  Stanley traveled to western Africa  Signed treaties with local elites  Opened the Congo to commercial exploitation (palm oil, rubber, diamonds)  This led a flurry of other explorers and financiers to lay claims to the lands in inland Africa  Germans began claiming east Africa  French began traveling down the Congo River as well  There was a mindset of get it before someone else claimed it

28 Scramble for Africa  Berlin Conference of 1885  Called for by Bismarck  Goals:  Set up the territories of the Congo Association as an international state  Draft a code governing the way Europeans were to acquire territory in Africa  The Congo would be open to free trade and commerce  Terms for claiming territory:  Those with coastal claims also had claims to inland territories  Must have boundaries on paper and troops or administrators in place  Formal notice must be given to the other European powers over what territories were being claimed

29 Scramble for Africa  The Congo Free State  Actually run by Leopold’s private company  Slave trade was to be suppressed in favor of free labor  Leopold cared more about profits than the people  Focused on rubber, which was in huge demand in Europe and the U.S.  Created inhuman working conditions by using forced labor and pushing for high quotas on materials  Led to the deaths of 2-15 million natives  Rubber supply was eventually wiped out

30 Scramble for Africa  In 1908, the Belgian government took control of the Congo  Done mainly in response to the atrocities committed  Made the Congo a Belgian colony  Between 1885 and 1900 most of Africa was claimed by a European nation  Germany focused on central Africa  Took Cameroon and Tanzania  Britain took positions in the north and south and then moved inland  France moved from west Africa towards the east

31  Africa in 1914

32 Scramble for Africa  The scramble for territory was going to lead to conflicts with the natives  First Italo-Ethopian War (1895-1896)  Only time a native population was able to defeat European colonizing forces  Battle of Adowa (March 1, 1896)  80,000 Ethiopians defeated the 20,000 Italian forces that were attempting to move inland  Ethiopians were being assisted by Russia  Kept European powers from trying to establish colonies there for over 40 years

33 Scramble for Africa  Britain  In Egypt, Britain attempted to conquer the Upper Nile  Also attempted to conquer southern and eastern Africa  Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902)  Made a fortune from South African diamond mines (DeBeers)  Prime minister of Cape Colony (1890)  Personal goal was to build an African empire founded on diamonds  Carved out territories in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Botswana  The “Cape-to-Cairo” railway  Designed to transect Africa  Purpose of colonization was to make Britain self-sufficient

34 Scramble for Africa  The French in Algeria  Algeria as a settler state  Utopian socialist communities  Exiled revolutionaries of 1848  Winegrowers  Not all settlers were French  Under the Third Republic (1870), Algeria was made a department of France  Gave French settlers full rights of republican citizenship  Consolidated privileges  Disenfranchised indigenous populations  Differentiated “good” Berbers and “bad” Arabs

35 Scramble for Africa  After 1870: the “civilizing mission”  Reinforcing the purpose of the French republic and French prestige  Jules Ferry (1832–1893), argued for expansion into Indochina  French acquired Tunisia in 1881  Federation of French West Africa (1893)  Rationalizing the economic exploitation of the area  “Enhancing the value” of the region  Public programs served French interests only

36 Scramble for Africa  Germany  Bismarck was a reluctant colonizer  Did not enter the “race” until the 1880s  Established colonies in German East Africa, the Cameroons, and Togo  With the scramble, it was clear that the European powers were going to come into conflict with one another  French and Germans had colonies along an east-west route  Britain focused on a north-south route

37 Scramble for Africa  Fashoda Crisis (1898)  Britain and France faced one another for dominance of Africa  General Kitchner was conquering the Nile for Britain  Came upon French troops under Captain J.B. Marchand at Fashoda  France eventually backed down for fear of Germany’s growing power both in Europe and in Africa  Afrikaners (Boers)  Dutch and Swiss settlers who had arrived in the early nineteenth century  Troubled relationship with the British in South Africa  Set up two free states: Transvaal and the Orange Free State

38 Scramble for Africa  When diamonds were discovered in Transvaal, the government refused to pass legislation allowing mining companies into the republic  Jameson Raid (1895)  Rhodes sent in Dr. Leeander Jameson with a party of armed irregulars into Transvaal to spark a British uprising  It failed  German Kaiser William II sent the infamous “Kruger telegram” to Transvaal president Paul Kruger  Congratulated him on driving off the British without the use of German aid

39 Scramble for Africa  Second Boer War (1899-1902)  British army was completely unprepared for war  British government refused to compromise  The British eventually seized Pretoria  A guerilla war dragged on for three years  British used concentration camps where Afrikaner citizens were rounded up  120,000 women and children were sent to the camps  Around 20,000 died  In 1910, the Union of South Africa was created  British and Boers shared power

40  Boers in a British concentration camp

41  European Colonies (c. 1900)

42 Imperialism in Asia  Both British India and the Dutch East India colonies were profitable  They continuously exported more goods than they imported  Developed high level bureaucracies  These were good for providing government jobs to the middle- and upper-classes  The ideal form of colony for the Europeans

43 Dutch East Indies  By 1815, the Dutch only controlled Java  However, incursions by the other European countries into the region forced the Dutch to seek greater claims in the East Indies  They laid claim to the entire archipelago  “Culture System” (aka Cultivation System)  20% of village land was dedicated to crops to be exported  Form of taxation system  Led to a 14% increase in exports  Helped to bring the Netherlands out of the brink of bankruptcy

44 India and the British Empire  The “Jewel of the British Crown”  The British East India Company  Had its own military divided into European and Indian divisions  Held the right to collect taxes on land from Indian peasants  Held legal monopolies over trade in all goods (the most lucrative was opium)  Constituted a military and repressive government  Offered economic privileges to those who allied themselves with the British against others

45 India and the British Empire  British policy divided  One group wanted to westernize India  Another thought it safer and more practical to defer to local culture  There were many social, economic, and political grievances  Did not like the repressive British policies  Resented that those who were pro-British received the better benefits  British were against many of the Indian traditions  Included an end to widow burning and suppression of the Thuggee cult (criminal assassin “caste”)

46 India and the British Empire  The Sepoy Rebellion (1857–1858)  Sepoys were the native Indian troops that made up around 5/6 th of the British Indian army  Already unhappy with terms of their service being changed  Company had terminated their pensions and forced them to serve in unfamiliar regions  Rumors spread that the British were greasing gun cartridges with pig and cow fat  The new cartridges needed to be bitten open  Agitated the Muslim and Hindu soldiers  Uprising began near Delhi  Indian peasants attacked law courts and burned tax rolls  Hindu and Muslim leaders denounced Christian missionaries

47 India and the British Empire  The British response  Systematic campaign of repression  Rebel-supported towns and villages were destroyed  Reorganizing the Indian empire  New strategies of British rule  East India Company was abolished  British raj governed directly  Military reorganization  Queen Victoria as empress of India  Reform of the civil service  Missionary activity subdued

48 India and the British Empire  India and Britain  India as Britain’s largest export market  India provided Britain with highly trained engineers and bureaucrats  1.2 million Indian troops fought with the British in World War I  British indirect rule sought to create an Indian elite to serve British interests  Large social group of British-educated Indian civil servants and businessmen  Provided the leadership for an Indian nationalist movement

49  Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi  One of the key leaders of the Sepoy rebellion

50 The “Great Game”  Russian colonization was through a policy of annexation  Southern colonization  Georgia (1801)  Bessarabia, Turkestan, and Armenia  Brought Russia and Britain close to war, especially over Afghanistan  The “Great Game”  Represented the jockeying taking place between Britain and Russia over the central Asia  The “Game” was played out dramatically in Persia

51 The “Great Game”  Control over Persia  Both Russia and Britain sought to control the region  This was especially the case after 1900 when oil was discovered there  They each provided the Persian government with loans that were to be paid back through collection of tariffs at Persian ports  Persian Constitutional Revolution (1905-1906)  Started as a nationalistic movement against the influence of both the British and the Russians over the shah  Ended with the creation of a new Persian constitution with a monarchy limited by a parliament  Britain and Russia were forced to accept the “spheres of influence” for each other

52  Tabriz Revolutionaries

53 Europe and China  Europe and China  Forcing trade agreements  Set up treaty ports  Established outposts of missionary activity  British aimed to improving terms of the China trade  Canton System  Limited the ports to which Europeans could do business from  Forbade trading between European merchants and Chinese civilians

54 Europe and China  The opium trade  A direct link between Britain, British India, and China  Opium one of the few products Europeans could sell in China  Northeast India as richest opium-growing area  A “narco-military empire”  Opium production was labor-intensive  A triangular trade  East India Company sold opium to British, Dutch, and Chinese shippers  Opium sent to southeast Asia and China  Silver paid for opium was used to buy Chinese goods for the European market

55 Europe and China  China banned opium imports in the 1830s  Will lead to a collision course with British opium traders  First Opium War (1839-1842)  Fought between the British and the Qing Dynasty  Drugs not the main focus  The issue was sovereignty and economic status  European rights to trade  Treaty of Nanking (1842)  Ended the Canton System  Gave British extensive trading privileges  Control of Hong Kong was given to the British  China was forced to pay $21 million in reparations

56 Europe and China  Second Opium War (1856-1860)  Fought between Britain, France, and the Qing Dynasty  British demanded more trading rights and permission for a British ambassador to China  British and French troops burned down the Summer Palace in Beijing  Treaty of Tientsin (1860)  Britain granted further trading rights  11 more ports were open to trade  Established freedom of religion in China  Legalized the opium trade  China was forced to pay an indemnity of 20 million taels to Britain and France (~$743 million in 2011)

57 Europe and China  Other countries demand similar rights and economic opportunities  French, German, and Russian demanded mining rights  All begin manufacturing with Chinese labor  The United States and the “open door” policy  Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)  Radical Christian rebels in southern China challenged the authority of the Qing Dynasty  First instance of “total war” in China  Every able-bodied man was conscripted in some way  China’s agricultural heartland was devastated by this civil war

58 Europe and China  Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)  Fought between Qing Dynasty and Meiji Japan  Mainly over control of Korea  Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895)  Forced China to concede trading privileges to Japan  China recognized the independence of Korea  China was forced to pay 200 million taels to Japan  War showed the continued weakness of the Chinese government  Triple Intervention  Russia, Germany, and France negotiated with Japan to not take the Liaondong Peninsula  Area was later occupied by Russia

59 Europe and China  The Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists  AKA the Boxers  Secret society of men trained in martial arts  Anti-foreign and anti-missionary  Upset with the “Unequal Treaties” with the west  Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901)  The Boxers attacked foreign engineers and destroyed railway lines  In June 1900, they marched on Beijing  Defeated by the Eight Nation Alliance  Included Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the U.S.

60 Europe and China  Boxer Protocol (1901)  War reparations of 450 million taels over 39 years  $335 million in 1901  $6.7 billion in 2011  Qing Dynasty had to allow foreign troops in Beijing  Permanent ban on memberships to anti-foreign societies  Europeans were granted rights to occupy 12 cities

61  Boxer rebel  (1900)

62 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  There were increasing tensions between Russia and Japan over the control of Manchuria and Korea  Japan wanted the region for its raw materials and markets  Russia wanted to strengthen its position in eastern Asia and protect the city of Vladivostok  Russia was building a railroad to Vladivostok through Manchuria  Vladivostok was not a warm water port  Russia turned its attention to Port Arthur on the Liaodong Peninsula  Occupied the Peninsula after the Boxer Rebellion

63 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Japan began negotiating with Russia in 1901  Hope to give Manchuria to Russia and Japan would keep Korea  Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)  Designed to check Russian expansion in eastern Asia  Ended Britain’s period of “splendid isolation”  Recognized the independence of China and Korea  Each side would remain neutral if either one became involved in a war over China or Korea with only one enemy  If either side was fighting two or more enemies then the other would come to its aid

64 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Franco-Russian Alliance (1902)  France would technically come to the aid of Russia if attacked  However, if Russia went to war with Japan, France could not do so  This would cause Britain to join the war  France was not willing to take that risk  Negotiations continued through 1904  However, terms could not be agreed upon  Russia refused to give up Port Arthur  Diplomatic relations were severed in February 1904

65 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Nicolas II was interested in going to war against Japan  He believed it would spark Russian patriotism  However, his advisors believed that there would be strategic issues in such a war  This included the transportation of soldiers to the east  War began when the Japanese navy attacked Port Arthur  An official declaration of war was received three hours later  Russia declared war eight days later  While Britain did not join the war, it did provide Japan with intelligence against the Russians  Japan returned the favor  Discovered that Germany was supporting the Russians  Helped Britain decide that Germany was an international threat

66 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Battle of Mukden (February 20 – March 10, 1905)  Largest number of participants in one battle up to that date  276,000 Russian forces versus 270,000 Japanese  Russians lost the city  90,000 casualties  Also lost most of their combat supplies and artillery  Battle of Tsushima Straits (May 27-8, 1905)  Russian fleet traveled 18,000 nautical miles  First naval battle using wireless telegraphy  Japanese navy destroyed 2/3 of the Russian fleet  This defeat brought an end to the war

67 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)  Negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt  Manchuria was to be returned to China  Japan received a lease to the Liaodong Peninsula and the Russian railway through Manchuria  Japan received a protectorate over Korea  Japan also received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin  Importance of the war  First war between the Great Powers since 1870  First time non-whites defeated a white power in modern era  Japanese showed that they were a major world power

68 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Effects of the war  Russia shifted its attention back to Europe  Specifically turned to the Balkans and pan-Slavism  Tsar’s power was considerably weakened  He became the laughingstock of Russia due to his incompetence over the war  Helped to contribute to the Revolution of 1905  Became a motivating factor for those fighting against the European powers  Japan proved that they could be defeated  Japan emerged as a world power


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