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Warm Up VIDEO WARM UP: The Scramble for African Colonies COMPLETE THE HALF SHEET PROVIDED TURN IN AFTER LECTURE…

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up VIDEO WARM UP: The Scramble for African Colonies COMPLETE THE HALF SHEET PROVIDED TURN IN AFTER LECTURE…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up VIDEO WARM UP: The Scramble for African Colonies COMPLETE THE HALF SHEET PROVIDED TURN IN AFTER LECTURE…

2 The Partition of Africa: European Imperialism C25 Section 2 JOIN ME ON PAGE 621

3 Africa: Before the 1800s NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICAEAST AFRICA Since long before 1800, the region had close ties to the Muslim world. In the early 1800s, much of the region remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire. Since Muslims controlled this area, Europeans STAYED OUT OF IT! Slave trade had primarily been carried on by Africans and Europeans ALONG THE COAST Inland kingdoms began Islamic jihads against slave trade kingdoms (like the Ashanti) which required the help of European military power Slave trade began to decline as a result Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. Europeans DID actually colonize here but were largely oblivious to these wars until the mid- 1800s (more later) Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on. By the late 1600s, the Portuguese muscled their way onto this coast to control this trade, BUT DID NOT go inland

4 Europe Goes Inland From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography, tales of terrible people and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa. Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s. Many explorers begin to push in from the coast in the early to mid 1800s –Mungo Park and Richard Burton followed the courses of major African rivers as the wound into the interior (CONTESTS) –The most famous explorer of Africa was Dr. David Livingstone, who actually went missing until found by Henry Stanley in 1871…”Dr. Livingston, I presume?” Religion becomes an impetus for settlement in interior Africa –Missionaries, both Catholic and Protestant, began to flood into the interior on a mission to “Christianize” and “Civilize” Africans. –They set up schools and hospitals

5 Let the Scramble Begin Of all the countries in Europe to start the scramble, it was BELGIUM and King Leopold II In order to avoid an all out war between European powers, they sat down at a conference in Berlin in 1884 –No one from Africa was invited –The goal: Draw a map of Africa which divided the territory into colonies for the following countries: Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Belgium and Portugal –This territory was divided based on where Europeans already had set up government offices and settlements –Ethiopia and Liberia are only countries not taken by Europeans PROBLEMS: 1) Europeans did not take into account the traditional tribal boundaries of Africans 2) To make this geographic process successful, the European even played off tribe against tribe (political issues)

6 The Damage of Colonization Belgian Congo –The WORST/Most horrific example of colonial control in human history –While Belgians raped the land of resources, they used brutality against the people, beating and mutilating many –In 1908, when word got out, the king was forced to hand over control of the colony to the Parliamentary government French in North Africa –The French clashed with Muslims in North Africa, killing many in an attempt to control territory (anti-French sentiments linger today) British – Cape to Cairo –In their quest to link their northern colonies to their newly “acquired” southern colonies the British drove many natives civilizations into war –Land was taken away from natives (much similar to the way the US took land from Indians) and given to wealthy white people –Impact: Segregation and now, racism (in the reverse – blacks mistreating whites)

7 Review: Major Themes 1. Early European interaction in Africa was limited to the coast (trading ports) before Europeans went inland along rivers in the mid-1800s; religion was a BIG push for “settlement” 3. Belgium starts the great “land grab” of Africa 4. To avoid war with each other, European powers sit down (Berlin 1884) & carve up Africa, causing the social and political unrest we see in Africa to this date 5. South Africa was the only area “colonized” by Europeans; the rest was mainly occupied over time; Ethiopia and Liberia were FREE 6. Colonialism was disastrous!

8 Today’s Work Chapter 25 Section 2 Puzzle & Viewpoints Activity WHATEVER IS NOT FINISHED IS HOMEWORK, DUE TOMORROW! Next class: Maps! –One on Imperialism, the other on general African Geography


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