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1800-1945: Southern Africa 1800-1825 internal warfare, depopulation, forced migrations of Bantu  mfecane era (crushing era) Caused by population growth.

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Presentation on theme: "1800-1945: Southern Africa 1800-1825 internal warfare, depopulation, forced migrations of Bantu  mfecane era (crushing era) Caused by population growth."— Presentation transcript:

1 : Southern Africa internal warfare, depopulation, forced migrations of Bantu  mfecane era (crushing era) Caused by population growth & competition among rising military states Creation of new multitribal, multilingual Bantu states in modern day Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania (LEFT) Shaka Zulu, most important military leader, practiced total war to est. large Zulu nation Caused new kingdoms to grow  Lesotho founded by King Mosheshwe (in modern day South Africa)

2 Cape Colony Mfecane nation-building ended by European colonials 1806 British take Cape Colony from Dutch Great Trek of Boer voortrekers  Dutch settlers move north and NE to avoid conflict with Xhosa people & British Were attacked by Zulus along way 6,000 Afrikaners from eastern Cape NE to southern Africa, Natal & land above Orange River Afrikaners create Orange Fee State after 1850

3 Islamic Reform Movements 1800s efforts made by some Islamic states before European colonialism took hold Many rural people still pagan, while ruling classes & urbanites had converted Militant jihad movements firmly est. Islam’s place in Africa Sokoto=capital of Fulani empire established after 1804 in the Jihad led by Usman dan Fodio

4 Increasing European Influence European penetration limited, just coastal slave trade 19 th century saw English, French & German explorers map the geography of the continent Seek sources of Nile, Zambezi, Congo; wonders of Mt. Kilimajaro, Lake Tanganyika; fables of Timbuktu

5 British explorer Dr. David Livingstone, British missionary Asked by The Royal Geographical Society to explore the great African watersheds – esp. the sources of the Nile Tracked down by journalist Stanley=famous phrase

6 Christian missionaries Catholic & Protestant missionaries increasingly arrive in Africa late 1800s Tried to Christianize Africans & advocate end of remaining slave trade Created schools, brought medicine, some literacy, more knowledge to Europe Also gave colonists justification for their presence  weapons of imperialism Many missionaries succumbed to malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness (LEFT): Christian missionary in Tanzania

7 The Colonial “Scramble for Africa” Before 1850, only Dutch in Cape & French in Algeria From 1880s European presence increases

8 Why colonize to Africa? Popular interest Commercial interest Industrial markets & natural resources Intra-European competition for power & prestige HOW? Made possible by economic, technological, & military superiority Steamboats made rivers navigable between waterfalls French est. direct control, British indirect French conquest of Algeria constituted the 1 st major European colony in Africa ( )

9 The Scramble Continues Leopold II of Belgium & Otto von Bismarck of Germany followed Italy took Eritrea, Somaliland, Libya, & was repelled from Ethiopian by their army in 1896 Scramble ended by the start of WWI

10 African Resistance & Nationalism Many African states resisted militarily Though European colonial borders were mostly arbitrary, nationalist movements grew within these boundaries leading to many modern states Use of the common European language aided growth of nationalism Some movements used Western religious & political ideals to combat Western colonialism

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