Presentation on theme: "Warm UP- February 19, 2014 Analyze the political cartoon on the next slide. Write one paragraph that explains what is represented in the cartoon. Please."— Presentation transcript:
Warm UP- February 19, 2014 Analyze the political cartoon on the next slide. Write one paragraph that explains what is represented in the cartoon. Please be as detailed as possible
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
Standards SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21 st century. a. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and to artificial political boundaries.
Essential Question How did European partitioning of Africa contribute to conflict, civil war, and to artificial political boundaries?
colonialism the forced control of one nation by another nation
The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference a series of meetings held in Berlin, Germany in 1884 European nations attended the conference. African rulers DID NOT. The European nations partitioned (divided) Africa amongst themselves. Europeans owned almost ALL of Africa by the end of the conference.
A. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 1.European interest began with the SLAVE TRADE (1500s to 1800s) 2. Interest did NOT end with the slave trade European countries were “scrambling” to get their piece of Africa.
3.Competition for WORLD POWER drove European countries to COLONIZE (take over) Africa –colonialism- the forced control of one nation by another nation a.They wanted COLONIES (land) and b. raw materials (NATURAL RESOURCES) for their FACTORIES in Europe –New industries in Europe needed metals like copper and tin. –Europeans also used Africa as a source of cheap labor. –African countries were new markets for European goods.
4.Many African ethnic groups RESISTED takeover, fighting bloody battles to try and keep their land a.These include the Zulu, Fulani, and ASHANTI 5.Europeans won these battles because of their superior TECHNOLOGY (weapons)
Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)
B. EUROPEAN CONTROL 1.Countries needed African colonies for national POWER, raw materials (natural resources), and markets to increase wealth (people to buy goods) a. Important natural resources found in Africa include GOLD, PLATINUM, COAL, RUBBER and uranium
Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds
2.European countries also sent missionaries to bring CHRISTIANITY to “heathen” Africa –missionary- a person who goes to a foreign country to spread his or her religion 3.Many countries allowed large COMPANIES to move into Africa and organize the people 4. Other countries set up colonial GOVERNMENTS that took over the tribal governments and forced Africans to work
5.These governments and companies thought that Africans were “backwards” and needed to be “CIVILIZED” –Europeans looked down upon African ways of life. –Europeans wanted to change African culture to be more like European culture.
C. Two types of colonial rule 1.INDIRECT rule: LOCAL CHIEFS were made “enforcers” who collected taxes, ran businesses, and put down any trouble that emerged a.These chiefs were lured into power by promises of WEALTH & POWER
2. ASSIMILATION (direct rule): some countries, like France, forced Africans to give up CUSTOMS and adopt European ways (language, religion, etc.) What aspects of culture (customs) do you think were changed by the Europeans? hint....think ETHNIC GROUP CHARACTERISTICS
D.The Beginnings of Independence 1.European powers did not do much to BETTER the lives of Africans 2. Europeans were taking ADVANTAGE of the people 3. Africans were treated as SECOND class citizens
4. Africans fought on the side of Europe in WWI and WWII 5. Finally after years of colonial mistreatment and RACISM Africans began to openly oppose European control and demand FREEDOM
E. Independence & the Problems Afterwards 1.European countries began to free their colonies in the 1950s a.By 1960—27 free countries b. By 1975—47 free countries
2.During colonial rule, Europeans PARTIONED (divided) Africa into separate COUNTRIES. They created new political BOUNDARIES without considering the original tribal LOYALTIES and TERRITORIES 3. These new European drawn borders lead to PROBLEMS between different ETHNIC and RELIGIOUS groups living within the boundaries
Africa in 1914
4. These different ethnic and religious groups wanted to be in CONTROL of their new countries 5. This lead too many bloody and long CIVIL WARS throughout Africa 6. Lack of education also lead to problems because native African leaders were NOT PREPARED to run the new countries left in their control
Closing Scramble For Africa Respond to the following: 3 Reasons for European Colonization of Africa 2- Reasons why it was easy for Europeans to colonize Africa 1- Definition of colonialism