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The M.A.I.N. causes of the Great War

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1 The M.A.I.N. causes of the Great War
Simulation Debriefing

2 The M.A.I.N. Causes of the Great War
M = Militarism → A policy of glorifying military power & keeping a standing army always prepared for war

3 The M.A.I.N. Causes of the Great War
A = Alliances [Alliance System] → A series of treaties forging a “friendship”, uniting against a common threat

4 The M.A.I.N. Causes of the Great War
"Carved up" I = Imperialism → A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially

5 The M.A.I.N. Causes of the Great War
N = Nationalism →The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture & history-rather than to a king or empire

6 World Situation Summary
All the 15 items of the third page of our handout relate to actual history Take careful note of events as presented in our simulation, and actual events as they occurred c What were: Militaristic Alliances building Imperialistic Nationalistic

7 1. Your six nations represent the main factions in a troubled world situation.
Penland =  Germany Morovia =  Austria-Hungary Sandia =  Russia Caldonia =  Great Britain Yorkton =  France  Possibly / probably America later Bahkan =  Serbia – Which is part of the Balkan peninsula

8 2. There has been general peace on the continent for about fifty years
2. There has been general peace on the continent for about fifty years. This peace has been hard to maintain in the rapidly changing, expanding, industrial and technical world. Pax Britannia  The British Peace AKA  The Peace of Britain The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION has brought about the “rapidly changing, expanding, industrial and technical world” The industrial revolution had to happen to simulate all of these events

9 3. There has been increased intervention in the underdeveloped parts of the world by opposing factions. Both Caldonia and Penland have made claim to some disputed territory in the “rubber rich” area of Asia. IMPERIALISM The scramble for colonies in Asia & Africa has conflict among the European powers. The Berlin Conference The Boer War Also! Problems in Morocco Problems in Fashoda The 1898 Fashoda incident, which took the mythology of Franco-British rivalry a step further, followed a period of French celebration of the two nations’ shared defence of Western civilization. In July 1898, as General Kitchener’s army routed the dervishes at Omdurman in the Sudan, French newspapers praised this victory for ‘Western civilization’. There was little mention of latent rivalry, soon to become apparent as the small expeditionary force of Captain Marchand and his 150 men sized up to Kitchener’s large and victorious army at Fashoda. The French aimed to force the British out of Egypt and eventually to open up a vast African empire stretching from Algeria in the north to the Congo in the south, and from Senegal in the west to the Nile in the east. However Marchand’s four-year-long trek from west to east to make a military demonstration suffered, if nothing else, from poor timing. Marchand was encroaching on territory regarded by Britain as in its sphere of influence ever since it had taken control of Egypt in Britain demanded Marchand’s withdrawal. Despite popular outcry, at least in nationalist circles, the French government eventually backed down, calculating that France was in no position to engage in a war with the greatest naval power in the world. This was a severe blow to French prestige. But the French were soon diverted from Albion’s perfidy by the domestic trauma of the Dreyfus Affair. Nevertheless, the Fashoda incident un-remembered in British historical consciousness subsequently loomed large in France’s. The French took their revenge by openly sympathizing with the Boers during the Boer War of French volunteers left to fight alongside the Boers, while elegant ladies sported felt hats ‘a la Boer’ and the elite French military academy at Saint Cyr dubbed its 1900 cohort of graduates the ‘Transval year’. The Fashoda incident had injected new venom into Franco-British relations with the President of the Republic, Felix Faure, telling a Russian diplomat soon after the incident that Britain had replaced Germany as France’s real enemy. Certainly some of the anti-British propaganda of the Boer War was so virulent that the Germans reprinted it when they occupied France in 1940, which partly explains why Fashoda endures to this day. Even so mutual interest overcame temporary tension with the 1904 Entente Cordiale. France’s long-running foreign policy dilemma of a continental versus an imperial strategy had a strong effect on relations with Britain. By the turn of the century Germany’s rise was increasingly seen as a threat in London and Paris. The German 1900 Navy Law confirmed Berlin’s intention to build a fleet capable of challenging Britain’s naval supremacy and threatening France’s colonies. For Britain isolation was becoming more dangerous than splendid. In France the prospect of simultaneous tension with Germany and Britain was to have one enemy too many. In France some supported Franco-German reconciliation, but Alsace-Lorraine made that difficult. Conversely, Britain and France had not been at war with each other since Financial interests in the City of London were sympathetic to better relations with France. There was also a strong body of the Parisian elite sympathetic to Britain culturally. From the fictional English gentleman Phineas Fogg in Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days to the more serious writings of Anglophiles, often Oxford educated, such as Jacques Bardoux, Andre Siegfried or Elie Halevy, Britain’s stock was in favour. Mutual interest was behind the package of agreements that made up the Entente Cordiale.

10 IMPERIALISM The Industrial Revolution left many European nations depleted of natural resources and searching for new ones.

11 4. There has been a strong rivalry between Morovia and Yorkton centered around boundary disputes over the Great Forest area on their borders. A lot of intense competition between Europe’s Great Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France) Britain = home of Industrial Revolution Germany = home of fastest growing economy because of new industries

12 Nationalism before WWI…
Nationalistic rivalries grew out of territorial disputes Intense nationalism Demands for independence from empires

13 5. Yorkton has also been involved in controversies with Penland over control of the mouth of the Makeshift River. Yorkton currently controls the area. In the second half of the 19th Century both Germany and Italy unified into the nations we know (more or less) today. Each had been separate provinces or kingdoms unto themselves. In fact, wars break out over some controversies:  The Crimean War  The Seven Weeks War  The Franco-Prussian War

14 5. Yorkton has also been involved in controversies with Penland over control of the mouth of the Makeshift River. Yorkton currently controls the area. (continued)  Leaders of unification: Otto von Bismarck Giuseppe Mazzini Camillo di Cavour & Giuseppe Garibaldi Germany Italy

15 6. Bahkan is a relatively new nation, once having been a part of Morovia. They gained their independence peacefully under a previous government. Bahkan = Serbia which is a relatively new nation”, once being a part of Austria-Hungary (Morovia). Austria-Hungary has not completely let go of this fledgling “nation.”

16 (or simply as The Balkans) back “safely” under its control.
7. Morovia is very interested in regaining Bahkan, although no overt action has been taken in that direction by the Morovian Government. Austria-Hungary does want Serbia back, in fact it wants that whole geographic area known as the Balkan Peninsula (or simply as The Balkans) back “safely” under its control.

17 (It is actually the other way around.)
8. There is a small nationalist group in Morovia demanding that their government retake Bahkan. It is suspected that this group has been leading border raids against Bahkan. (It is actually the other way around.) There are small nationalist groups all over the Balkans The all want independence from Austria-Hungary. *Notably a small nationalist group known as The Black Hand in Serbia.

18 Caldonia = Great Britain. Great Britain is “geographically”
9. Caldonia has been somewhat successful in keeping out of some of the squabbles because of her geographical isolation from the neighboring states. TRUE. Caldonia = Great Britain. Great Britain is “geographically” isolated from the neighboring states.”

19 10. It is common knowledge that Penland has the most powerful army on the continent. Caldonia is the strongest naval power. TRUE. Penland = Germany. Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm will build up its military They first concentrate on their army because of their geography… (Why?)

20 11. Various nations have entered into military alliances, which guarantee mutual support if war begins. Entangling Alliances Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Triple Entente Great Britain Russia France There are also lesser alliances  Russia has a historic alliance with Serbia

21 12. Major newspapers in each country have been carrying on feuds with each other and thereby have helped fan the flames of unrest and hatred within each nation True.

22 Nationalism is particularly fever-pitched in the Balkans.
13. This is a time of extreme nationalism in which most countrymen support their respective governments to the fullest in foreign affairs. TRUE. Nationalism is particularly fever-pitched in the Balkans. There is a movement for a Pan-Slavic state Pan-Slavism: a push to unite all the Slavic peoples on the European continent Where is this quest?  Austro-Hungarian Empire

23 14. Because of the fear between the various nations, generated by the uneasy peace, there has been a continual race to build military armaments. TRUE. Germany especially is working hard to catch up technically and militarily to Great Britain.… Perhaps there was a little “sibling rivalry.” It just made other countries feel afraid

24 Russia’s leader  Czar Nicholas II
15. Sandia has been troubled by domestic unrest, and the government is not considered to be too stable. There have been reports that a large faction of unemployed workers and peasants are banding together and are planning a revolution. At this point there is no reliable information which would indicate that they would be successful. TRUE. Russia’s leader  Czar Nicholas II He is aloof to the concerns of the people. The PROLETARIAT (the workers) is considering revolution There will be one before the war ends. We’ll study that later

25 News Flash #1 - Morovia's vice president has been shot and killed by alleged assassins in the State of Bahkan while on state visit. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife Sofie were assassinated while on a state visit to Sarajevo, which is the capital of Bosnia (it’s just to the west of Serbia.) The assassin was a Serbian member of that small nationalist group known as The Black Hand.  June 28, 1914 September - October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary

26 Austria-Hungary issues an
ultimatum… Austria-Hungary issues an Diplomacy takes place for a month, but… with the “security” of alliances, no one backs down

27 A month later the war will begin…
July 28, 1914 “The war to end all wars" OR “The Great War” has begun

28 … for now

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