Presentation on theme: "Key Terms - Imperialism New Imperialism Suez Canal Boers Zulu Cecil Rhodes Boer War Berlin Conference Sphere of Influence Protectorate Ethnocentrism Opium."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms - Imperialism New Imperialism Suez Canal Boers Zulu Cecil Rhodes Boer War Berlin Conference Sphere of Influence Protectorate Ethnocentrism Opium Wars Extraterritoriality Taiping Rebellion Sino-Japanese War Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion Sun Yixian Kuomintang Three Principles of the People Spanish American War Panama Canal Dollar Diplomacy Triple Alliance
The New Imperialism Newly industrialized countries now sought other territories in which they could extract raw materials from and also create markets for their own goods. Many countries used colonies to: Increase their financial viability Create bases and increase their military strength Sources of investment New Imperialism → imperialistic or colonizing attitudes during the 1800's that gave European nations significantly more power over other countries.
British Landholdings Great Britain held more colonies than any other European power during the Age of Imperialism. They held: Canada India Australia New Zealand Belize Guyana Islands in the Carribean Southeast Asia Hong Kong
British Colonies in 1920
French Landholdings The French, seeking to put themselves on equal ground with the British also built a sizable empire. They held: Northern and Western Africa Indochina Islands in the Caribbean French Guiana
The British in India – A Recap The British East India Company was placed in charge of India initially after the Seven Years' War. They would remain in power until Britain created railroad lines, telegraph lines, schools, and irrigation systems to make their new financial market viable. The British treated the Indians poorly by paying them low wages, giving farmers little for their produce, and barring them from high level government positions. The Sepoy Mutiny would mark the end of the rule of the British East India Company and Queen Victoria would rule India directly from that point forward.
The Scramble for Africa Africa was initially viewed as a territory that could be colonized but should not be invested in. This attitude would change in the 1800's as European nations moved in to colonize large sections of Africa. By 1900, almost all of Africa had been colonized by European nations.
The French in Africa The French would take control of Algeria in 1830 using piracy as an excuse to do so. The French, with the permission of Great Britain would add Tunisia as well. Morocco would be a disputed territory until the British and French manage to engineer a deal where the French acquire help in gaining Morocco in exchange for Sudan.
The British in Africa The British practically held all of the Eastern portion of Africa. They held practically a direct link (except Sudan initially) from Egypt to the Cape of Good Hope. They held scattered territories in Western Africa.
The Suez Canal The Suez Canal opened in 1869 and was built by Egypt through a partnership with the Ottoman Empire. Suez Canal → waterway that linked the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The British used the canal to shorten the trip dramatically between Europe and India. The British would buy out the Egyptian shares in the canal and after settling a rebellion in Egypt, gained control of Egypt to protect their use of the canal.
The British in South Africa The British sought to gain complete control of their South African acquisitions. The Boers (dutch farmers), refused to leave South Africa and mounted a resistance against the British, but not before having to fight the Zulu (African tribe in South Africa). With the help of the British, the Boers were able to defeat the Zulu and created the Orange Free State and Transvaal. Upon the discovery of diamonds and gold within the Boer states, Cecil Rhodes (a gold and diamond industry developer) pleaded to the British to remove the Boers.
The Boer War (1899) The Boers would revolt against the British and would mount a strong defense against what was supposed to be a stronger British army. This served to embarrass the British as it took them many years to subdue the Boers. The Boer territories would be merged with the British territories in 1910.
Colonial Shifts Germany → claimed German East Africa (now Tanzania), Togo, and Cameroon, Angola. Italy → Libya and Somalia Spain→ Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam Portugal → Guinea, Angola, Mozambique, Timor, Macau and Goa Belgium → the Congo Independent → Liberia, Ethiopia
Berlin Conference In , the European nations, Turkey and the United States convened for the Berlin Conference → meeting in which rules were decided as to how nations can colonize other countries. It gave specific rules for colonization: The country had to first make a formal announcement of its claim. The country then had to occupy the colony. Legal rights to a colony were to be given to a country who could prove historical ownership.
Berlin Conference (cont.) The Berlin Conference also set up three different forms of imperial control: Nations could establish colonies → territories controlled directly by the invading country. Nations could establish spheres of influence → countries where a specific nation had sole investment or trading rights. Nations could establish protectorates → country could keep its ruler, but the imperial power could establish policies for that ruler to follow.
China in the 19 th Century China lagged behind in industrialization because it operated under the ethnocentric belief that the Western nations had nothing to offer the Chinese except precious metals. Ethnocentrism → belief that one's culture is superior to all others. China, under the Ch'ing Dynasty, allowed for seasonal trading but did not allow foreigners to remain year round.
The Opium War European nations sought to correct a horrible imbalance of trade with China since the opening of Macau in the 16 th Century. Chinese would acquire large amounts of silver for their tea, coal, and porcelain but the European nations had little to sell the Chinese. Britain would begin the importation of opium → addictive drug made from the poppy plant
Opium War (cont.) As the British flooded China with opium through Macau, the Chinese government began to crack down on its importation. The British would grow hostile after 20,000 chests of opium were destroyed. The British would use their gunboats to force the Chinese into submission and force them to sign the first of the “Unequal Treaties”, the Treaty of Nanking
Treaty of Nanking (1842) The Treaty of Nanking is considered to favor the British greatly, it stated: Five more ports were opened for British trade. Hong Kong was ceded to the British Large indemnity payments were expected – 21 million Extraterritoriality was granted → officials who were in China and committed crimes were tried in their home country rather than in the country they committed the crime within.
The Taiping Rebellion The loss of the Opium War, natural disasters and the treaty led to a general discontent with the Ch'ing Dynasty. A Christianized Hakka (tribe in southwest China), led a rebellion against the government citing the Mandate of Heaven. This rebellion was known as the Taiping Rebellion. The rebellion would be put down after 14 years but would weaken the Manchus greatly in what would become the Second Opium War
The Second Opium War Beliefs that the Chinese were finding ways to kill top officials (speculated) and an attempt to renew the Treaty of Nanking led to the Second Opium War. The British and the French would defeat the Chinese in the Second Opium War and would force the second of the “Unequal Treaties”, the Treaty of Tientsin.
Treaty of Tientsin The Treaty of Tientsin allowed even more foreign spheres of influence to be created within China in It stipulated: 11 more ports are open to westerners Foreign traders and Chinese missionaries could move into the Chinese interior Opium could be legally imported into China.
Further Movement The French, in 1870, would gain complete control of Indochina with their acquisition of Hanoi in Vietnam. They would add Cambodia and Laos as protectorates. Russia would acquire territory from the Chinese and establish a railroad network that linked Moscow to Northern China.
Sino-Japanese War In 1894, Japan and China fought over control of Korea and the Chinese would be unable to mount a proper defense. The Chinese would have to cede territory to Japan as a result: Korea (as a sphere of influence) Formosa (Taiwan)
The Open Door Policy The United States did not acquire any territory within China but were engaged in business with the country and therefore sought to protect their trade. The U.S. would ask the European nations and Japan to respect each other's trading rights. The proposal that all nations have equal trading rights in China became known as the Open Door Policy.
Boxer Rebellion The Chinese under a radical group known as the Righteous and Harmonious Fists would lead a rebellion to remove foreigners from China. The group would attack embassies and foreigners for a period of time. The United States and other major forces would assist China in putting down the rebellion. China would be forced to pay a large indemnity.
Dr. Sun Yixian Chinese would blame the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty for the troubles and international intereference. In 1911, under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yixian, the Chinese would remove the Manchu dynasty and start a new form of government.
The Kuomintang Yixian would start the Kuomintang or the Nationalist Party. Yixian would state his “Three Principles of the People” as the guiding philosophy. Free China from foreign control Establish a democratic government Improve the economy via socialism
U.S. Imperialism The United States would begin its imperialism in 1867 with the purchase of Alaska from Russia. It would add later Hawaii (1898), the Philippines (1898), Puerto Rico (1898) and Guam (1898).
The Spanish American War Relations between the U.S. and Spain had become tense as the U.S. sought to increase its control of the Caribbean. The relations would come to a head with the destruction of the USS Maine in the Caribbean. The Americans and Spanish would engage in the Spanish American War which the U.S. would win.
The Panama Canal The United States had long sought a route to the Pacific without having to circle South America. The U.S. would ask the Colombian government to allow the construction of the canal → it would be refused. Panama would stage a revolt against the Colombians and would have the assistance of the U.S. The canal would be built in 1920 and was to be returned in 1999.
Dollar Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy → policy that encouraged U.S. businesses to invest in the development of countries in Latin America and to build factories in them. The U.S. reserved the right to protect its interests if the countries threatened them. This would be used as a means of interfering in Latin American affairs.
Lasting Effects Imperialism strengthened many of the newly colonized countries but not without cost. Natives lost rights and traditions Natives became more like their colonizers in dress and way of life. Natives were discriminated against Colonizing countries became richer and stronger; new powers rivaled that of Britain. The Triple Alliance would be constructed → alliance between Italy, Austria and Germany to limit the power of France and prevent war. Wilhelm II would make this alliance an aggressive one forcing an arms race between the major powers in Europe.