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Fiber Optic Communication By

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Presentation on theme: "Fiber Optic Communication By"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fiber Optic Communication By
Engr. Muhammad Ashraf Bhutta

2 Lecture Outlines SDH Overview
Frame structure and multiplex-ing methods Overheads and Pointers

3 SDH Overview Background of SDH Disadvantages of PDH Advantages of SDH
Disadvan-tages of SDH

4 Background about SDH emergence
What is SDH--Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Similar to PDH,they are all digital signal transmission system. Why did SDH emerge? 1)What we need in info-society: huge volume of info, and digital, integrated, personal. 2)What we want the transmission network to be: Broadband---info-highway Standard---universal interface all over the world

5 Disadvantages of PDH: 1 Interfaces
Electrical interfaces---only regional standards, no universal standard. 3 rate hierarchies for PDH:European(2Mb/s) Japanese, North American(1.5Mb/s). Optical interfaces---no standards at all, manufacturers develop at their will.

6 Multiplexing methods:
Asynchronous Multiplexing for PDH: The location of low-rate signals in high-rate signals is not regular nor predictable. So it is impossible to directly add/drop low-rate signals from high-rate signals. Where did I put the signals?

7 Low-rate signals have to be separated from high-rate signals level by level. Multiple levels of multiplexing/de-multiplexing cause signals to deteriorate, it is not suitable for huge-volume transmission.

8 OAM 4 No universal network management interface
OAM function affects the maintenance cost.It is determined by the number of overhead bytes(redundant bytes); There are VERY few redundant byes available in PDH signals which can be used as OAM purpose, so OAM in PDH is very poor, it is unreliable either. 4 No universal network management interface It is hard to set up an integrated network management. No way to form a universal TMN. PDH is inappropriate to transmit huge-volume signals, so SDH came to play the part.

9 Advantages of SDH: 1 Interfaces
Electrical interfaces:standard rate hierarchy(transmission speed level) The basic rate level is called Synchronous Transfer Module(STM-1), the other rate levels are the multiple of STM-1. Optical interfaces:only scramble the electrical signals. SDH: optical code pattern is scrambled NRZ, PDH: optical code pattern is scrambled mBnB.

10 SDH:high-rate signal is exactly 4 times that
SDH Signals Bit rate(Mb/s) STM-1 or 155M STM-4 or 622M STM-16 or 2.5G STM-64 or 10G SDH:high-rate signal is exactly 4 times that of the next low-rate signal.

11 SDH:4×STM-1=STM-4 ;4×STM-4=STM-16

12 2 Multiplexing methods:
low-rate SDH→high-rate SDH(e.g.:4  STM-1→STM-4). Uses byte interleaved multiplexing method. STM-1 STM-4 Byte interleaved multiplexing

13 Byte interleaved multiplexing

14 PDH Pkg Packing PKG a PKG b Other signals→SDH:
Using pointers to align the low-rate signals in SDH frame ,so the receivers can directly drop low-rate signals.E.g.: PDH Packing Pkg Alignment PKG a PKG b STM-1

15 3 OAM 4 Compatibility More bytes in SDH frame structure are used for
OAM purpose, about 5% of total bytes. SDH boasts of high capability of OAM. 4 Compatibility SDH is compatible with the existing PDH system. SDH allows new types of equipment to be used, allows broadband access, such as ATM.

16 SDH compatibility schematics
PDH, ATM FDDI signals packing SDH network Package package STM-N STM-N packing transmit transmit transmit unpacking PDH, ATM FDDI signals

17 Disadvantages of SDH 2M STM-1 (155M) 34M 140M
1 low bandwidth utilization ratio--- contradiction between efficiency and reliability. 140M 34M 2M 1140M=642M 334M=482M 632M STM-1 (155M) 2 Mechanism of pointer adjustment is complex, it can cause pointer adjustment jitters 3 Large-scale application of software makes SDH system vulnerable to viruses or mistakes.

18 Frame Structure and Multiplexing methods
Multiplexing Procedure Components and functions 140M 34M 2M STM-N

19 STM-N Frame Structure Transmission direction 1 SOH 3 4 AU-PTR
9×270 ×N bytes Transmission direction 1 Transmit left to right up to down SOH 3 4 AU-PTR STM-N payload (including POH) 5 SOH 9 9×N 261×N 270×N columns

20 1 Characteristics of SDH signals:
block frame in units of bytes(8bit), transmission---from left to right, from top to bottom, frame frequency constant frames/s, frame period 125us. 2 Composition of SDH signals: 1) Payload: It is where we put all the information in STM-N frame structure. All kinds of effective info, such as 2M, 34M , 140M are first packed before being stored here. Then they are carried by STM-N signals over the SDH network.

21 If we should consider STM-N signal to be a truck, then
info payload would be the carriage of the truck. In order to monitor the transmission status of the goods during transportation, POH are added to each information package. Pkg Payload Low-rate signals 1 Low-rate signals n loading POH packing STM-N

22 2) Section Overhead: Accomplishes monitoring of STM-N signal streams. To check whether the “goods” in STM-N “carriage” is damaged or not. Regenerator Section Overhead(RSOH): monitor the overall STM-N signals. Multiplex Section Overhead(MSOH): monitor each STM-1 in STM-N signal. RSOH, MSOH and POH set up SDH layered monitoring mechanism.

23 Sections and Paths SDH Section signal (SOH) low-rate path signal(POH)
. SDH Section signal (SOH) Low-rate signal 1 Low-rate signal 2 Low-rate signal n low-rate path signal(POH) Sections and Paths

24 3) Administrative Unit Pointer(AU-PTR):
Indicates the location of low-rate signals in STM-N frame(payload), makes the location of low-rate signals in high-rate signals predictable.

25 According to the value of AU, the receiver can directly
drop low-rate signals from STM-N frame. That is to say we can get the “goods” directly from the “carriage” if we know the label of the “goods”. Because the “goods” are placed regularly in the “carriage”, we only need to know the first piece of “goods”.

26 Receiving: Sending: According to the value of
AU-PTR, get the first info package, through the regularity of byte interleaved multiplexing, get the other packages Sending: AU-PTR indicates the first info package 键入文本 键入文本 (SDH transmission network)

27 For low-rate signals such as 2M, 34M. We need two-levels
of pointers to align. First, small information “goods” is packed into middle information “goods”. Tributary unit pointer(TU-PTR) is used to align the location of small “goods” in middle “goods”. Then these middle “goods” are packed into big “goods”, AU-PTR is to align the location of middle info package. 2M 34M TU-PTR Primary alignment AU-PTR Secondary alignment

28 Multiplexing procedures of SDH
low-rate SDH→high-rate SDH: byte interleaved multiplexing, 4 into 1. PDH signals→STM-N: synchronous multiplexing: 140M→STM-N 34M→ STM-N 2M→STM-N Multiplexing is based on the multiplexing route diagram. ITU-T defines several different multiplexing routes, but for any country or region, the method is unique.

29 SDH Multiplexing Hierarchy
139264kbit/s STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 ×3 SDH signal TU-3 TUG-3 VC-3 ×7 34368kbit/s C-3 Pointer processing TUG-2 ×3 Align adjustment TU-12 2048kbit/s VC-12 C-12 Multiplexing Mapping PDH signals

30 C4 VC4 140M multiplexing procedures(140M →STM-N) P O H 1 1 POH 140M 9
Rate Adaptation POH C4 VC4 To be continued 140M 9 9 125us 125us C4---Container 4: A standard info structure corresponding to 140M, performs bit rate justification. VC4---Virtual Container 4: A standard info structure corresponding toC4, performs real-time performance monitoring of 140M

31 140M multiplexing procedures
AU-4 STM-1 1 1 (continue) RSOH payload AU-PTR 1 270xN alignment SOH AU-PTR 1 1 9 MSOH 9 9 10 270 1 270 STM-N 125us 125us AU-4---Administrative Unit 4, a info structure corresponding toVC4, performs pointer alignment. 140M—VC4—AU-4—STM-1, One STM-1 can only incorporate one 140M signal. 9 125us

32 C3 VC3 34M multiplexing procedures P O H 1 1 POH 34M 9 9 1 84 1 85
Rate adaptation To be continued 34M 9 9 125us 125us C3---Container 3: A standard info structure corresponding to 34M, performs bit rate justification. VC3---Virtual Container 3: A standard info structure corresponding to C4, performs real-time performance monitoring of 140M

33 VC4 34M multiplexing procedures TU-3 TUG-3 P O R R H 125us (continue)
PTR H1 H2 H3 Fill Gap R BIM 125us 1 86 9 261 ×3 TU3---Tributary Unit 3: A standard info structure corresponding to VC3, performs primary alignment. TUG3---Tributary Unit Group 3: A standard info structure corresponding toTU3. 34M—VC3—TU3—TUG3;3 TUG3—VC4—STM-1; One STM-1 can hold 3 34M.

34 C12 VC12 TU12 2M multiplexing procedures POH 1 1 1 2M 9 9 9 PTR 1 4
Primary Alignment Rate Adaptation C12 POH VC12 TU12 To be continued 2M 9 9 9 PTR 125us 125us 125us

35 2M multiplexing procedures (2M →VC4)
C12--Container 12: A standard info structure corresponding to 2M, performs bit rate justification for 2M signals, 4 basic frames constitute a multi-frame. VC12---Virtual Container 12:A standard info structure corresponding to 2M, performs real-time monitoring. TU12---Tributary Unit 12: A standard info structure corresponding to VC12, performs primary pointer alignment forVC12.

36 TUG3 TUG2 2M multiplexing procedures (2M →VC4) R R 125us 125us 1 86 1
×3 ×7 Byte Interleaved Multiplexing Byte Interleaved Multiplexing TUG2 TUG3 R R (continue) 9 9 125us 125us

37 2M Multiplexing procedures(2M →VC4)
TUG2---Tributary Unit Group 2 TUG3---Tributary Unit Group 3 2M—C12—VC12—TU12;3TU12—TUG2; 7 TUG2—TUG3;3TUG3—VC4—STM-1。 One STM-1 is able to hold 3×7×3= 63 2M. Multiplexing structure for 2M is

38 SDH Multiplexer Concept of multi-frame: STM-1
1# 3# 2# 4# 63 2M Concept of multi-frame: 4 C12 basic frames make up 1 multi-frame. Both basic frames and multi-frame carry the same 2M signal. One basic frame can hold the info segment of 2M signal during 125us period. One multi-frame holds the info for 2M signal during 500us period.

39 Relations between info structures
VC12 TU12 E3 C3 VC3 TU3 E4 C4 VC4

40 Summary STM-N frame structure and functions of
different parts of the frame Methods for multiplexing PDH into STM-N frames 140M multiplexed into STM-N frames 34M multiplexed into STM-N frames 2M multiplexed into STM-N frames

41 Overhead Pointers Path Overhead Section Overhead Overhead and Pointers


43 Layered monitoring

44 SOH(take STM-1 as an example)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A1 * A1 * A1 * A2 * A2 * A2 * J0 * * * B1 E1 F1 RSOH D1 D2 D3 AU-PTR B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 MSOH D10 D11 D12 S1 M1 E2 Bytes reserved for domestic use Marked bytes are not scrambled *

45 1) Framing bytes:A1,A2 to locate the frame heads
STM-N Signal stream

46 N Y Frame Head? Give OOF Over 3ms Generate LOF Insert AIS Next process
Found A1,A2? Give OOF Y Over 3ms Generate LOF Next process Insert AIS

47 2) DCC Data Communication Channel bytes:D1—D12
An info channel for OAM between NE-NE D1-D3 is in Regenerator section(DCCR), D4-D12 is in Multiplex section(DCCM), OAM info includes: performance monitoring, alarms inquiry, command issue,etc. DCC channel NM UTP

48 3) Order wire bytes: E1,E2 Each provides a 64kb/s order wire digital telephone. E1is for RS order wire E2 is for MS order wire E2can not be used by a REGs 4) Bit interleaved parity byte:B1 Performs real-time monitoring over the signal stream

49 Bit Interleaved parity

50 If error blocks occurred
B1 working mechanism: Detect B1 Insert B1 SDH Equipment Sending SDH Equipment Receiving STM-N If error blocks occurred produce: RS-BBE performance event

51 If error blocks occurred
5) Bit interleaved Parity B2 byte monitor the error blocks of MS Detect B2 Insert B2 SDH Equipment Sending SDH Equipment Receiving STM-N If error blocks occurred produce: MS-BBE performance event

52 STM-N 6) Multiplex section Remote Error Indication byte:M1
Sent from receiver to sender Informs the sender: the error blocks detected by receiver through B2 SDH Equipment Sender Receiver STM-N Error blocks found produce: MS-BBE performance event Send M1 byte M1 received produce: MS-REI

53 7) Automatic Protection Switching(APS) bytes---K1,K2
Carries APS protocol for MSP switching MS Remote Defect Indication byte: K2(b6-b8)=111, indicates that all “1” signals have been received, receiver will give MS-AIS alarm K2(b6-b8)=110, indicates that MS-RDI has been received, which means the counter-part has received signal deterioration, such as MS-AIS, RLOF etc.

54 K2 Detection Found 110 111 K2(b6-b8) Giving MS-AIS Sending back MS-RDI
Producing MS-RDI

55 STM-N Receive K2(110) produce: MS-RDI alarm event Find K2(111)
produce: MS-AIS alarm event SDH Equipment Sender SDH Equipment Receiver STM-N Sending back K2 (110)

56 8) Synchronous Status byte S1(bit5~8)
For synchronous status indication The smaller the value of S1, the higher the quality of synchronous clock!

57 2 Path Overhead Classification: VC4 POH Lower-order POH--VC12
Higher-order POH---VC4 Difference: VC-4 macro, VC-12 micro VC-4 includes VC-12 VC4 POH VC12 POH (HPOH) (LPOH)

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