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Technical Aspects of Digital Rights Management

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1 Technical Aspects of Digital Rights Management
Emilija Arsenova MI, RWTH-Aachen

2 Digital Intellectual Property
Digital media properties Digital content (audio, video, graphics, images) can be easily copied, transmitted and distributed Exact copies of the original data Problem for content owners/providers?

3 Digital Rights Management I
System for protecting the copyrights of data circulated via the Internet or other digital media by enabling secure distribution and/or disabling illegal distribution of the data

4 What Does DRM Really Mean?
You can play your new audio CD on your stereo system, but when you insert it into the CD drive on your Macintosh computer, the CD doesn't work. Worse still, the machine crashes and refuses to reboot. The disc remains stuck in the drive until you force the tray open by inserting a paper clip. You buy an e-book and discover you can read it on-screen but can't print a chapter, even though the book is by Dickens and entered the public domain more than a century ago.

5 Digital Rights Management II
DRM = digital restriction management ?

6 Digital Rights Management III
DRM - commonly advertised as the technology that can restore the value of content ‘DRM is a system of IT components and services, corresponding law, policies and business models which strive to distribute and control IP and its rights’ ( )

7 DRM Focus "DRMs' primary role is not about keeping copyrighted content off P2P networks. DRMs support an orderly market for facilitating efficient economic transactions between content producers and content consumers." Dan Glickman, Motion Picture Association of America, to BBC NEWS

8 DRM Architecture

9 DRM Goals Protection of digital content Secure distribution
Content authenticity Transaction non-repudiation (digital signature) Market participant identification (digital certificates)

10 DRM Techniques Encryption Public / private keys Digital certificates
Watermarking Access control Secure communications protocols Fingerprinting Rights specification language Trust infrastructure Hashing

11 Security goals

12 Protection of digital content
Encryption scramble data to make it unreadable to everyone except the recipient Decryption recovering the original bits

13 Encrypting the file – is it enough?
Managing the decryption key: creating it transferring it to the customer enforcing any time limitations changing user rights preventing theft or transfer of the key

14 Watermarking Steganography (covered writing) Digital Watermarking

15 Why Use Watermarking? Ease of replication
Ease of transmission and multiple use Exact copies of digital data Permanently mark the data

16 Watermark Applications
Proof of ownership Prove ownership in a court of law Broadcast monitoring Keep track of when and where a clip is played Owner identification Transactional watermarks (Fingerprinting) Identifying the source of an illegal copy

17 Watermark Applications
Copy Control Prevention of illegal copying Classification/Filtering Classification of content Authentication

18 Types of watermarks Visible, invisible Fragile, robust
Blind, semi-blind, non-blind

19 Visibly watermarked ‘Lena’
Original picture Watermark images Smaller watermark Bigger watermark M. Kankanahalli, et. al., ”Adaptive Visible Watermarking of Images”

20 Embedding and detecting systems
P P Chun-Shien Lu, Multimedia security: Steganography and digital watermarking techniques for protection of intellectual property

21 Ideal watermarking system
perceptibility robust image compression protection of malicious attacks capacity speed

22 Digital Watermarking Techniques
choice of watermark object spatial domain transform domain fractal domain

23 Choice of watermark object
what form should the embedded message take?

24 Spatial Domain Techniques
Addition of pseudo-random noise LSB modification Replace the LSB of each pixel with the secret message Pixels may be chosen randomly according to a key Drawbacks highly sensitive to signal processing operations easily corrupted

25 Example:LSB Encoding (R,G,B) = (00000000, 11111111, 00000000)

26 Transform Domain Techniques
Wavelet based watermarking Most efficient domain for watermark embedding HVS DCT-based watermarking Fractal domain watermarking Computational expense Not suitable for general use

27 Robustness How robust are watermarking algorithms?

28 Testing watermarking algorithms
Image watermarking algorithms must survive robustness attacks Geometric distortions Combinations of geometric distortions

29 Example – StirMark Tool
Applies: Large set of different geometric distortions The image is slightly stretched, shifted, bent and rotated by an unnoticeable random amount Frequency displacement and deviation Embeds a small error in each sample value

30 Applying StirMark to images I
Before StirMark After StirMark Copyright image courtesy of Kevin Odhner

31 Applying StirMark to images II
Underlying grid Grid after StirMark Fabien A. P. Petitcolas and Ross J. Anderson, Evaluation of copyright marking systems

32 Questions?


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