► In 1880’s Europe began an unprecedented expansion into Africa and Asia.
New Imperialism Built on a foundation of technological advances 1.Fire Arms ► Breech loading Rifles ► rapid fire weapons (Gatling Gun) 2.Transportation ► Steamships, Suez Canal 3.Communication ► Telegraph 4.Medicine ► Quinine, an effective treatment for Malaria
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 1. Capitalism ► Markets for industrial goods ► Source of raw materials
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 2. Social Imperialist ► Viewed imperialism as a means of solving domestic issues ► Example: Overpopulation
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 3. Exploration ► European Scientist (geologist, botanist, cartographers) scrambled all over the word ► Published descriptions and statistics on native peoples, lists of flora and fauna, maps.
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 4. Nationalism ► Colonies seen as a way of showing the power and importance of the nation on a global scale
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 5. Religion ► Missionaries wanted to convert non- Christians ► Christian missionaries first Europeans to penetrate central Africa
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 6. Social Darwinism ► Belief that white races should be sovereign over people of Africa and Asia. ► Goal to improve the moral and material well being of non-whites ► “bind your sons to exile, to serve your captives needs”
New Imperialism Motivating Factors 7. Balance of Power ► Nations wanted colonies so that other nations would not get them
India ► British dominance of India began after withdrawal of French after Seven Years War (1756-1763) ► During 19 th century independent Indian territories fell under British Control ► Sepoy Rebellion 1857 -British East India Company replaced by a centralized colonial structure ► 1877 Queen Victoria declared Empress of India ► India was the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire
China Informal Empire ► Spheres of Influence -European states controlled economy of China ► “treaty ports” European nation gained direct control over a series of ports along coast ► Boxer Rebellion- armed uprising, 200 westerners killed -Europe responded with direct military intervention, received increased concessions, China forced to pay indemnity
Imperialism in Asia ► Russians controlled Manchuria ► French controlled Indo -China (Vietnam) ► Dutch controlled Indonesia ► U.S.A. controlled Philippines, Hawaii
Africa ► Prior to 1875, Europeans had only limited territorial claims in Africa
Egypt ► Suez Canal completed in 1869 (Britain and France) ► 1882 nationalist revolt in Egypt threaten European control of Canal ► Britain responded with show of strength ► Chaos resulted, British restored order ► British occupied Egypt ► Joint British and Egyptian forces occupied Sudan
Tunisia ► French heavily invested in Tunisia ► Financial crisis in Tunisia led to French occupation in 1881
Sub-Saharan Africa ► King Leopold II of Belgium establishes: ► International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa in 1876 ► Headquarters in Brussels ► Focused not on science or ending slavery, instead on making territorial claims ► In response, European powers began push inwards from Coastal outposts
Berlin Conference 1885 ► Europeans feared “mad scramble” for Africa would lead to conflict in Europe. ► Berlin Conference established rules for settlement of Africa ► Coastal Settlement would give nation claim to adjacent inland territory ► Allowed Germany and Italy to occupy unclaimed pieces of Africa
Berlin Conference 1885 ► Territorial lines paid no attention to ethnic, tribal and linguistic characteristics of indigenous population. ► No native Africans participated in Berlin Conference
Fashoda Crisis (1898) ► As French troops pushed East from West Africa. -Wanted empire stretching west to east across North Africa ► British troops pushed South from Sudan. -Wanted empire from north from Egypt to Cape Town ► Brink of war over obscure outpost ► French chose to give way rather than fight
Boer War 1899-1902 ► Conflict between Dutch speaking farmers, the Boers, and British government. ► Britain had acquired Cape Colony during wars of French Revolution ► The Boers resented British rule ► The Great Trek 1835-1837- Boers literally leave Cape Colony and establish two (racists) republics across Orange River
Boer War 1899-1902 ► Diamonds were discovered in the Boer Republics in 1870’s-1880’s. ► Prospectors, many British poured in ► Cecil Rhodes gained monopoly on diamond production (founder of De Beers, Rhodes Scholarship) ► Became Prime Minister of Cape Colony ► 1899 Boers declared war on British ► British occupied Boer Republics after 2 years of guerilla resistance
Cecil Rhodes ► "I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...If there be a God, I think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa British Red as possible...“ ► “Remember that you are an Englishman, and have consequently won first prize in the lottery of life.“ ► "In order to save the forty million inhabitants of the United Kingdom from a bloody civil war, our colonial statesmen must acquire new lands for settling the surplus population of this country, to provide new markets... The Empire, as I have always said, is a bread and butter question"