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Chapter 32: The Building of Global Empires

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1 Chapter 32: The Building of Global Empires
What is Imperialism? The domination of European powers (and US and Japan) over subject lands in the larger world by various methods

2 - Hilaire Belloc “Men make their own history but they HOW does
do not make it as they please nor under conditions of their choosing.” - Karl Marx HOW does this happen? “Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun and they have not.” - Hilaire Belloc “We are the finest race in the world and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race.” - Cecil Rhodes 1877

3 Old Imperialism VS New Imperialism? Then: Americas (economic/political
often indirect) Now: Africa, East Asia, South Asia, SE Asia (economic/political/ military/racist: often direct)

4 In defending England's right to colonize Africa, Lord Frederick Lugard proposed, "I hold that our right is the necessity that is upon us to provide for our ever-growing population." Is there an economic justification for imperialism? Be sure to consider the question from the position of both the colonizing nation and the colony. When Rudyard Kipling suggested that Americans "Take up the White Man's Burden" what did he mean? How does this phrase express the goals of imperialism? Did the Americans have to be encouraged to become imperialistic? 3. Examine the racist beliefs that played such a central role in European imperialism. How did racism justify imperialism and also inspire it?

5 What are the motivations for imperialism?

6 Political and Economic Motivations?
P = strategic positioning, nationalism, distraction from civil problems, seize territory, subdue potential enemies, personal legacy, confirm military strength E = raw materials for industrialization, secure wealth (gold, diamonds), colonies as markets, ease economic burden of growing population, secure trading ports

7 Social Motivations = The White Man’s Burden
“Learning Civilized Ways is Hard Work” Social Motivations = The White Man’s Burden S = spiritual campaigns to “civilize” subject lands, “White Man’s Burden” was the duty of European and American people to bring “order and enlightenment” to non-Christian natives “Social Darwinism”: Herbert Spencer encouraged emigration to subject lands Dr. David Livingstone

8 Social Motivations = The White Man’s Burden

9 industrialization to motivate
European nations (and later US) used nationalism and industrialization to motivate popular support at home for imperialism The Sun Never Sets…. Where does GB go and why? Effects? Concessionary Rule? Indirect or Direct Rule? Problems or Benefits of each?

10 The British Empire in India
Mughal decline (1707) provided opportunity for British expansion: created new economic systems that fostered dependency on the British After Sepoy Mutiny: DIRECT Rule by the British Primarily ECONOMIC and POLITICAL: Left Cultural Traditions intact (Hindu religion, did outlaw sati) (DID not try to impose Christainity)


12 Imperialism Examples……
The Opium Wars,

13 Became a protectorate of Great Britain from 1883 until 1956
British domination of Egypt became the model for the "new imperialism“ Turkish general Muhammad Ali had established Egypt into a strong and virtually independent state by 1849 Egypt's inability to satisfy foreign investors led to control of its finances by France & Britain Safeguarding the Suez Canal (completed in 1869) played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt and its bloody conquest of the Sudan. (Battle of Omdurman 1898: 11,000 Sudanese dead, 368 British dead) The British in Egypt

14 The French and British gain control of the Suez Canal 1876
British remained in Egypt until 1954 Where else does FRANCE go and WHY? Effects?

15 Imperialism in Asia ca. 1914

16 Where does Japan go and why?

17 The Great Game: Where does Russia go and why? Effects?
Russia and Great Britain Seek Central Asian alliance in future war over India

18 “A Splendid Little War”
Introductory Reading: European Imperialism in Africa By 1875 European possessions in Africa consisted of some forts and trading posts along the coast and a few tiny colonies. Between 1880 and 1910, however, Africa was divided up among the Europeans. For the next 50 years decisions affecting Africa and its people were made not in Africa, but in London, Paris, Lisbon and other European capitals… How Imperialism Spread European rule came to Africa in many different ways. Sometimes a European trading company made agreements with Africa chiefs permitting the company to trade and keep order in the area. The traders then put pressure on their government in Europe to take over in order to protect them. In a few cases tribal chiefs voluntarily asked for the protection of one European nation in order to avoid being taken over by another European nation. Sometimes the Africans even asked for European protection against other African tribes. Treaties were signed by the African chiefs in which they gave the European company or government the right to keep order (govern) and to take over the land and resources in their area. Thousands of treaties were signed by African rulers giving away most of their rights to the Europeans, but the Africans never really understood these treaties and did not realize what they were giving away. Reasons for Imperialism There are several reasons why the European nations competed with each other to gain colonies in Africa. They all wanted to gain power and prestige. The more territory that they were able to control in Africa the more powerful and important they thought they could become. Africa was tremendously rich in natural resources, which could be brought to Europe and turned into manufactured goods. Europeans also needed markets for their manufactured goods. These goods could be sold in Africa for large profits. Often a European nation would take over territory in Africa simply to prevent another European country from taking it. (Rosenfeld, Erwin and Harriet Geller. Afro-Asian Culture Studies ( ). Process: As you proceed through this activity, you will investigate the dramatic transformations that imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought to the continent of Africa and also the countries that controlled them. On your own paper, you will complete the activities below, be sure to label each activity with its letter and name. If they are not labeled correctly, you will not receive a grade! A. Reading: “Scramble for Africa” Click on the link below for the reading and then answer the questions: NOTE: If the word, name or place is in bold print underlined, click on it and read the information, it will help you answer any questions related to that item. 1. True or False. Illegal slave trade continued well into the 1800s. 2. What was King Leopold’s role in advancing imperialism in Africa? 3. Define imperialistic activity. 4. True or False. Native Africans were well represented at the Berlin Conference. 5. Define sovereignty. 6. Who were the Boers and the Zulus? 7. Why is Shaka Zulu described as legendary? 8. Who did the Zulus come into conflict with over their lands? 9. True or False. The Zulus were temporarily successful at holding back aggressors. 10. What advantages did the Europeans have over the Africans? 11. List three facts about Cecil Rhodes. 12. Explain the political carton and its caption. 13. What caused the Boer War and who won? 14. True or False. Because European nations carved up Africa with no regard for traditional tribal boundaries, Africa still suffers today. 15. Define tribalism. B. Reading: The Berlin Conference of 1884 Based on the reading below, answer the following questions: 1. Define (a.) protectorate and (b.) spheres of influence. 2. List three reasons why Europeans wanted to take over Africa. 3. What was the Berlin Conference? 4. Who organized the conference and what country was the leader from? 5. How many countries attended? 6. What is “effective occupation?” 7. What considerations were made by the Europeans to the native Africans? 8. How did Article 34 help to set the stage for world war? THE BERLIN CONFERENCE Because of its size, surface features, climate, resources, and strategic importance, Africa became a prime candidate for conquest by ambitious European empires. Although Africa is physically remote from the power centers of Europe, North America, and Asia, it is surrounded by water and can therefore be reached easily from the other continents. This meant that the Europeans needed to establish rules for dealing with one another if they were to avoid constant bloodshed and competition for African resources. The Berlin Conference established those ground rules. By the mid-nineteenth century, Europeans had established colonies all along the African coast and competed for control. The push for overseas territories was made even more intense by the Industrial Revolution and the need for cheap labor, raw material, and new markets. The competition between the Europeans often leads to violent conflict. The conference was held in Berlin between November 15, 1884 and November 26, 1885, under the leadership of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Twelve European nations, the Ottoman Empire and the United States, took part. Although controlling the slave trade and promoting humanitarian idealism were promoted as the focus of the conference, the conference only passed empty resolutions about the ending of slave trade and providing for the welfare of Africa. In truth, the result of the Conference was a method of dividing the continent of Africa between the European powers. Article 34 of the Berlin Act states: “that any European nation that took possession of an African coast, or named themselves as “protectorate” of one, had to inform the other powers of the Berlin Act of this action.” If this was not done then their claim would not be recognized. This article introduced the “spheres of influence” doctrine, the control of a coast also meant that they would control the hinterland to an almost unlimited distance. Article 35 determined that in order to occupy a coastal possession, the nation also had to prove that they controlled sufficient authority there to protect existing rights such as freedom of trade and transit. This was called the doctrine of “effective occupation” and it made the conquest of Africa a less bloody process. The Berlin Act was an important change in international affairs. It created the rules for “effective occupation” of conquered lands, ensuring that the division of Africa would take place without war among the European powers. Through the Berlin Act, the European powers justified dividing a continent among them without considering the desires of the indigenous peoples. While this appears extremely arrogant to us now, it seemed to them to be the obvious extension of their imperialism. The Berlin Conference is one of the clearest examples of the assumptions and preconceptions of this era, and its effects on Africa can still be seen today. used with permission from C. The 'Scramble for Africa’ – Political Cartoon Study the political cartoon below and answer the following questions: 1. Make a guess: What is the 'scramble for Africa'? 2. According to the cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa? 3. Based on the reading you just did, is the cartoon accurate? 4. Does it really show what was going on at the time? Why or why not? 5. How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in this cartoon? D. “Imperialism and the Balance of Power” Answer the following questions based on the map below: 1. How many different countries have colonies? 2. Which country has the largest colonial empire? 3. Which continents are almost completely controlled by other countries? 4. Which continents are only controlled by a few countries? 5. What could be a different title for this map? “Imperialism and the Balance of Power” E. AFRICA MAP COMPARISON Examine the Maps below. Then answer the questions that follow MAP 1 Map 2 1. What countries have a presence in Africa in 1880? 2. What is the main difference between the two maps? 3. What part did the Berlin Conference play in the creation MAP 2? 4. According to Map 2—Which two European countries held the most territory in Africa? 5. By 1914 what had happened to the native African tribal groups? F. Impact of Colonization Data The Americas: Where does the United States go to and WHY? Effects? Monroe Doctrine 1803 Spanish American War “A Splendid Little War” Why does America need to wait until the late 19th century to launch its imperialistic quest?? United States and the Caribbean African Holdings by 1913 G. Data on Colonial Empires Examine the following charts to answer these questions: 1. About how many square miles of territory does France control? 2. What is the TOTAL population controlled by the five countries shown in this chart? 3. Based on this information, which country has the largest colonial empire? 4. Does this answer agree with your answer to question 2 above in Section D “Imperialism…” Map EXTENT OF COLONIZATION AS OF 1939 (Germany data as of 1914) H. A Burundi Writer’s Frustrations Read the excerpt below from an anonymous African writer and then answer the questions that follow: In Berlin our continent was divided up. They came to educate us. They came to civilize us. The Berlin Treaty has hurt me for a long time. But the worst of it was that I was taught this date. Then for a whole hour we were cited, the names of the parties to the Berlin Treaty. We were told of… Their exceptional abilities, The courage of their explorers Their selfless humanism. But nobody, Absolutely nobody pointed out the insult, the shame, which accompanied us Africans everywhere. My people became a machine. They were controlled from a distance, they were almost dead. The awareness of their personality had died away. My people were colonized. 1.    Using your textbook, define Social Darwinism. 2.    What is the main idea of this reading? 3.    Which two phrases other than the quote below reveal the frustrations and hopelessness of native Africans? 4.    Analyze the following phrase: Then for a whole hour we were cited, the names of the parties to the Berlin Treaty. 5.    Describe the feeling you get while reading the Burundi writer’s words. I. Global Imperialism By the early 1900s Western European nations had carried out a second wave of imperialism and unfurled their flags over much of the globe. This imperialistic expansion set off radical changes that reshaped the lives of their conquered peoples all over Africa. For the European rulers, imperialism would bring about radical geographical, cultural, political and economic changes at home and as they settled into their new lands. Below are six links to countries and/or regions that were a part of that world wide scramble for colonies from early 1800s to the early 1900s. Select which four countries/regions you would like to learn about and after reading four of the six articles, write ten quiz questions and their answers for each of the articles. Note: Half of the questions must come from the underlined/bold print words and label each quiz appropriately. India: China: Japan: Middle East: Southeast Asia: South America: J. Drawing Conclusions on Imperialism From your textbook reading and the information you have gleaned in this activity, answer the questions below: 1. From the readings above you have discovered other regions that were desired by the Europeans. Some countries/regions, however, were more sought after than others. Excluding Africa, identify five of those areas and rank them from 1-5 (with number one being the most sought after) on your paper. 2. From the list in Question 1, explain why you selected your number one choice. 3. Explain this quote: “The sun never set on the British Empire.” 4. Compare the “Partition of Africa Map, ” with the current political map of Africa and answer this question: How did the imperialistic actions of this era, effect the current borders in Africa? 5. Why might these borders be responsible for some of the problems and ethnic conflicts that affect Africa in current times? 6. Using the map above name the three countries that captured the most territory in Asia. 7. What country was a possession of the United States? 8. Who controlled what would now be modern day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos? 9. A. Name the countries that remained independent. B. Why do you think they were able to maintain their freedom? 10. In China two independent colonies were formed on its coast, those colonies were eventually returned to China. Name the colonies and the countries that controlled them. 11. Using your textbook and the information you have learned in this activity, write a paragraph (5-7 sentences) that gives several specific examples of how the current borders in Africa reflect the boundaries established by the European nations during the scramble for Africa and the negative effects of imperialism on that continent. Resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction, McDouglLittell.

19 Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine 1904 Panama Canal

20 “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick… You Will Go Far”


22 United States and Hawaii: annexation ceremony 1898
Queen Liliuokalani (r ) United States and Hawaii: annexation ceremony 1898 (statehood 1959) Sanford B. Dole

23 The Scramble for Africa
Cecil Rhodes South Africa 1871 King Leopold of Belgium (Congo Free State 1870s)


25 (Death toll estimates 3-15 million Africans)
“The baskets of severed hands, set down at the feet of the European post commanders, became the symbol of the Congo Free State. ... The collection of hands became an end in itself. Force Publique soldiers brought them to the stations in place of rubber; they even went out to harvest them instead of rubber... They became a sort of currency. They came to be used to make up for shortfalls in rubber quotas, to replace... the people who were demanded for the forced labor gangs; and the Force Publique soldiers were paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they collected.” - Belgian Commissioner (Death toll estimates 3-15 million Africans) African men were murdered, women were raped and murdered, if they did not fill their quota of rubber and ivory

26 The Berlin Conference 1884-1885
Coordinated by German (von Bismarck), called for by Portugal 14 European nations and the United States were involved: no Africans were invited Generally agreed to represent the formalization of the Scramble for Africa Organized in response to Stanley’s mapping of the Congo Basin and to King Leopold’s assertion that the Congo region would be a trade free zone. The General Act of the Berlin Conference proclaimed: 1. The Free State of Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society and essentially the private property of King Leopold. (because of the terror regime established, it would eventually become a Belgian colony 1908). The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo Basin and the Niger and Congo Rivers were made free for ship traffic. 3. An international prohibition of the slave trade was signed. 4. Any European country could establish colonies as long as they told everyone, and occupied previously unoccupied territories.

27 The BoerWar 1899-1902 Great Britain abolishes slavery in 1833
The Great Trek Diamonds 1867 Gold 1886 White privileged society Vs. black Africans

28 As late as 1925 one British official commented
on the process as it operated in central Nigeria: “I shall of course go on walloping them until they surrender. It’s a rather piteous sight watching a village being knocked to pieces and I wish there was some other way, but unfortunately there isn’t.”

29 Legacies of Imperialism?
Population migration Increased global trade Increased global conflict Increased sense of difference from one culture to another Increased racism among Europeans, Americans and Japanese Stimulated anti-colonialism and nationalism in subject lands From the 20th C onward: much of global history has revolved around the new world order created by imperialism and colonialism Case Study: India

30 Roy inspired reform societies (educated Hindu elite)
that emphasized self-government, or at least greater Indian participation in government (followed ideals of Enlightenment) a Hindu Reformer supported some British colonial policies (end to sati) “Father of Modern India” Indian National Congress 1885 (founded with British approval) Openly sought Indian self-rule Joined with All-India Muslim League 1909 Independence granted in 1947 (GANDHI)

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