Presentation on theme: "Age of Imperialism (1870- 1914) Imperialism defined: The political, economic, or cultural expansion of influence to the control of one people by another."— Presentation transcript:
Age of Imperialism (1870- 1914) Imperialism defined: The political, economic, or cultural expansion of influence to the control of one people by another state, country, or entity. The subjugated people are generally viewed as inferiors by the ‘mother country’ or dominant entity.
New Imperialism What’s New? Between 1876-1915: ¼ of globe is distributed among six states. Great Britain’s size is increased by 4 million square miles France: adds 3.4 million square miles USA: adds 100,000 square miles Why formal control? “Informal Control where possible, formal control where necessary” --Lord Palmerston (British PM) Relationship bw Economics & Politics – Status of National Exports Social Darwinism and Competition – “Every virile people has established a colonial power” --von Treitschke (German historian) Economics, Economics, Economics
Justifying Empire Religion and Missionary Zeal Claims of Education Claims of Native Inferiority “Justified” by Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism Nationalism
Science & Race Theory of Evolution 1859 – The Origin of the Species What is Darwin’s main argument? – “... there is a struggle for existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure of instinct... “ – The evolution of species occurs by the process of Natural Selection. – Survival of the fittest. – Within species & between species there was a struggle for survival. Which species survive?
Five Main Reasons for Colonization Great Power Rivalry – Acquiring colonies became a measure of a great country. Commercial & Economic interests Strategic & Military imperatives Pressure Groups – Missionaries – Nationalist groups “Civilizing Mission” – “White Man’s Burden” – Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden
The “Civilizing” Mission Europeans defended their colonial missions by asserting that they would bring civilization & culture to the colonized people. Europeans assumed Africans & others had no “civilization.” Methods of “civilizing”: – Religion – Government – Education – Economic transformation – Repression
Rudyard Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden” (1899)
J ustifying Empire at home and abroad The Lowest Step on the Ladder of Knowledge,” The Queen’s Empire (1902 )
Partition of Africa (1880- 1914) “ Scramble for Africa” In 1870, Europeans controlled only 10 percent of Africa. Two Exceptions: Liberia & Ethiopia Britain was at the forefront in the partition of Africa. Boers/Afrikaners/Great Trek Boers established 2 independent states: 1852 – Transvaal 1854 – Orange Free State Beginning in 1815 – Britain had gained control of the southern tip of Africa. 1867 – Diamonds discovered in Cape Colony & the Orange Free State 1886 – Gold discovered in Transvaal. With these discoveries, Britain's interest in southern Africa increased dramatically
The New Nationalism Late 19 th -century nationalism was characterized by a new sense of enthusiasm & commitment to the nation, national rivalry, an aggressive militarism, subjugation of the world’s peoples, & racism. All countries sought to harness nationalism as a means to cement the nation-state. Methods of Constructing the New Citizen – Military – Public Education – Social Welfare 1878-1890 – Anti-Socialists Laws 1883-1889 – Germany instituted a series of social insurance programs designed to protect sick, injured, disabled, and elderly – Civic Festivals: England – Empire Day
The Scramble for Africa (After 1880) Germany’s new interests in Africa increased hostilities between European powers. Berlin Conference of 1884 European leaders agreed to cooperate in dividing up Africa. Approved de facto the already established colonial borders. Laid down ground rules that colonial powers were to obey in their quest for colonies. Escalated the scramble for Africa When Europeans divided Africa, they gave no consideration to ethnic, political, & geographical borders that already existed in Africa.
Nationalism & Race The new pseudo-sciences combined with the new devotion to the nation, creating an aggressive racist atmosphere. Anti-Semitism – Hatred of Jews Pogroms -- Popular violent attacks on Jews motivated by anti-Semitism Historically, Jews had been seen as a separate religious group, which was socially ostracized & persecuted because of their religious beliefs. The Enlightenment & the French Revolution ushered in Jewish emancipation. End of the 19 th century – New wave of anti-Semitism End of the 19 th century witnessed a new wave of pogroms in eastern Europe, especially Russia.
Changes in Empire Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian Revolt of 1857 Pre-1857: Indian states under indirect/ informal control Influence of British East India Company British Colonizers --the “treason” of the Indians Mutiny confirms “inferiority” of natives for Colonizers 1857: Indian states are directly ruled by Britain 1876: Victoria is made Empress of India
Justifying Empire at home and abroad Thomas Jones Barker, “Queen Victoria Presenting a Bible in the Audience Chamber at Windsor” (1861)
Religion Education Productive Work Social Development Civilization European Assumption: Africans and Indian have no Civilization “A white sister, an African missionary, teaches sewing and design to the small black Christians of Uganda” Justifying Empire at home and abroad
The New Anti-Semitism Before the 19 th century, anti-Semitism was based on religious hostility towards Judaism. By the end of the 19 th century, many Europeans began to see Jews as racially different – racially inferior. Europeans applied Social Darwinism to Jews as well as to other “racial” groups (e.g. Slavic “race”) The seeds for a racial anti-Semitism were already sown by the end of the 19 th century.
Maintenance of Empire India in 1900: 3500 colonial officials in a population of 300 millions 75,000 white troops 200,000 Indian troops Sikh soldiers in the Indian Army
Image of Imperial Administration Queen Victoria: Empress of India in 1876 Maintenance and the Rituals of Empire
Claims of Religion Claims of Education Claims of Native Inferiority “Justified” by Social Darwinism and Scientific Racism Reflected Nationalism DRIVEN BY ECONOMICS NEW IMPERIALISM
“Treaty Making in East Africa,” The Queen’s Empire
Reality of Empire Economics as an Motivation Markets vs. Raw Materials Oil, rubber, tin, copper, quinine Advertisement for Frank Rippingille’s Patent Cooking Stove, late 1890s
Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906) 1894 – A French army captain, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, was convicted of treason for having sold military secrets to Germany. Once it was revealed that the army had forged the evidence, a new trial was held, but again Dreyfus was again found guilty.
Dreyfus Affair Splits France The controversy over whether Dreyfus was guilty or innocent divided all social classes. The reputation of the army was seen as more important than justice for one man.
Dreyfus Affair Splits France Liberals took up Dreyfus case, eg. Èmile Zola The Dreyfus Affair proved that a new kind of nationalism – a racist nationalism – had been born in the birthplace of the Enlightenment It was only in 1906 that Dreyfus was exonerated by a presidential pardon.