Presentation on theme: "The Age of Imperialism 1850 - 1914. Important Questions How is the Age of Imperialism a logical next step after the Industrial Revolution? What motivated."— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Imperialism
Important Questions How is the Age of Imperialism a logical next step after the Industrial Revolution? What motivated European nations to colonize Africa, Asia and India? What will be the long-term results of Imperialism on Africa, Asia and India?
Imperialism What: the domination of one nation by another politically, socially, economically and culturally Who: Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal & Spain Where: Africa, Asia & India
Imperialism Why: resources, guaranteed markets, nationalism, military concerns, racism (Social Darwinism) & the missionary impulse How: advanced European technology like the Maxim gun, the telegraph, the railroad, the steamship, medicines like quinine, African tribalism and a lack of African unity
Imperialism When: 1850 until 1914 –Why do you suppose that it began around 1850? –Why do you suppose that it ended in 1914?
Regroup What is imperialism? Who was involved and where did it take place? When did it take place? How were the Europeans able to dominate so many larger countries?
Why Did They Do It?
Resources Britain is an island with necessarily limited resources Europe too, has limited resources What happens if factories run out of coal or iron or if they need more cotton and can’t grow it themselves?
Resources European factories will need cheap raw materials to keep the revolution going If they don’t get them or if the price is too high what could happen? –Remember: production prices must be kept low in order to move more product & make more money
Guaranteed Markets How many shirts or pants can you own? How big is England’s or Europe’s population? Who can trade with a colony? Why do colonies exist? Why is no competition good for the seller but bad for the buyer?
Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their superiority. The more weaker countries taken over the more powerful the nation appeared. Colonies give nations prestige or “bragging rights”.
Social Darwinism The belief that all human groups compete for survival, and that the stronger groups will replace the weaker groups. Darwin’s theory of evolution = “survival of the fittest”. It is only natural that strong nations should dominate weaker nations. This is applied to society as a justification of imperialism.
Military Need for naval bases and places to refuel merchant ships. More colonies = More power and security More bases allow nations to use force in more different places and protect merchant ships. Balance of Power!
Economic Industrial Revolution creates need for large amounts of raw materials. New markets for finished goods. New places to invest profits What happens if factories produce but no one buys?
Missionary Impulse People of color seen as inherently inferior or as “God-less savages” It was the duty of the Europeans to “save the souls” of the people in Africa, Asia & India Sent missionaries out to bring them to the Christian God They were doing God’s work so imperialism was OK
Regroup What is a “guaranteed market”? Why do European nations HAVE to engage in imperialism? How is Social Darwinism a justification for imperialism? How does religion figure into the imperialistic impulse?
How Did They Do It?
Divide and Conquer Hundreds of different ethnic groups in Africa Dozens of languages Traditional African beliefs mixed with Islam and Christianity Large, unmanageable empires Low levels of technology
tribalism : Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in Africa.
Regroup How were the Europeans able to establish their colonies in the 19 th century when they previously could not? What tactic worked well for the Europeans in creating their colonial empires?
Colonies for Dummies There 4 different forms of colonial control –Colony –Protectorate –Sphere of influence –Economic imperialism There are 2 different types of management styles –Direct control –Indirect control
Colony A country or a region governed internally by a foreign power French Indochina (Vietnam)
Protectorate A country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power The British in Nigeria
Sphere of Influence An area or a region in which an outside power claims exclusive trading and investing rights but does not actually control the government Liberia under the influence of the US
Economic Imperialism Independent, but less developed, nations controlled by private business rather than by another country’s government The control of Hawaii by the Dole Fruit Company
Direct Control Officials brought in from mother country to rule No self-rule Laws based on European laws Official language was the European language Goal: assimilation
Indirect Control Locals used to run most government functions Limited self-rule Laws based on European laws as well as local laws Benefit: use fewer Europeans and give the locals a sense of ownership
Regroup How many different kinds of colonial holdings are there? What are they? How many kinds of control are there? What are they? Who used them? What is the advantage to indirect control?
Scramble for Africa The impact of the Industrial Revolution allowed Europeans to penetrate Africa’s interior Explorers began to map out Africa in the early 19 th century & to learn more about the “Dark Continent” (why is it Dark?) Christian missionaries followed the explorers into Africa to win souls for Christianity
Scramble for Africa By early 1870s it was clear that Africa would prove to be very valuable to industrialized nations King Leopold of Belgium sent Henry Stanley to Africa to explore the Congo River & to set up trade contacts with the Africans
Scramble for Africa Leopold publicly: “Belgium will carry the light that, for millions of men still plunged in barbarism, will be the dawn of a better era.” Leopold privately: “I want resources, markets & profits for Belgium!” Leopold’s actions touched off the Scramble for Africa
Berlin Conference – To avoid conflict with one another in Africa, European leaders met in Berlin, Germany With little regard or representation for Africans, the European powers set about carving up Africa.
Berlin Conference – Why did the Europeans absolutely not want Africans present at Berlin?
Berlin Conference – The following guidelines were set at the conference –Any sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers “in order to... make good any claim of their own.”
Berlin Conference – –Treaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty. –Any such annexation should be validated by effective occupation
By 1900, the only areas of Africa remaining independent were Liberia and Ethiopia
Regroup What was the “Scramble for Africa”? What rules does the Berlin Conference set down and why do the Europeans set them down? Who not invited, or even wanted at the Berlin Conference? Why?
The Boers In the 1830s descendents of the original Dutch settlers, now called Boers, migrated into the interior of South Africa and began to engage in conflicts with the Zulu
The Zulu The Zulu were a south African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader Shaka Zulu. Under Shaka’s rule, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa.
Zulus vs. Europe Battles with the Boer settlers continued well into the late 1800s, but never truly threatened Zulu sovereignty. Eventually, the Zulu came into the conflict with the British army as they expanded their control over southern Africa and invaded the homeland of the Zulu
Zulus vs. Europe Despite early victories, the Zulu were eventually defeated by the technology and vast resources at the command of the British troops. Soon, all of southern Africa would come under British control.
Cecil Rhodes Instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. Founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
Cape to Cairo Railroad Cecil Rhodes’s master plan. A railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa. Why is “linking” north & south so important?
Boer Reaction The Boers provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal. After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvaal which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office. Sets the stage for the Boer War.
The Boer War War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa The fighting was vicious, with the Boers employing guerilla tactics and the British eventually using 450,000 troops to achieve victory.
The Boer War In 1910, the various British colonies in southern Africa were united as the Union of South Africa
Effects of Imperialism European nations carved Africa up with no regard for traditional tribal boundaries. Africa still suffers from tribalism
tribalism : Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in modern Africa.
Effects of Imperialism Modern African nations often contain several different tribes that harbor ill feelings towards one another. inter-tribal conflict is a common in Africa often leading to civil wars and power struggles within national governments.
Effects of Imperialism Colonization: the Europeans control land, resources and people in Africa, Asia & India Colonial economics: Europeans control trade & set up dependent cash-crop economies Christianization: spread of Christianity to Asia, Africa & India
Positive For Europeans
Positive for Africans
Negative for Europeans
Negative for Africans
Muslim Lands Fall Prey to Europe Where is the Ottoman Empire located? –Anatolia –Asia Minor –Modern Turkey
Muslim Lands Why would other nations want to control this area? –It is the “crossroads of the world” –After 1869, the Suez Canal becomes critical Who wants these lands? –Britain –France –Russia
Muslim Lands Why are these Ottoman lands “available”? –Modernization has failed in the Ottoman Empire (Suleiman III tried to reform & was overthrown in 1789) –Ottoman Empire is the ‘Sick Man of Europe” –Nationalism within the Ottoman Empire Egypt & Greece declared independence, Serbia received self-rule
Muslim Lands Why do the Europeans want these lands? Geopolitics –The policy of taking land for its strategic location, available resources and/or products –This policy answers the question “Why would anyone want the Middle East since it is just a big desert?”
Crimean War Russia fights Ottomans who are supported by the British and French Russia wants access to Mediterranean Sea via Bosporus & Dardanelles Ottomans win, but continue their slow decline
Muslim Lands Ottomans need to modernize more than ever Muhammed Ali (NOT the boxer!!) sent to Egypt to modernize but turned against the Ottomans He moved Egypt into a monoculture and had them plant only cotton– why is that bad?
Regroup What is the policy of geopolitics? What makes the Ottoman Empire so valuable? Why did the British and French work with the Ottoman’s to keep Russia out of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles? Why is the Ottoman Empire the “Sick Man of Europe” in the late 19 th century?
Muslim Lands Muhammed Ali’s grandson son Isma’il was behind construction of Suez Canal French money & Egyptian labor used to connect Med to Red Project too expensive and Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 to protect the “life-line of the British Empire”