2Important QuestionsHow is the Age of Imperialism a logical next step after the Industrial Revolution?What motivated European nations to colonize Africa, Asia and India?What will be the long-term results of Imperialism on Africa, Asia and India?
3ImperialismWhat: the domination of one nation by another politically, socially, economically and culturallyWho: Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal & SpainWhere: Africa, Asia & India
4ImperialismWhy: resources, guaranteed markets, nationalism, military concerns, racism (Social Darwinism) & the missionary impulseHow: advanced European technology like the Maxim gun, the telegraph, the railroad, the steamship, medicines like quinine, African tribalism and a lack of African unity
5Imperialism When: 1850 until 1914 Why do you suppose that it began around 1850?Why do you suppose that it ended in 1914?
6Regroup What is imperialism? Who was involved and where did it take place?When did it take place?How were the Europeans able to dominate so many larger countries?
8Resources Britain is an island with necessarily limited resources Europe too, has limited resourcesWhat happens if factories run out of coal or iron or if they need more cotton and can’t grow it themselves?
9ResourcesEuropean factories will need cheap raw materials to keep the revolution goingIf they don’t get them or if the price is too high what could happen?Remember: production prices must be kept low in order to move more product & make more money
10Guaranteed Markets How many shirts or pants can you own? How big is England’s or Europe’s population?Who can trade with a colony?Why do colonies exist?Why is no competition good for the seller but bad for the buyer?
11Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their superiority. The more weaker countries taken over the more powerful the nation appeared.Colonies give nations prestige or “bragging rights”.
12Social DarwinismThe belief that all human groups compete for survival, and that the stronger groups will replace the weaker groups.Darwin’s theory of evolution = “survival of the fittest”.It is only natural that strong nations should dominate weaker nations.This is applied to society as a justification of imperialism.
13Military Need for naval bases and places to refuel merchant ships. More colonies = More power and securityMore bases allow nations to use force in more different places and protect merchant ships.Balance of Power!
14EconomicIndustrial Revolution creates need for large amounts of raw materials.New markets for finished goods.New places to invest profitsWhat happens if factories produce but no one buys?
15Missionary ImpulsePeople of color seen as inherently inferior or as “God-less savages”It was the duty of the Europeans to “save the souls” of the people in Africa, Asia & IndiaSent missionaries out to bring them to the Christian GodThey were doing God’s work so imperialism was OK
16Regroup What is a “guaranteed market”? Why do European nations HAVE to engage in imperialism?How is Social Darwinism a justification for imperialism?How does religion figure into the imperialistic impulse?
21Divide and Conquer Hundreds of different ethnic groups in Africa Dozens of languagesTraditional African beliefs mixed with Islam and ChristianityLarge, unmanageable empiresLow levels of technology
22tribalism : Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in Africa.
23RegroupHow were the Europeans able to establish their colonies in the 19th century when they previously could not?What tactic worked well for the Europeans in creating their colonial empires?
24Colonies for Dummies There 4 different forms of colonial control ColonyProtectorateSphere of influenceEconomic imperialismThere are 2 different types of management stylesDirect controlIndirect control
25Colony A country or a region governed internally by a foreign power French Indochina (Vietnam)
26ProtectorateA country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside powerThe British in Nigeria
27Sphere of InfluenceAn area or a region in which an outside power claims exclusive trading and investing rights but does not actually control the governmentLiberia under the influence of the US
28Economic ImperialismIndependent, but less developed, nations controlled by private business rather than by another country’s governmentThe control of Hawaii by the Dole Fruit Company
29Direct Control Officials brought in from mother country to rule No self-ruleLaws based on European lawsOfficial language was the European languageGoal: assimilation
30Indirect Control Locals used to run most government functions Limited self-ruleLaws based on European laws as well as local lawsBenefit: use fewer Europeans and give the locals a sense of ownership
31Regroup How many different kinds of colonial holdings are there? What are they?How many kinds of control are there?What are they? Who used them?What is the advantage to indirect control?
32Scramble for AfricaThe impact of the Industrial Revolution allowed Europeans to penetrate Africa’s interiorExplorers began to map out Africa in the early 19th century & to learn more about the “Dark Continent” (why is it Dark?)Christian missionaries followed the explorers into Africa to win souls for Christianity
33Scramble for AfricaBy early 1870s it was clear that Africa would prove to be very valuable to industrialized nationsKing Leopold of Belgium sent Henry Stanley to Africa to explore the Congo River & to set up trade contacts with the Africans
34Scramble for AfricaLeopold publicly: “Belgium will carry the light that, for millions of men still plunged in barbarism, will be the dawn of a better era.”Leopold privately: “I want resources, markets & profits for Belgium!”Leopold’s actions touched off the Scramble for Africa
35Berlin Conference –To avoid conflict with one another in Africa, European leaders met in Berlin, GermanyWith little regard or representation for Africans, the European powers set about carving up Africa.
36Berlin Conference –Why did the Europeans absolutely not want Africans present at Berlin?
38Berlin Conference –The following guidelines were set at the conferenceAny sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers “in order to ... make good any claim of their own.”
39Berlin Conference –Treaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty.Any such annexation should be validated by effective occupation
40By 1900, the only areas of Africa remaining independent were Liberia and Ethiopia
44The BoersIn the 1830s descendents of the original Dutch settlers, now called Boers, migrated into the interior of South Africa and began to engage in conflicts with the Zulu
45The ZuluThe Zulu were a south African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill, as established by their legendary leader Shaka Zulu. Under Shaka’s rule, the Zulu broadened their land claims throughout southern Africa.
46Zulus vs. EuropeBattles with the Boer settlers continued well into the late 1800s, but never truly threatened Zulu sovereignty.Eventually, the Zulu came into the conflict with the British army as they expanded their control over southern Africa and invaded the homeland of the Zulu
47Zulus vs. EuropeDespite early victories, the Zulu were eventually defeated by the technology and vast resources at the command of the British troops. Soon, all of southern Africa would come under British control.
48Cecil RhodesInstrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa.Founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production.After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
49Cape to Cairo Railroad Cecil Rhodes’s master plan. A railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa.Why is “linking” north & south so important?
51Boer ReactionThe Boers provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal.After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvaal which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office.Sets the stage for the Boer War.
52The Boer WarWar between Great Britain and the Boers in South AfricaThe fighting was vicious, with the Boers employing guerilla tactics and the British eventually using 450,000 troops to achieve victory.
53The Boer WarIn 1910, the various British colonies in southern Africa were united as the Union of South Africa
54Effects of Imperialism European nations carved Africa up with no regard for traditional tribal boundaries.Africa still suffers from tribalism
55tribalism : Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in modern Africa.
56Effects of Imperialism Modern African nations often contain several different tribes that harbor ill feelings towards one another.inter-tribal conflict is a common in Africa often leading to civil wars and power struggles within national governments.
57Effects of Imperialism Colonization: the Europeans control land, resources and people in Africa, Asia & IndiaColonial economics: Europeans control trade & set up dependent cash-crop economiesChristianization: spread of Christianity to Asia, Africa & India
67Muslim Lands Why are these Ottoman lands “available”? Modernization has failed in the Ottoman Empire (Suleiman III tried to reform & was overthrown in 1789)Ottoman Empire is the ‘Sick Man of Europe”Nationalism within the Ottoman EmpireEgypt & Greece declared independence, Serbia received self-rule
68Muslim Lands Why do the Europeans want these lands? Geopolitics The policy of taking land for its strategic location, available resources and/or productsThis policy answers the question “Why would anyone want the Middle East since it is just a big desert?”
72Muslim Lands Ottomans need to modernize more than ever Muhammed Ali (NOT the boxer!!) sent to Egypt to modernize but turned against the OttomansHe moved Egypt into a monoculture and had them plant only cotton– why is that bad?
73Regroup What is the policy of geopolitics? What makes the Ottoman Empire so valuable?Why did the British and French work with the Ottoman’s to keep Russia out of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles?Why is the Ottoman Empire the “Sick Man of Europe” in the late 19th century?
74Muslim LandsMuhammed Ali’s grandson son Isma’il was behind construction of Suez CanalFrench money & Egyptian labor used to connect Med to RedProject too expensive and Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 to protect the “life-line of the British Empire”