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Imperialism. Motives for Imperialism Economic- need for new markets and raw materials Political– boost national pride, expand territory, exercise military.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism. Motives for Imperialism Economic- need for new markets and raw materials Political– boost national pride, expand territory, exercise military."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism

2 Motives for Imperialism

3 Economic- need for new markets and raw materials Political– boost national pride, expand territory, exercise military force Social- racism, Social Darwinism, spread Christianity, white man’s burden

4 Forms of Colonial Control Forms of Imperialism CharacteristicsAfrican Example ColonyCountry governed internally by a foreign power Somaliland by France ProtectorateCountry with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power Niger River Delta by Britain Sphere of InfluenceArea in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Liberia by the United States

5 Management Methods Indirect ControlDirect Control Characteristics -Local officials were used -Limited self-rule -Goal to develop future leaders -Govt’s based on European styles, but may have local rulers Characteristics -Foreign officials brought into rule - No self-rule -Gold assimilation -Govt’s institutions based only on European styles Examples -British colonies such as Nigeria, India, Burma -U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands Examples -French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam -German colonies such as Tanganyika

6 Scramble for Africa 1882- King Leopold II of Belgium claims the Congo –Claims to end slavery 1880- Scramble for Africa begins Berlin Conference in 1884-85 –Africa divided with little thought to how African ethnic or linguistic groups were distributed By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control

7 King Leopold

8 Scramble for Africa

9 Berlin Conference

10 Africa 1914

11 African Conflicts South Africa –1816- Shaka Zulu –Boers and the Great Trek –Boer War 1899-1902 Ethiopia –Menelik II –Battle of Adowa- Ethiopians defeat Italians

12 Shaka Zulu

13 Menelik II

14 “Heart of Darkness”

15 Impacts on Africa Positive –Reduced Local Warfare –Improved Sanitation –Life Span and Literacy Rates Increased Negative –Loss of land and independence –Breakdown of traditional culture –Division of Continent

16 Imperialism in India Fall of Mughal Empire- Controlled by British East India Company (“Jewel in the Crown”) Negative Impacts –Loss of self-sufficiency –Cash crops leads to famine –Indian companies go out of business –Loss of traditional culture Positive Impacts –Industrialization –Education –Sanitation

17 Sepoy Rebellion Sepoys- Indian soldiers in British Army (mainly Muslim and Hindu) Rifle Cartridges greased with beef and pork fat Leads to Sepoy Rebellion Failed Rebellion leads to Direct Rule (Raj) New Direct Rule (Raj) paid by Salt Tax Growing Indian Nationalism / Modernization –Ram Mohun Roy –Indian National Congress –Muslim League


19 Southeast Asian Colonies Southeast Asia source of spices valued highly by Europeans To obtain spices, Europeans established colonies there in 1500s For centuries Dutch controlled spice trade, held key Southeast Asian ports Moving to Interior Britain controlled port cities of Singapore, Penang 1824, attained control of Malacca, part of modern-day Malaysia Late 1800s, moved into interior, established rubber plantations Plantation Agriculture Dutch began growing sugar, coffee on Southeast Asian colony plantations Shift to plantation agriculture set pattern for future European colonies there 1800s, British began to compete with Dutch in Malaysia Europeans in Southeast Asia

20 Southeast Asia PowerLands ClaimedMajor Trade Products DutchJava, Sumatra, Borneo, Bali Oil, Tin, rubber BritishMalaysia, BurmaTin, Rubber FrenchVietnam, Laos, Cambodia Rice AmericansPhilippines, Hawaii Sugar, Bananas, Pineapples

21 French Control French emperor Napoleon III sent fleet to Vietnam in response French defeated Vietnamese forces in Mekong Delta, forced Vietnamese ruler to sign Treaty of Saigon, 1862 Treaty gave France control of most of territory in southern Vietnam French in Indochina While British increased control over Malaysia, French conquered part of Indochina French missionaries, traders active in Vietnam in early 1800s Nguyen dynasty saw French as threat, tried to expel missionaries

22 France took control of the rest of Vietnam in 1884 and annexed neighboring Laos and Cambodia, created French Indochina French built roads, railroads, irrigation systems Introduced reforms in education, medical care French colonialism in Indochina largely benefited the French Many French citizens became rich from tea, rubber plantations French Colonialism Many Vietnamese farmers unable to pay high taxes, fell into debt Vietnamese peasants often lost farms, forced to become wage laborers Vietnamese resentment of French rulers grew throughout 1800s, 1900s Resentment of French France in Southeast Asia

23 Siam Siam (Thailand today) was only Southeast Asian country to retain independence in 1800s. Served as buffer between British-controlled Burma, French Indochina –By skillful exploitation of European rivalries, careful modernization, monarchs of Siam preserved nation’s freedom

24 How Did Siam Maintain Its Independence? King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the road to modernization. Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escaped becoming a European colony. Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a buffer, or neutral zone, between them. In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam its independence. 2

25 Southeast Asia: Thailand The “Land of the free”: Never colonized by European powers. The core along the Chao Phrya Valley. Access to the Indian (Gulf of Bengal) and Pacific (Gulf of Thailand) oceans. 62 million population: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%. Buddhist 94.4%, Islam 4%, Hindu 1.1%, Christian 0.5%. Muslims minority in the south (along the Malaysia border). Bangkok Chao Phrya Valley Gulf of Thailand Indian Ocean

26 Southeast Asia: Thailand History –Kingdom of Siam (1782). –Maintained independence from colonial powers: Reforms and concessions. Treaty with France and Britain guaranteeing independence (1896). Played the game of diplomatic relations. Conceded Laos and Western Cambodia to France. Conceded the northern states of Malaysia and the Shan state (Burma) to Britain. –Seen as a buffer state between France and Britain. –Treaties to guarantee boundaries signed early 20th century. –Specialized in rice production: Feed the neighboring European colonies (plantations). Was indirectly incorporated in the colonial system. Trade was in the hands of foreign interests.

27 THAILAND Seen as a buffer state between France and Britain. Treaties to guarantee boundaries signed early 20th century. Specialized in rice production: Feed the neighboring European colonies (plantations). Was indirectly incorporated in the colonial system. Trade was in the hands of foreign interests.

28 Imperialism in Southeast Asia Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s –Conflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880s –Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s- 1880s French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, 1859- 1893 –Encouraged conversion to Christianity

29 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Colonial Southeast Asia, c. 1850

30 Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900 2


32 Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia Primary aim was economic Indirect rule –Burma –Malaya –Indochina Slow to create democratic institutions Slow to adopt educational reforms Reluctant to take up “white man’s burden” Slow economic development –Some manufacturing in urban areas –Problems with growth of cash crops Problems of population growth “Modernizing elite”

33 Colonization of Southeast Asia By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They: introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroads These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia. In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia. 2

34 Western Settler Societies Migration –Increased as Europeans went to the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa in search of cheap land and better economic opportunities –Served as a new labor force –Most migrants were free agents although some were indentured servants

35 Western Settler Societies Three British colonies –Established parliamentary governments, vigorous commercial economies, European cultural patterns –Dependent on British economy –Canada Friction between British rulers and French inhabitants Formed a federal system Majority of French lived in Quebec –Australia 1788, lived among indigenous hunting and gathering population Agricultural development and discovery of gold –Spurred population growth and economy Federal system developed in 1900 –New Zealand Missionaries and settlers moved into Maori territory Maori defeated by the 1860s Generally good relations Developed strong agricultural economy and parliamentary system

36 Global Industrialization Global division of labor Dependency theory

37 Imperialism in Oceania, ca. 1914

38 Geography of Australia and New Zealand 3

39 Europeans in Australia In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was too distant to attract European settlers. Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously. In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony. In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines. In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom. By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy. 3


41 European Imperialism in Australia and New Zealand English use Australia as a penal colony from 1788 Voluntary migrants follow; gold discovered 1851 Smallpox, measles devastate natives Territory called “terra nullus”: land of no one New Zealand: natives forced to sign Treaty of Waitangi (1840), placing New Zealand under British “protection”

42 Australian Aborigine

43 New Zealand In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain. Missionaries arrived to convert the local people, the Maoris, to Christianity. In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand. Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in fierce wars with the Maoris. By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many Maoris died in the struggle. White New Zealanders won independence. New Zealand pioneered in several areas of democratic reform. In 1893, it became the first nation to give suffrage to women. Later, it was in the forefront of other social reforms. 3

44 European and Native Population in Australia and New Zealand

45 Imperial Powers in the Pacific In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific. In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa. From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii. At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future. 2

46 European Imperialism in the Pacific Islands Commercial outposts –Whalers seeking port –Merchants seeking sandalwood, sea slugs for sale in China –Missionaries seeking souls British, French, German, American powers carve up Pacific islands –Tonga remains independent, but relies on Britain

47 US Imperialism President James Monroe warns Europeans not to engage in imperialism in western hemisphere (1823) –The Monroe Doctrine: all Americas a U.S. Protectorate 1867 purchased Alaska from Russia 1875 established protectorate over Hawai’i –Locals overthrow queen in 1893, persuade US to acquire islands in 1898

48 Spanish-Cuban-American War (1898-1899) US declares war in Spain after battleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor, 1898 –Takes possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines –US intervenes in other Caribbean, Central American lands, occupies Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti Filipinos revolt against Spanish rule, later against US rule

49 US: Spanish-American War (1898-1899) The US had large business interests in Puerto Rico and Cuba, the last remnant’s of Spain’s American empire In 1898 the US battleship Maine exploded and sank in Havana harbor US leaders suspected sabotage and declared war It was an easy US victory and after the Spanish- American War the US emerged as a major imperial and colonial power

50 Albert Thayer Mahan US naval officer who lived from 1840 to 1914 Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 and The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793- 1812 Considered “sea power” to include the overlapping concepts of command of the sea through naval superiority and that combination of maritime commerce, overseas possessions, and privileged access to foreign markets that produces national “wealth and greatness”

51 Albert Thayer Mahan Increasingly became an imperialist in order to gain control of the resources the US needed to best use its naval power –“by 1890 the study of the influence of sea power and its kindred expansive activities upon the destiny of nations converted me” to an imperialist (Mahan, 1901) Wrote “The Isthmus and Sea Power” in 1893 in which he argued that building a Central American canal would require the US to vastly increase its naval strength to protect its interests from European competition

52 US and Hawaii In 1875 the US claimed a protectorate over Hawaii, where US entrepreneurs had established highly productive sugarcane plantations In 1893 a group of businessmen and planters overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and invited the US to annex Hawaii Hawaii became a US possession in 1898 Queen Liliuokalani

53 Albert Thayer Mahan In the Caribbean, the US took possession of Puerto Rico and Cuba Mahan predicted Puerto Rico was to the future Panama Canal and to the West Coast what Malta was to British interests in India and beyond

54 US and Panama In 1903 the US supported a rebellion against Colombia and helped rebels establish a breakaway state of Panama In exchange for the support the US won the right to build a canal across Panama and control the adjacent territory known as the Panama Canal Zone The Canal opened in 1914

55 The Panama Canal President Theodore Roosevelt (in office 1901-1909) supports insurrection against Colombia (1903) Rebels win, establish state of Panama U.S. gains territory to build canal, Panama Canal Zone Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine –U.S. right to intervene in domestic affairs of other nations if U.S. investments threatened

56 Panama Canal Between 1904 and 1914, the US built the Panama Canal which links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans without having to transit Cape Horn Gatun locks under construction in 1910

57 US and Central America The Canal was part of a long tradition of US interest in the Caribbean area In 1823 President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine that warned European states against imperialist designs in the western hemisphere –Any European attempt to reassert control over former colonies or to establish new ones would be considered as a threat against the US and an act of provocation The Monroe Doctrine served as a justification for US intervention in hemispheric affairs

58 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine In 1904 the government of the Dominican Republic went bankrupt President Theodore Roosevelt feared that Germany and other nations might intervene forcibly to collect their debts Roosevelt asserted that “in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power....” Cartoon portraying Roosevelt as an international policeman wielding his “big stick”

59 Early 20 th Century US Interventions in Latin America Cuba Dominican Republic Nicaragua Honduras Haiti

60 US and the Pacific The Spanish-American War also resulted in American victories in the Pacific where the US took possession of the Philippines and Guam Prior to that Mahan’s expansionist vision had “reached not past Hawaii,” but now it encompassed the Asiatic mainland Commodore Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in a single day at the Battle of Manila.

61 Mahan and the Pacific Mahan saw US expansion in Asia as being not the product of military force but of peaceful commercial penetration He saw US control of the Panama Canal, Hawaii, and the Philippines as “stepping stones to the two great prizes: the Latin American and Asian markets”



64 China Rejects Trade with the West

65 Opium War

66 Opium War effects Treaty of Nanjing –Britain given Hong Kong –Extraterritorial Rights Taiping Rebellion Empress Cixi self-strengthening movement China Carved into Spheres of Influence –Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion


68 Japan Matthew Perry and the Treaty of Kanagawa Meiji Era –Modernized gov’t –Modernized army –Modernized education –Modernized economy / Industrialization


70 Imperial Japan Sino-Japanese War –Gained Taiwan and Pescadores Islands Russo-Japanese War –Disputed land of Manchuria and Korea –Defeated Russians (great humiliation) –Japan annexes Korea in 1910

71 Economic Legacies of Imperialism Colonized states encouraged to exploit natural resources rather than build manufacturing centers Encouraged dependency on imperial power for manufactured goods made from native raw product –Indian cotton Introduction of new crops –Tea in Ceylon

72 Imperialism and migration during the nineteenth and early twentieth century

73 Labor Migrations Europeans move to temperate lands –Work as free cultivators, industrial laborers –32 million to the US 1800-1914 Africans, Asians, and Pacific islanders move to tropical/subtropical lands –Indentured laborers, manual laborers –2.5 million between 1820 and 1914

74 The Emergence of Anti- Colonialism Nationalism Imperialism brought a consciousness of modern nationhood Introduction of western ideas of citizenship and representative government New elite Traditional Resistance: A Precursor to Nationalism –Led by existing ruling class –Resistance in India –Peasant revolts –Religious resentment India -- Sepoy Rebellion

75 Colonial Conflict Thousands of insurrections against colonial rule –Tanganyika Maji Maji Rebellion against Germans (1905-1906) –Rebels sprinkle selves with magic water (maji maji) as protection against modern weapons; 75000 killed “Scientific” Racism developed –Count Joseph Arthurd de Gobineau (1816- 1882) –Combines with theories of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) to form pernicious doctrine of Social Darwinism

76 Nationalism and Anti-colonial Movements Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1883), Bengali called “father of modern India” Reformers call for self-government, adoption of selected British practices (e.g. ban on sati) –Influence of Enlightenment thought, often obtained in European universities Indian National Congress formed 1885 –1906 joins with All-India Muslim League

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