Presentation on theme: "Historic Timeline of Somalia By: Michaela C.. Historic Backround The Somali are ancient people, indigenous to the Horn of Africa. They came to the stage."— Presentation transcript:
Historic Backround The Somali are ancient people, indigenous to the Horn of Africa. They came to the stage of the world history as businesslike people trading with ancient civilizations. The Somali never came under the unifying rule of a single political authority.
The First Occupants: 600s- 1870s Somalia’s ostrich feathers, butter, and other animal biproducts have been open to the outside world for centuries. In the 600s, Muslim Arabs and Persians established themselves along the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean Coasts, developing a series of trading posts. Later in the 1500s, these trading posts disintegrated into small states. In the 1800s, a scramble for Somali possession started by Britain, France, and Italy.
1880s: The Start of the Scramble When the European nations began to invade Africa in the late 19th century, France had control over a coaling station near the Red Sea and continued to expand itself to the area of present Djibouti. At the end of the 1880s, Britain had proclaimed a protectorate over the north coast and called it Somaliland. Italy controlled the remainder of the country: a protectorate in central Somalia, later consolidated with territory in the south.
Early 1990s: Who’s in Control? In the north, a Muslim leader went to war against the British in 1899 and maintained his hold until his death in the 1920s. The Italians aquired the South after World War 1, but soon after, the British won control of the Italian zone in World War 2.
1943: Strive for Indepedence The Somali Youth League (SYL) wanted independence by all territories and reunification under one national flag. They won the elections of 1959 and a year later the Somali National League (SNL) and United Somali Party (USP) won the elections. It was a peaceful and political campaign. SYL
1960: The Merge June 26, 1960, the British and Italian parts of Somalia became independent and merged to form the United Republic of Somalia. Aden Abdullah Osman Daar was elected president. A constitution was soon to be made, but the country suffered a unhealthy political atmosphere and the president was assassinated ten years later. Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
1961: Constitution Formation The SYL and SNL-USP formed a coalition government headed by Prime Minister Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke of SYL. The SYL soon took leadership and then the competiton started between the SYL and SNL-USP governments. There were secessionist rebellions, border clashes with Ethiopia, and extreme hostile relations with Kenya. A corrupt and unwieldly bureaucracy started to grow.
1969: Army took over On October 21, 1969 the army took over the state. They suspended the 1961 constitution and appointed themselves the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC). The renamed the country Somali Democratic Republic and adopted the scientific socialism as its guiding principle. Muhammad Siad Barre became Somalia’s new president.
1979: New Constitution On July 1, 1976, the SRC handed leadership to the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Part (SRSP). A new constitution was formed in 1979 and there were elections for new parliament: The People’s Assembly, who chose Mohamed Siad Barre as their president. His regime was militaristic socialism and repressive personal dictatorship. Siad Barre
1978:Defeat of Ogaden War An abortive military coup made way for the formation of two opposition groups: The Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) and the Somali National Movement (SNM). They undertook operations from bases in Ethiopia. A peace accord with Ethiopia was signed in 1988 obliging to cease supporting Somali antigovernment guerrillas which had unfortunately precipitated civil war in Somalia. Bases in Ethiopia
1979-1989: Fight against Siad Barre The Somali Democratic Action Front (SDAF) declared war. Many other groups joined the fight over time including: the SSDF, the SNM, the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), and the United Somali Congress (USC). Finally on January 27, 1991, USC Militia drove Siad Barre out of Mogadishu.
1991: “Unilateral Independence” In May of 1991 the SNM declared that the former British protectorate was seceding from the Somali Union to form the independent Republic of Somaliland. An internal rift within USC put Gen. Mohammed Farah Aideed against Ali Mandi Mohamed. The war caused 30,000 lives and destruction of Mogadishu.
1991: Disintegration By the end of 1991, Somalia was divided into a dozen or so units under the control of clan elders or local warlords. Chaos with drought and devastating famine in which 500,000 people starved to death. Attempts to distribute relief food were undermined by rake-offs by militias.
1992-1995: Outside Countries decide to help In 1992, US Marines land near Mogadishu ahead of a UN peacekeeping force sent to restore order and safeguard relief supplies. In 1993, US Army Rangers are killed when Somali militias shoot down two US helicopters in Mogadishu and a battle ensues. Hundreds of Somalis die in the battle and the US mission formally ends in March of 1994. Not soon after, UN peacekeepers leave, having failed to achieve their mission.
2006: War A conflict involving Ethiopian and Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Forces versus the Islamic Court Union (ICU) officially started on July 20, 2006 when the US backed Ethiopian troops invaded Somalia to prop up the TFG. The TFG had invited the Ethiopians to intervene which actually failed to strengthen the government. After several successful battles, the Ethiopians withdrew in January 2009. Islamist groups however are still trying to attack certain areas.
January 31, 2009: Elections The most up to date recent history in Somalia were the elections that took place on Saturday. Moderate Islamist leader Sheikh Sharif Ahmed has been elected Somalia’s new president. He is said to be the one man that might be able to control the secular warlords who have been dominating the government. Mr. Ahmed says he wants to rebuild Somalia’s social services.
Works Cited “Islamist elected Somali President.” BBC news. 2009. Feb. 1, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7860925.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7860925.stm Middleton, John. Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara, Volume 4. New York 1997. Simon & Schuster & Prentice Hall Int. “Somalia.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica online. Feb. 1, 2009. http://www.britannica.com/Ebchecked/topic/553877/Somalia http://www.britannica.com/Ebchecked/topic/553877/Somalia “Somalia’s Struggle for Stability.” PBS online. 2009. Aug. 25, 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/africa/somalia/tim eline/ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/africa/somalia/tim eline/ “Timeline: Somalia.” BBC news, 2009. Jan. 29, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1072611.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1072611.stm “War in Somalia.” Wikipedia. 2009. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Feb. 2, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/war_in_somali_(2006- present)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/war_in_somali_(2006- present)