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The Age of New Imperialism. The Essential Question  To what extent is the legacy of European colonizers responsible for current economic, social, and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of New Imperialism. The Essential Question  To what extent is the legacy of European colonizers responsible for current economic, social, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of New Imperialism

2 The Essential Question  To what extent is the legacy of European colonizers responsible for current economic, social, and political developments in former colonies?

3 Overview What’s imperialism? Why study imperialism? Motives for imperialism The rise of the new imperialism


5 Imperialism Imperialism: the takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation

6 The Age of “New Imperialism”: Definitions “New imperialism”: the expansion of European political influence and control over most of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America that took place from 1850 to 1914


8 Why should we care? Understanding roots of contemporary global politics and economy Source of many political conflicts Global economic inequality is partly the result of this era

9 The Rise of Global Inequality The evolution of the “lopsided world” 1750: standard of living in Europe no higher than the rest of the world 1970: average person in wealthy countries has 25x income of poorest countries Gaps in food, clothing, health, education

10 The Rise of Global Inequality 1970

11 GNP per capita map

12 Two explanations A) The West used science, technology, capitalist organization, and its enlightened philosophy to create its wealth and greater physical well-being B) The West used its political and economic power to steal much of its riches, continuing even into the 20 th century, its aggressive colonialism

13 Percentage of Five Major Regions/Continents Controlled by US and Europe in 1900 13 Region Percentage Controlled Africa90.4 Polynesia98.9 Asia56.5 Australia100 Americas27.2

14 Population of Colonies and Continents Controlled by European Nations by 1939 Country Population of Colonies (in millions) Great Britain470 France65 Belgium13 Netherlands66 Germany (1914)13 14

15 Examples of Former Colonies Belgium: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi Britain: Sudan, Botswana, Kenya, Somalia, Ghana, Egypt, Ghana, Nigeria, Zambia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Namibia, Uganda, Palestine, India, Pakistan, Singapore, Malaysia France: Algeria, Cameroon, Chad, Ivory Coast, Morocco, Senegal, Madagascar, Lebanon, Syria, Cambodia, Vietnam Germany: Rwanda, Tanzania, Ghana, Netherlands: Angola, South Africa, Senegal, Taiwan 15


17 Economic Competition Industrial Revolution: increased output of machine-made goods that began in England during 18 th century New markets Raw materials

18 National Pride  “All great nations in the fullness of their strength have desired to set their mark upon barbarian lands and those who fail to participate in this great rivalry will play a pitiable role in the time to come”—German historian, Heinrich von Treitschke

19 Racism Theory of Social Darwinism Charles Darwin’s “Origin of Species”  “survival of the fittest” applied to social change Europeans thought they had the right and duty to bring progress to other nations

20 Religion Push for expansion from missionaries Convert native populations to Christianity Wanted to “civilize” and “westernize” the colonized


22 Africa Before Colonialism Ethnic and linguistic groups Large empires to independent villages Europeans confined to coasts European travel to interior virtually impossible Large networks of African trade: gold, ivory

23 Technology Enables Imperialism Technology: Maxim gun, 1889 – first machine gun Steam engine  easier travel; railroads & cables  communication among colonies Medicine: malaria and quinine (popularized after 1870)

24 Things Fall Apart Internal Factor: Africa’s huge variety of languages and cultures discouraged unity Wars over land, trade, water Europeans learned to play these groups against each other

25 The Berlin Conference Date: 1884-1885 Conference between European countries to peaceably divide Africa (avoiding a war between whites) No Africans invited European nations claimed regions where they had government presence and control Started the “Scramble for Africa”

26 The Scramble for Africa Roughly 1881-1914 Fierce competition among European nations to colonize Africa By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia were free

27 Exit Ticket On an index card with PROPER HEADING, write 3 big ideas that a student who missed today’s lecture should know.

28 Congo Overview Notes

29 King Leopold II How did one man end up controlling most of central Africa as his territory?

30 King Leopold II Belgium Desperately want overseas empire Central Africa 1876: Conference of explorers and geographers

31 Exploring the Congo Explorer: Henry Morton Stanley Stanley hired by King Leopold II of Belgium Signed 450 treaties with local chiefs Rivalry between Leopold and France

32 The Berlin Conference Few participants ever been to Africa Henry Morton Stanley is an advantage Leopold manipulates events US recognizes Leopold’s control Berlin Act: Leopold gains private control over land 80x size of Belgium

33 Leopold’s Reign: Broken Promises Central Africa was a free trade zone All merchants can trade equally Leopold will create just and stable government Businessmen and missionaries can do work to “civilize” Central Africa Broken Promise

34 Post-Independence Congo Independence in 1960 Mobutu from 1960-1985: 88,000 miles of road to 12,000 Self- sufficient  malnutrition Kleptocracy 1984: $4 billion debt

35 Even today… Democratic Republic of Congo suffers from: Warlords Systematic rape Wide-scale killing Human rights violations

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