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Slides for Class: Imperialism in China, India, Africa and the Middle East.

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Presentation on theme: "Slides for Class: Imperialism in China, India, Africa and the Middle East."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Slides for Class: Imperialism in China, India, Africa and the Middle East

3 The Opium War [ ] Trade war or drug war? Should morality be an issue in trade relations? Is opium just like any other commodity—like tea or molasses, for instance? Lin Zexu

4 Canton (Guangzhou) Trade TRIANGULAR TRADE MANUFACTURED GOODS OPIUM SILVER

5 Consequences of the Opium War for China: “Unequal treaties” In the Treaty of Nanjing China had to: –Cede Hong Kong to Britain –Open five ports –Pay huge indemnities for war damage –Guarantee British citizens extraterritoriality –Grant Britain “most favored nations” status See RGH#28: “The English and the Opium Trade”

6 Chinese Response 3 R’s Rebellion – Taiping, Boxer Reform – self-strengthening movement, 100 Days of Reform Retrenchment – Empress Zuxi, Marble Boat

7 Taiping Rebellion Anti-Q’ing Led by Hong Xiuquan Spread throughout China: million died!! Took tremendous government resources to put down

8 Boxer Rebellion 1900 Anti-western insurgencies Put down by British, French, Russian, U.S., German, Japanese forces Q’ing government had to pay damages

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10 Foreign Response Sino-Japanese War Russo - Japanese War Spheres of Influence

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12 China: “Semi-colonial” 1850s

13 CANTON

14 Cartoon c depicting China being strangled by Chinese warlords and Western imperialists

15 Imperialism and India: From trading post empire to “jewel in the crown” CHRONOLOGY : British East India Company controlled India Gradual colonization by “men on the spot” Reform of Indian society : Sepoy Revolt : India was directly controlled by the British Crown, British Raj British employed Sepoys

16 Imperialism in India Two forces at work: –Internal decline of the Mughal Empire –British and French Colonial Rivalry

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18 Impact of Imperialism in India India a colony, “jewel in the Crown” Social reforms Introduction of Western institutions: English, law, education New Class and Institutions: –Indian Middle Class – Indian Civil Service, Indian Army Resistance: Sepoy Mutiny, 1858

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25 Impact on Indian Economy Commercial agriculture = dependence Heavy taxation British control of trade “Deindustrialization” of Indian textile industry Environmental destruction Modern communications and transportation: roads/railroads See RGH #37: “The Case for India”

26 European Interests in the Middle East –The Suez Canal because it linked the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea This canal was one of the main trade routes with Indian colonies The French first set out to build the Suez Canal in 1859 But in 1875 Britain took over the canal and in 1882 they had full control over Egypt

27 “I have come to restore your rights” ”egomaniac on the loose”

28 Imperialism: Two Goals Economic penetration Diplomatic coercion See Handout for more examples See RGH #65: “Imperialism: The ‘Civilizing Mission’”

29 European Interests in the Middle East –The Suez Canal because it linked the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea This canal was one of the main trade routes with Indian colonies The French first set out to build the Suez Canal in 1859 But in 1875 Britain took over the canal and in 1882 they had full control over Egypt

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34 Imperialism and Africa CHRONOLOGY Until late 1870s Africa was 90% self-ruled 1870s Belgium established rubber plantations “Scramble for Africa” – Berlin Conference

35 Africa Before the Scramble Africa After the Scramble

36 Africa: After the Slave Trade and Before the Scramble Political: -statebuilding (King Menelik in Ethiopia) -strongly centralized monarchies (Buganda in Central Africa) -nationalism vs. clan loyalty (Ashante in West Africa) -religion as a unifier (Sokoto Caliphate in West Africa) -military and bureaucratic regimes (Zulu in South Africa) Economic: - substituting free labor for slave labor -“legitimate trade” replaced the Atlantic slave trade - new commercial class emerged Social: -traditional community life altered by commercial developments “Change occurred but not quickly enough”

37 The Scramble for Africa ( ) Berlin Conference – 1885 See RGH #41: “The Berlin Act, 1885” “Any power which...takes possession of a tract of land on the coasts of the African continent outside of its present possessions...shall acquire them, as well as the Power which assumes a Protectorate there.. (notifying)...the other Signatory Powers of the present Act, in order to enable them...to make good any claims of their own.”

38 The Dual Mandate See RGH #40 “Europe is in Africa for the mutual benefit of her own industrial classes, and of the native races in their progress to a higher plane.” “We hold these countries because it is the genius of our race to colonize, to trade, and to govern.”

39 See RGH #22: “Belgian Congo: The Rubber Terror”

40 The “Iron Grid” of Colonialism

41 See RGH #39: “Things Fall Apart”

42 Cecil Rhodes and South Africa


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