Lecture: Making Breakfast Scramble eggs Brew the coffee Heat the toast Simple lesson? We all got it?
A Show of Hands … Has everyone HAD breakfast this morning? Ramadan!!! Does everyone eat breakfast when not fasting? Who likes eggs for breakfast? Who likes coffee for breakfast? Who knows how to make scrambled eggs?
What was wrong with the first lesson? Assumptions? Relevance? Other?
Breakfast Components In groups, brainstorm for a few minutes on breakfast components and present them to the class How is this different from the initial lecture?
Debating Breakfast Split into two groups: Healthy breakfast Unhealthy but tasty breakfast After a few minutes of thinking, “ debate ” what a “ good ” breakfast “ should ” contain
Alone: arrange a breakfast for someone who: Is dieting Can ’ t digest milk products Can't digest beans Doesn't like coffee/tea Would you have been able to do so using the first lecture?
So what is active learning? " … anything that students do in a classroom other than merely passively listening to an instructor's lecture" (Paulson and Faust) Includes helping students listen better, short exercises related to in-class material, complex group exercises, applying real-life problems, etc.
Benefits of active learning You know more about how the students are thinking/absorbing Students become more involved and engaged Students learn extra skills beside the content matter Makes use of what students already know Helps students think of how the subject matter can be applied in their day-to-day lives or other real-life contexts
How can I apply active learning? Have you been exposed to this? Today or even before in other classes? We already displayed a few techniques: poll/pretest, brainstorming, debate, problem-based learning Listing of different techniques is available online Can be applied for a certain concept or an entire chapter or an entire semester
How Can Technology Help? Any ideas? Webquests Online quizzes Online interactive material (www.merlot.org)www.merlot.org Online discussions or chats
What is Cooperative Learning What do you think it means? Do you think it is a form of active learning? Why? Where have you used cooperative learning in your discipline?
A Definition (Slavin) Cooperative learning (also called social learning) is learning that occurs when groups of students work together rather than individually.
Why Cooperative Learning? Active vs. passive Quicker more personal feedback from peers Learn from others ’ thinking/skills Develop higher-level thinking skills Develop social/interpersonal skills Better appreciation of diversity and different points of view
E.g. Learning Together Work together and hand in an assignment for a group grade – emphasis on team-building and discussions on group dynamics (easily applicable to any group work in any discipline)
E.g. Group Investigation Work together through cooperative inquiry, discussion, project planning, presenting to rest of class (easily applicable to e.g. Management projects; science/engineering projects)
E.g. Cooperative Scripting Cooperative scripting: work in pairs, and summarize parts of material to each other for feedback (applicable to any material-based activity)  Research shows higher gains in achievement by the one speaking rather than the one listening
Jigsaw Specialist groups working on different aspects of the project Get together to integrate For example …
How To Know Everyone Has Worked Partial group and partial individual accountability – how? Assign specific roles – e.g. Jigsaw Each student to state what their particular contribution to the work was Group members to assess the group work (what went well/poorly) midway & at end
How to Group Students? Self-chosen groups Commitment But: Friends? By diversity (of e.g. major, academic achievement, academic standing, gender) More to learn from each other BUT More time to get used to each other By similarity (e.g. of interest) Not self-formed so not just friends BUT difficult & no diversity to learn from
Group Size? Depends on the task at hand “ two ” is a pair … Usually 3-6 is ideal Larger numbers possible if tasks can be split up into sub-tasks
Preparing Students for Group Work Clear expectations Regular team reviews Group work Individuals Ice-breakers or team-building exercises (search the net for ideas!)
Active/Cooperative? Do you feel active or cooperative learning will help your classes? Can you think of immediate applications of cooperative or active learning for the courses you assist? Pass by CLT if you decide to apply and would like to assess success
References Anon. (undated) "Active Learning Techniques" http://ic.educ.indiana.edu/workshop2003/pdf/active_learni ng_techniques.pdf http://ic.educ.indiana.edu/workshop2003/pdf/active_learni ng_techniques.pdf Post A (2003) “ Cooperative Learning ” http://atozteacherstuff.com/pages/1875.shtml http://atozteacherstuff.com/pages/1875.shtml Slavin R E (2003) “ Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice 7 th edition ”. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Concept to Classroom (2004) http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab /index_sub3.html http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab /index_sub3.html Paulson D R and Faust J L (undated) "Active Learning for the College Classroom" http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/ http://www.calstatela.edu/dept/chem/chem2/Active/
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