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T O P I C ST O P I C S Uses of Technical Measures Case Studies and Types of Technical Measures The Problem of Hacking and Circumvention Online Music Distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "T O P I C ST O P I C S Uses of Technical Measures Case Studies and Types of Technical Measures The Problem of Hacking and Circumvention Online Music Distribution."— Presentation transcript:

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2 T O P I C ST O P I C S Uses of Technical Measures Case Studies and Types of Technical Measures The Problem of Hacking and Circumvention Online Music Distribution Conclusion

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6 T E C H N I C A L M E A S U R E S Protect “high value” content Circumvention prohibited Can prevent lawful “fair” or “private” uses

7 T E C H N I C A L M E A S U R E S Prevent unauthorized use AND Authorize use expressly –Digital Rights Management Systems (DRM)

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9 1996 Treaty Obligations “Adequate and effective legal protection and effective legal remedies against circumvention of effective technological measures” Berne Member implementation issues – National Reports

10 >>> Analog Technology – Traps and Scrambling – and Digital Satellite S C R A M B L E D C A B L E T R A PT R A P A U T H O R I Z E D B O X T VT V >>> S A T E L L I T ES A T E L L I T E

11 Scrambling and Access Control Scrambling of signals into the home now widespread Signal theft and pirate descramblers illegal

12 The Crisis? The development of digital technology –Opportunities for copyright owners, whether large and small –Threats

13 Copying and distributing A N A L O GA N A L O G D I G I TA L >>>

14 Three Basic Observations Inter-industry Agreement Needed for New Digital Format Accommodation must be reached on appro- priate and acceptable technical measures Difficult to reach consensus Without consensus, possible delay in format introduction –Digital Audio Tape (DAT) recorders and the Audio Home Recording Act

15 Three Basic Observations (cont.) Two Basic Types of Technical Measures Access control –Scrambling and encryption Control copyright rights of copying and distribution –Serial Copy Management System –Others New measures combine access control, copy control and control over distribution

16 Three Basic Observations (cont.) Digital Rights Management Can depend on technical measures Manage rights to accompany content Separation of right to use the content from content itself

17 Three Basic Observations (cont.) Digital Rights Management Clear rights Payment Tracing Enforcement

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19 Three Examples Content Scramble System (CSS) –for DVD disks Digital Transmission Content Protection System (DTCP) –for protecting content in the home Digital watermarking

20 Measures Deployed Worldwide Global reach necessary to be effective Discussions are somewhat “U.S.-centric” But, important example from international standardization: Digital Video Broadcasting, centered in Europe

21 CSS E N C R Y P T E D D V D T VT V >>> C S S E N A B L E D D V D P L A Y E R R E C O R D I N G O N V C R >>>

22 Requirements of CSS License Device must be “robust” against hacking to secure protection of DVD content DVD content only sent to authorized outputs –Approved analog outputs –Secure digital outputs (such as DTCP)

23 Requirements of CSS License (cont.) Regional playback control: geographic segmentation Suits possible against licensees who breach Encoding permitted to prohibit copying of DVD content

24 CSS Hacked! Hack of CSS by DeCSS Test of U.S. DMCA anticircumvention provisions –Universal City Studios v. Reimerdes

25 DTCP O U T S I D E H O M E C A B L EC A B L E S A T E L L I T ES A T E L L I T E S O N YP L A Y S T A T I O NS O N YP L A Y S T A T I O N D V D P L A Y E R S E T T O P B O X P CP C T VT V V C RV C R I N S I D E H O M E >>> S O U R C E D E V I C E SS I N K D E V I C E S >>> W W WW W W

26 DTCP: Encryption S O U R C E D E V I C E S S I N K D E V I C E S T VT V >>> W W WW W W S E T T O P B O X D V D P L A Y E R S O N YP L A Y S T A T I O NS O N YP L A Y S T A T I O N V C RV C R P CP C

27 DTCP: Authentication T VT V >>> W W WW W W S E T T O P B O X D V D P L A Y E R V C RV C R P CP C S O N YP L A Y S T A T I O NS O N YP L A Y S T A T I O N

28 DTCP: Copy Control Information T VT V >>> W W WW W W S E T T O P B O X D V D P L A Y E R V C RV C R P CP C S O N YP L A Y S T A T I O NS O N YP L A Y S T A T I O N

29 DTCP and Revocation Can revoke devices that have been hacked Disables DTCP “sink devices” from being able to receive protected content

30 Requirements of DTCP License Encoding rules for content owners –Copy Never –Copy One Generation –Copy Permitted, but no Internet Retransmission Device must be “robust” against hacking to secure protection of DTCP-protected content

31 Requirements of DTCP License (cont.) Hand off content only to other secure outputs: not Internet Recording only if permitted by content owner Any recordings within sink device must be “secure” (such as by encryption)

32 w w Digital Watermarking D V D P L A Y E R V I E W A B L E O N T V >>> N O P L A Y B A C K F R O M R E C O R D A B L E D I S K >>> w F I L MF I L MW A T E R M A R KW A T E R M A R KW A T E R M A R K E M B E D D E D D V D w

33 Watermarking May be used for controlling both recording and playback Survives digital to analog conversion Useful to trace content

34 Watermarking (cont.) SDMI use: screen out music marked “no more copies” Are watermarks “technical measures” under DMCA?

35 Comprehensive Architectures: Possible Approaches Cascading obligations: only hand off protected content from one technical measure to another approved technical measure Develop and license comprehensive architecture Format licenses require specified technical measures to protect content

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38 SDMI Watermark Circumvented ? SDMI watermark purportedly circumvented by scientists Is publishing an academic paper “circumvention?”

39 Why Use Technical Measures? Standard: “Keep honest people honest” Attacks may be difficult to replicate or disseminate Consumers will know they are doing “something wrong” Anticircumvention laws may act to protect technical measures –What can be done if “hack” is widespread?

40 Need for Revocation and Renewability Renewability: replace smart cards? Revocation: “sink devices” denied access to protected content Stand-alone players “in the field” may not be readily renewable Easier to renew or revoke connected devices (such as personal computers) –Upgrade; loss of autonomy and loss of privacy

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42 Peer-to-Peer Sharing

43 Problem P CP C >>> W W WW W WM P 3M P 3C DC D

44 Solution C DC D D V DD V D S A C DS A C D

45 Fingerprinting Does not restrict access or control copying, by itself Identifies copyrighted works Depends on each song’s unique characteristics Used to search for and trace content

46 Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) Inter-industry discussions Entirely voluntary Goals –Secure architecture for electronic music delivery and other protected content –Screen out unauthorized content (such as MP3 files) –Interoperability among systems?

47 How SDMI Screens Music P CP C P O R T A B L E D E V I C E M P 3M P 3 >>> S D M IS D M I S C R E E NS C R E E N

48 SDMI’s Future? Reached agreement on “Portable Device” specification Since then, SDMI considered multiple approaches to enhance screening function No new technologies were selected No agreement yet on effort to draft comprehensive set of secure requirements

49 SDMI’s Challenges Desirability of implementing a very secure system to protect music BALANCED AGAINST Technological burdens, possible unsatisfactory consumer experience How can “SDMI-compliant” devices compete with “non-compliant” products?

50 Bilateral Arrangements Music Net Duet Others?

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52 Importance of Inter-industry Cooperation But, absent consensus – bilateral negotiations

53 Lack of Interoperability How can two systems communicate with one another?

54 Pressure to Harmonize Technical Measures Across Platforms Challenges and benefits of platform convergence and harmonization

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