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Chapter 27 The Age of Imperialism.

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1 Chapter 27 The Age of Imperialism

2 Section 1 “The Scramble for Africa”
Ignoring the claims of ethnic African groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans establish colonies

3 Why Europeans were not interested in Africa until 19th c.
Europeans considered Africa Dark Continent. So many geographical barriers e.g. thick forests. Tropical diseases such as Malaria. Transportation difficulties e.g. couldn’t use horses due to Tse Tse flies. Scientific discoveries made it easy to live in Africa (see picture) Explorations also made Africa known to the world This led to the scramble for Africa Cinchona tree. Scientists discovered quinine, the cure for Malaria from this tree. 3

4 Africa Before European Domination
Problems Discourage Exploration Armies, rivers, and disease Nations Compete for Overseas Empires Imperialism-seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country Missionaries, explorers, humanitarians reach interior of Africa

5 Dark Continent Revealed
Adventurous explorers & geographic societies sought to uncover the mysteries of inner Africa, esp. the course of the main rivers curious about what mineral wealth may lie inside Africa David Livingstone (Scot) doctor, missionary explored southern and central Africa Zambezi R…Victoria Falls…Congo River Henry Stanley (Am) journalist went in search of Livingstone when lost touch explored Nile, Congo claimed Congo for Belgium (King Leopold II) David Livingstone Henry Stanley 5

6 European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”

7 “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

8 How/Why Did It Begin? This is Belgium This is Congo

9 How/Why Did It begin? Congo River Valley Chiefs signed treaties that gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control of these lands Leopold claimed he planned on ending the slave trade there He licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans The Belgian Congo is 80 times larger than Belgium This alarms other European countries, who start claiming lands of their own all over Africa

10 King Leopold II, Belgium & the Congo
Stanley used a combination of promises, threats and trickery when meeting a new chief, attached a buzzer to his hand which was linked to a battery When the chief shook hands with Stanley he got a mild electric shock. This device convinced the chiefs that Stanley had superhuman powers. The agreements allowed the Belgians into the Congo to take its rich natural resources.  Henry Stanley 10

11 King Leopold The Congo Sparks Interest
Henry Stanley helps King Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in Congo Leopold brutally exploits Africans; millions die Belgian government takes colony away from Leopold Much of England begins to claim parts of Africa King Leopold

12 private estate. Natives Congo suffered greatly.
King Leopold, the king of Belgium, ruled the Congo like his own private estate. Natives that did not supply enough rubber had their hands cut off. While the king profited, the people of the Belgian Congo suffered greatly.


14 Forces Driving Imperialism
Belief in European Superiority Race for colonies grows out of national pride Racism-belief that one nation is better than others Social Darwinism-natural selection applied to human society

15 The Social-Darwin Differences
Western (White Europeans) Inventive Scientific Rational Self-Controlled Democratic Civilized Economically Progressive Moral Christian Independent Eastern (Non-whites, Non-European) Ignorant Irrational Superstitious Lazy Childlike Savage Dependent

16 Social Darwinism

17 Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
Technological inventions like steam engine, Maxim gun help conquest Within Africa, Africans are divided by culture and language


19 The Division of Africa Lure of Wealth
Discovery of gold and diamonds increases interest in colonization

20 Berlin Conference & the Scramble for Africa
Called by Otto von Bismarck Br, Fr, Ger, It, Bel, Port meet (Africa absent) Western powers lay the rules for dividing up Africa Ignored traditional tribal boundaries …would create problems later 20

21 Berlin Conference Divides Africa
Fourteen nations agree on rules for division Countries must claim land and prove ability to control it By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia are free of European control

22                                                                                           <>

23 Berlin Conference of Another point of view? 

24 Berlin Conference of

25 Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies
Raw materials are greatest source of wealth in Africa Businesses develop cash-crop plantations Peanuts Palm oil Cocoa rubber

26 Harvesting Rubber

27 Three Groups Clash over South Africa
Shaka-Zulu chief-creates centralized state around 1816 British defeat Zulus and gain control of Zulu nation in 1887 Zulu king Cetshwayo

28 Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)

29 Zulu War, 1879 29

30 Boers and British Settle in the Cape
The first Europeans to settle South Africa were the Dutch. They later became known as the Boers (also called Afrikaners). British control of South Africa caused a clash between the Boers and British. Boers move north on the Great Trek, but clash with Zulus

31 The Boer Wars After the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa, the Boers tried to keep outsiders coming into South Africa from gaining political rights. The First Boer War was briefly fought in and successfully kept the British from annexing Boer territory called Transvaal (in orange).

32 The Great Trek, Afrikaners

33 Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds

34 The Boer War Between the Boers and the British Begins in 1899
British win Boer republics united in Union of South Africa (1910)

35 Southern Africa AFRICA European Territory
In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid. Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races. South Africa Cape Colony Cape Town

36 A Future British Prime Minister
British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill

37 Scramble for Africa Consequences Traditional way of life disrupted
Pastoral and warrior traditions Grazing lands depleted Most Africans were little affected until Christianity went against traditions  Islam gains grounds Economic exploitation of Africans Africans saw Europeans as rivals for profits Resistance movements failed European racism imported into Africa Spread of European culture Christian mission school educate African children Spread of Western technology Guns change warfare (violence increases, greater devastation) Rise of African Nationalism 37

38 Effects of Imperialism
European Imperialism by 1914 Britain France Germany Belgium Home Area (Square Miles) 94,000 212,600 210,000 11,800 Home Population (Millions) 45.5 42 67.5 8.3 Global Colonial Area (Millions of Sq. Miles) 13.1 4.3 1.1 .94 Global Colonial Population (Millions) 470 65 13

39 Effects of Imperialism
European Imperialism by 1914 Region Percentage Colonized Australia 100% Africa 90.4% Asia 56.5% Americas 27.2%

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