Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 The Age of Imperialism. Section 1 “The Scramble for Africa” Ignoring the claims of ethnic African groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 27 The Age of Imperialism
Section 1 “The Scramble for Africa” Ignoring the claims of ethnic African groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans establish colonies
Why Europeans were not interested in Africa until 19 th c. Europeans considered Africa Dark Continent. So many geographical barriers e.g. thick forests. Tropical diseases such as Malaria. Transportation difficulties e.g. couldn’t use horses due to Tse Tse flies. Scientific discoveries made it easy to live in Africa (see picture) Explorations also made Africa known to the world This led to the scramble for Africa Cinchona tree. Scientists discovered quinine, the cure for Malaria from this tree.
Africa Before European Domination Problems Discourage Exploration –Armies, rivers, and disease Nations Compete for Overseas Empires –Imperialism-seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country –Missionaries, explorers, humanitarians reach interior of Africa
Dark Continent Revealed Adventurous explorers & geographic societies sought to uncover the mysteries of inner Africa, –esp. the course of the main rivers –curious about what mineral wealth may lie inside Africa David Livingstone (Scot) doctor, missionary –explored southern and central Africa –Zambezi R…Victoria Falls…Congo River Henry Stanley (Am) journalist went in search of Livingstone when lost touch –explored Nile, Congo –claimed Congo for Belgium (King Leopold II) David Livingstone Henry Stanley
European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
How/Why Did It Begin? This is Belgium This is Congo
How/Why Did It begin? Congo River Valley Chiefs signed treaties that gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control of these lands Leopold claimed he planned on ending the slave trade there He licensed companies that brutally exploited Africans The Belgian Congo is 80 times larger than Belgium This alarms other European countries, who start claiming lands of their own all over Africa
King Leopold II, Belgium & the Congo Stanley used a combination of promises, threats and trickery when meeting a new chief, –attached a buzzer to his hand which was linked to a battery –When the chief shook hands with Stanley he got a mild electric shock. This device convinced the chiefs that Stanley had superhuman powers. –The agreements allowed the Belgians into the Congo to take its rich natural resources.
The Congo Sparks Interest –Henry Stanley helps King Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in Congo –Leopold brutally exploits Africans; millions die –Belgian government takes colony away from Leopold –Much of England begins to claim parts of Africa
King Leopold, the king of Belgium, ruled the Congo like his own private estate. Natives that did not supply enough rubber had their hands cut off. While the king profited, the people of the Belgian Congo suffered greatly.
Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European Superiority –Race for colonies grows out of national pride –Racism-belief that one nation is better than others –Social Darwinism-natural selection applied to human society
The Social-Darwin Differences Western (White Europeans) Inventive Scientific Rational Self-Controlled Democratic Civilized Economically Progressive Moral Christian Independent Eastern (Non-whites, Non-European) Ignorant Irrational Superstitious Lazy Childlike Savage Dependent
Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa –Technological inventions like steam engine, Maxim gun help conquest –Within Africa, Africans are divided by culture and language
The Division of Africa Lure of Wealth –Discovery of gold and diamonds increases interest in colonization
Berlin Conference & the Scramble for Africa Called by Otto von Bismarck Br, Fr, Ger, It, Bel, Port meet (Africa absent) Western powers lay the rules for dividing up Africa Ignored traditional tribal boundaries …would create problems later
Berlin Conference Divides Africa –Fourteen nations agree on rules for division Countries must claim land and prove ability to control it –By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia are free of European control
Berlin Conference of Another point of view?
Berlin Conference of
Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies –Raw materials are greatest source of wealth in Africa –Businesses develop cash-crop plantations Peanuts Palm oil Cocoa rubber
Three Groups Clash over South Africa Shaka-Zulu chief- creates centralized state around 1816 British defeat Zulus and gain control of Zulu nation in 1887
Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)
Zulu War, 1879
Boers and British Settle in the Cape –The first Europeans to settle South Africa were the Dutch. They later became known as the Boers (also called Afrikaners). –British control of South Africa caused a clash between the Boers and British. –Boers move north on the Great Trek, but clash with Zulus
The Boer Wars After the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa, the Boers tried to keep outsiders coming into South Africa from gaining political rights. The First Boer War was briefly fought in and successfully kept the British from annexing Boer territory called Transvaal (in orange).
The Great Trek, Afrikaners
Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds
The Boer War –Between the Boers and the British –Begins in 1899 –British win –Boer republics united in Union of South Africa (1910)
European Territory AFRICA Cape Town Cape Colony In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid. Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races. South Africa
A Future British Prime Minister British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
Scramble for Africa Consequences –Traditional way of life disrupted Pastoral and warrior traditions Grazing lands depleted Most Africans were little affected until Christianity went against traditions Islam gains grounds –Economic exploitation of Africans Africans saw Europeans as rivals for profits Resistance movements failed –European racism imported into Africa –Spread of European culture Christian mission school educate African children –Spread of Western technology Guns change warfare (violence increases, greater devastation) –Rise of African Nationalism
BritainFranceGermanyBelgium Home Area (Square Miles) 94,000212,600210,00011,800 Home Population (Millions) Global Colonial Area (Millions of Sq. Miles) Global Colonial Population (Millions) European Imperialism by 1914
RegionPercentage Colonized Australia100% Africa90.4% Asia56.5% Americas27.2% European Imperialism by 1914