2 Section 1 “The Scramble for Africa” Ignoring the claims of ethnic African groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans establish colonies
3 Why Europeans were not interested in Africa until 19th c. Europeans considered Africa Dark Continent.So many geographical barriers e.g. thick forests.Tropical diseases such as Malaria.Transportation difficulties e.g. couldn’t use horses due to Tse Tse flies.Scientific discoveries made it easy to live in Africa (see picture)Explorations also made Africa known to the worldThis led to the scramble for AfricaCinchona tree. Scientists discovered quinine, the cure for Malaria from this tree.3
4 Africa Before European Domination Problems Discourage ExplorationArmies, rivers, and diseaseNations Compete for Overseas EmpiresImperialism-seizure of a country or territory by a stronger countryMissionaries, explorers, humanitarians reach interior of Africa
5 Dark Continent Revealed Adventurous explorers & geographic societies sought to uncover the mysteries of inner Africa,esp. the course of the main riverscurious about what mineral wealth may lie inside AfricaDavid Livingstone (Scot) doctor, missionaryexplored southern and central AfricaZambezi R…Victoria Falls…Congo RiverHenry Stanley (Am) journalist went in search of Livingstone when lost touchexplored Nile, Congoclaimed Congo for Belgium (King Leopold II)David LivingstoneHenry Stanley5
6 European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”
8 How/Why Did It Begin?This is Belgium This is Congo
9 How/Why Did It begin?Congo River Valley Chiefs signed treaties that gave King Leopold II of Belgium personal control of these landsLeopold claimed he planned on ending the slave trade thereHe licensed companies that brutally exploited AfricansThe Belgian Congo is 80 times larger than BelgiumThis alarms other European countries, who start claiming lands of their own all over Africa
10 King Leopold II, Belgium & the Congo Stanley used a combination of promises, threats and trickery when meeting a new chief,attached a buzzer to his hand which was linked to a batteryWhen the chief shook hands with Stanley he got a mild electric shock. This device convinced the chiefs that Stanley had superhuman powers.The agreements allowed the Belgians into the Congo to take its rich natural resources. Henry Stanley10
11 King Leopold The Congo Sparks Interest Henry Stanley helps King Leopold II of Belgium acquire land in CongoLeopold brutally exploits Africans; millions dieBelgian government takes colony away from LeopoldMuch of England begins to claim parts of AfricaKing Leopold
12 private estate. Natives Congo suffered greatly. King Leopold, the kingof Belgium, ruledthe Congo like his ownprivate estate. Nativesthat did not supplyenough rubber hadtheir hands cut off.Whilethe king profited, thepeople of the BelgianCongo suffered greatly.
14 Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European SuperiorityRace for colonies grows out of national prideRacism-belief that one nation is better than othersSocial Darwinism-natural selection applied to human society
15 The Social-Darwin Differences Western (White Europeans)InventiveScientificRationalSelf-ControlledDemocraticCivilizedEconomically ProgressiveMoral ChristianIndependentEastern (Non-whites, Non-European)IgnorantIrrationalSuperstitiousLazyChildlikeSavageDependent
19 The Division of Africa Lure of Wealth Discovery of gold and diamonds increases interest in colonization
20 Berlin Conference & the Scramble for Africa Called by Otto von BismarckBr, Fr, Ger, It, Bel, Port meet (Africa absent)Western powers lay the rules for dividing up AfricaIgnored traditional tribal boundaries …would create problems later20
21 Berlin Conference Divides Africa Fourteen nations agree on rules for divisionCountries must claim land and prove ability to control itBy 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia are free of European control
30 Boers and British Settle in the Cape The first Europeans to settle South Africa were the Dutch. They later became known as the Boers (also called Afrikaners).British control of South Africa caused a clash between the Boers and British.Boers move north on the Great Trek, but clash with Zulus
31 The Boer WarsAfter the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa, the Boers tried to keep outsiders coming into South Africa from gaining political rights.The First Boer War was briefly fought in and successfully kept the British from annexing Boer territory called Transvaal (in orange).
34 The Boer War Between the Boers and the British Begins in 1899 British winBoer republics united in Union of South Africa (1910)
35 Southern Africa AFRICA European Territory In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid.Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races.SouthAfricaCape ColonyCapeTown
36 A Future British Prime Minister British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
37 Scramble for Africa Consequences Traditional way of life disrupted Pastoral and warrior traditionsGrazing lands depletedMost Africans were little affected until Christianity went against traditions Islam gains groundsEconomic exploitation of AfricansAfricans saw Europeans as rivals for profitsResistance movements failedEuropean racism imported into AfricaSpread of European cultureChristian mission school educate African childrenSpread of Western technologyGuns change warfare (violence increases, greater devastation)Rise of African Nationalism37
38 Effects of Imperialism European Imperialism by 1914BritainFranceGermanyBelgiumHome Area(Square Miles)94,000212,600210,00011,800Home Population(Millions)45.54267.58.3Global Colonial Area(Millions of Sq. Miles)18.104.22.168.94Global Colonial Population (Millions)4706513
39 Effects of Imperialism European Imperialism by 1914RegionPercentage ColonizedAustralia100%Africa90.4%Asia56.5%Americas27.2%
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