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FIGURE 10.1. The diffusion of the technology of iron making. Nok, Nubia, and the Lake Victoria region are the three earliest centers of iron making in.

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Presentation on theme: "FIGURE 10.1. The diffusion of the technology of iron making. Nok, Nubia, and the Lake Victoria region are the three earliest centers of iron making in."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIGURE 10.1. The diffusion of the technology of iron making. Nok, Nubia, and the Lake Victoria region are the three earliest centers of iron making in Africa south of the Sahara. After K. Shillington. History of Africa. London: Macmillan, 1989, p. 38. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

2 FIGURE 10.2. Major African states and empires. The map shows the names, locations, and approximate dates of existence of the most important precolonial states. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

3 FIGURE 10.3a. King Lalibela’s legacy. (a) Bet Giorgis, the Church of St. George in Lalibela, Ethiopia. Photo: author. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

4 FIGURE 10.3b. King Lalibela’s legacy. (b) Coptic priest with a historical religious manuscript. Photo: Evelyn Peters. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

5 FIGURE 10.4. The empire of Mali in the 14th century. After K. Shillington. History of Africa. London: Macmillan, p. 95. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

6 FIGURE 10.5. Sankore Mosque, Timbuktu, Mali. This 15th-century mosque was the focal point for scholarly activities in Timbuktu during the 15th and 16th centuries. It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Photo: © UNESCO (T. Joffroy/CRATerre-EAG). From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

7 FIGURE 10.6. Section of the wall, Great Zimbabwe. These massive stone walls have remained intact for hundreds of years, even though no mortar was used in their construction. Photo: © CIDA (Bruce Paton). From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

8 FIGURE 10.7. Three slave trades. In addition to these export slave trade systems, indigenous forms of slavery existed in many African societies. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

9 FIGURE 10.8. Elmina Castle, Ghana. Elmina is the oldest and largest of some 20 fortifications built by various European powers along the Ghanaian coast as the bases for the slave trade. The construction of this mammoth Portuguese castle began in 1482. Photo: author. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

10 FIGURE 11.1. Africa on the eve of the colonial conquest. European control did not extend beyond a few footholds along the coast. Source: Africa South of the Sahara, 1991. London: Europa, 1990, p. 12. © 1990 by Europa Publications Limited. Reprinted by permission. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

11 FIGURE 11.2. The scramble for the Congo basin and Angola. Similar territorial scrambles occurred in all parts of the continent in the decade following the Berlin Conference. After K. Shillington. History of Africa. London: Macmillan, 1989, p. 312. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

12 FIGURE 11.3a. “Our colonialism, their colonialism.” (a) “John Bull” reluctantly accepts responsibility for the orphan Uganda abandoned on his doorstep. Source: Punch, April 21, 1894. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

13 FIGURE 11.3b. “Our colonialism, their colonialism.” (b) The German eagle swoops in on defenceless villagers. Source: Punch, April 26, 1890. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

14 FIGURE 11.4. Colonial rule, 1914. Germany was stripped of its colonies after World War I, but otherwise the colonial map remained essentially the same. Source: Africa South of the Sahara, 1991. London: Europa, 1990, p. 14. © 1990 by Europa Publications Limited. Reprinted by permission. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

15 FIGURE 11.5a. Portraits of colonialism. (a) “The black man’s burden,” German East Africa (Tanzania), circa 1910. Photo: O. Haeckel. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

16 FIGURE 11.5b. Portraits of colonialism. (b) “The shepherd and the sheep.” This early-20th-century postcard illustrates the often patronizing world view of early Christian missionaries. Photo: Mission des Pères Blancs. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

17 FIGURE 11.6. Preparing a new plantation, Nyasaland (Malawi), 1920s. The production of cash crops—in this case, probably tobacco—involved the use of forced labor in many areas. Photo: Nyasaland Pharmacies. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

18 FIGURE 11.7. Steam-powered boats, Kinshasa, Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), circa 1930. One boat is loaded with sacks of produce, quite likely brought from up-country for export. Photo: E. Nogueira. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

19 FIGURE 11.8. Indigo dyeing, Kano, Nigeria. Kano’s textile industry, like most precolonial industries, was pushed toward extinction by the importation of European manufactured cloth. Photo: author. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

20 FIGURE 12.1. Transition to independence. Note the importance of the early 1960s for the attainment of political independence. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

21 FIGURE 12.2. Independence monument, Lomé, Togo. This impressive monument portrays independence as breaking the chains of bondage. Photo: author. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

22 FIGURE 12.3. Postage stamp issued by the Central African Republic in 1971, depicting President Jean-Bédel Bokassa, along with Presidents Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire and Tombalbaye of Chad. All were autocratic, eccentric figures who cultivated strong cults of personality in order to perpetuate their rule. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

23 FIGURE 12.4. Timing of the latest successful coups d’état. Coups have become less common in recent years, and as a rule have been less frequent in East and southern Africa than elsewhere in the continent. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

24 FIGURE 12.5. Women waiting to vote in Mozambique’s first post-conflict election, in 1994. Photo: © CIDA (Bruce Paton). From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

25 FIGURE 12.6. Democratization in Africa south of the Sahara. (a) Political freedom score, 2012. Data source: Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2012. New York: Freedom House, 2012. (b) Failed States Index, 2011. Data source: Foreign Policy. Failed States Index 2011. (Available online at www.foreignpolicy.com/failedstates) From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press. a b

26 FIGURE 12.7. Arms surrendered during a disarmament campaign, Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Violence in the region around Goma was fuelled not only by civil wars within the Congo, but also by the arrival of vast numbers of refugees from Rwanda in the mid-1990s. Photo: © UNESCO (F. Loock). From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.

27 FIGURE 12.8. The evolution of Nigeria’s political map, 1960 –2011. Nigeria’s political map has been in a state of flux since independence. There is continuing pressure from regional and ethnic groups to create even more states. From Africa South of the Sahara, 3 rd edition, by Robert Stock. Copyright 2013 by The Guilford Press.


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