Presentation on theme: "Modernization and Transformation of China Chapter 3 Early Attempts in Modernization."— Presentation transcript:
Modernization and Transformation of China Chapter 3 Early Attempts in Modernization
What is modernization? Changes In what aspects? Political? It refers to the process in which a traditional Society is transformed into a modern society. It has been taking place in different parts of The world since modern times
In what aspects? Modern industries and technologies were Developed. Political systems became more democratic What about thinking? A free way of thinking was also promoted Where did the modernization start? It started in Europe, US and spread to Asia When did it start in China? It started in mid 19 th century.
China in 1900 Why did China start the modernization? What problems did China face in the early 20 th Century? 1.Internal Instability -increase in population -heavy rents and taxation -land shortage -failure of the reforms -Taiping Uprising
2. External Invasion -First & Second Anglo-Chinese War (1839-42, 1856-58) -Sino-French War (1870) -Sino-Japanese War (1894-5) -Scramble for Concessions (1895-99) (DBQ) -Boxer Uprising (1900) (DBQ)
All reforms in China: 1.Self-strengthening Movement 1860-95 By Zheng Guofan, Li Hongzhang 2. Hundred Day’s Reform 1898 By Kang Yuwei, Liangqichao 3. Late Qing Reform By Cixi, Ronglu, Zhangzhidong, Yuan Shikai Liu Kunyi
The Late Qing Reforms 1901-11 Background (Why did Cixi initiate a reform Programme in 1900?)
1.Military defeat -First & Second Anglo-Chinese War (1839-42, 1856-58) China had open treaty ports and Granted many rights to Britain. -Sino-French War (1870) Annam was ceded. -Sino-Japanese War (1894-5) China had to Cede land and paid indemnity. Her industry Was affected. -Scramble for Concessions (1895-99) China was nearly partitioned, e.g. Shandong Was given Germany, Guangzhou Bay & Guangxi were given to France.
DBQ 1.He represents China (1 mark) He dressed like a Qing officer. (1 mark) 2. Yes, 1860-1911, China was like the Officer being torn by others. The foreign Powers divided China into spheres of influence, Getting land, indemnity, most favoured Nation treatment and extra territorial rights. (2 marks)
No, China had started some refroms: SSM, Hundred Days’ and Late Qing reforms To strengthen China. The Chinese initiated uprisings: Moslem uprisings, Taiping Uprising, Boxer Uprising, 1911 Revolution to overthrow The Qing rule. (3/3 marks)
3. China had external problems only? Internal problems: Growing population Shortage of land Heavy taxation uprisings regionalism
DBQ 1.Pig is the foreigners, leader of the church (1 mark) Goats are the Christian followers. 2. The artists criticized and looked down Upon them. How? Drawing them as animals Some tied on the cross and some killed on the Ground.
3. –harsh treatment towards the foreigners During the Boxer Uprising -caused the hatred of the foreigners->allied Expedition 1900 -China was defeated and signed the Boxer Protocol. China lost a lot (text).
2. The rise of regional powers (decentralization) -When was it known? -Boxer Uprising, the provincial governors Of southeast China ignored the central order and Refused to attack the foreigners in their Provinces. -too independent! -reform to check the growing power Of the regional authorities
3. The spread of revolutionary ideas -Sun set up Xingzhonghui and Tongmenghui to overthrow Manzhu. -Sun asked for financial support from Overseas countries and spread the ideas By starting some uprisings—gained Popularity. -Cixi knew that she should start reform to maintain the Manzhu rule
4. To follow the examples of Meiji Japan Japan carried out the Meiji Modernization (constitutional monarchy was set up and Westernized reforms were carried out) Japan became a world power Defeated China in the S-J War and R-J War China wanted to follow Japan as example.
Objectives -prevent national decentralization/disintegration Arising from revolutionary force, Anti-Qing sentiment, independent provincial Officers. -prolong the Manzhu rule
Implementation -in two stages 1.1901-5: more than 30 imperial edicts were Issued. Political, military, economic and social Reforms were introduced.
2. 1905-11: demand for constitutional Monarchy grew stronger Sent five ministers abroad to study the Constitutions of different countries Issued the Outline of Constitution Announced in 1911 that a parliament would Be held in 5 years’ time (not 9 years)
Reform Programmes 1.Constitutional reforms -mission -After Russo-Japanese War 1904-5, Chinese wanted a constitution similarar to Meiji Constitution -nine-year programme of constitutional Preparation (provincial and national Assemblies) -1911, Cabinet consisting of 13 members (8-Manzhus)
2. Administrative reforms -11 ministries to replace 6 Boards -sinecures were abolished -abolished the sale of offices 3. Educational reforms -the eight legged essay examination was abolished -a modern school system with a mixed curriculum -old civil examination was abolished -Thousands of students were sent abroad to study
4. Military reform -the Beiyang army was established under Yuan -Military examination were abolished -Military schools in western style
The Significance of the Late Qing Reforms in The modernization of China Positive 1.The introduction of modern political Institution (offices/ departments) Constitutional reform promised to grant Constitutional government after 9 years Eleven new ministries to replace old Departments
2. The modernization of military reform/ creation of new army Yuan Shikai modernized army Sent army to attend military colleges and Created academies to train new army Size doubled –became the leading army in Northern China Army became independent of the central control.
3. The modernization of education, establishment of modern education Abolition of civil service examination— Gentry’s (scholar) ties with the state broke off. The establishment of modern schools & sending Students abroad. People began to regard other sources of status, E.g. western learning…
4. The modernization of legal system/ Legislation for economic activities Many industrial and commercial laws and Regulations were drafted Provided a legal base for the enterprise owners To do business in China Marked the Chinese attempt at modernizing The legal and economic systems.
5. The modernization of society/ Transforming the society Lifted the ban on intermarriage between The Manzhus and Hans Foot binding was abolished The opium smoking was prohibited The farmlands were granted to the Eight Banners
Negative / Limitation of the reforms (Why were the forms unable to save the Qing Dynasty?) 1.The creation of a new type of intellectuals -people who were influenced by western Education, e.g. returned students. 2. The spread of revolutionary ideas in the army -New army (soldiers & officers) educated in Western military schools or abroad
3. The disappointment in insincere political reform -9 years for preparing the constitution -Royal Cabinet (8/13 Manzhus)
4. Aims only at prolonging the Manzhu rule 5. Preventing the Han officials from gaining Power 4/6 units of the Beiyang New Army were Taken away from him Yuan and Zhang Zhidong were deprived Of military power A “Royal Cabinet” was formed (8/13 members Were Manzhus)
6. Serious corruption The Late Qing Reform introduced no measures To solve this problem. Cixi, I Kang who were the leaders Of the reform, were corrupt too.
7. Severe financial difficulty Indemnities caused by unequal treaties+ Paid 450 million taels as compensation The scope of reform was limited: military Training was only applied to army not the navy. The government lacked the resources to finish The whole training programme.
8. The lack of capable leaders/ POOR LEADERSHIP (NOTES) -Kang & Liang? -Yuan? Was retired by Prince Chun 1909 -Liu, Li and Zhang? died -Cixi & Guangxu?
9. The lack of funds Where has the money gone? -Boxer indemnity -foreign loan -corruption -Railway projects borrowed loans from the banks
10. The lack of sincerity/CONSERVATIVE OPPOSITION (NOTES) Who lacked the sincerity? Where can you see that the government did not Have sincerity? -constitution preparation has to take 9 years--> too long a period!
11. The rising popularity of the revolutionary Movement -Tungmenghui under the leadership of Sun 12. The lack of mass support -Manzhu disliked a thorough reform -Conservative scholar officials opposed the Abolition of the civil service examination -Regional officials opposed the policy on Centralization of power and nationalization Of railway many turned to the revolutionaries.
13. Too late! 14. Lack of favourable environment for reform
What made the Late Qing Reform different From the last two reforms? (notes) 1.The reforms was more comprehensive. Very special is that it attempted to introduce Institutional changes and constitutional Reforms. 2. Constitutional reforms implies that Cixi Was willing to share power with others and make Her rule more democratic.
2. It was first started by Cixi. Over the years, She was anti-progress and objected reforms & changes.