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Failure of Reform and the End of the Qing Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 100 Days Reform 1898 Boxer Uprising 1900 Late Qing Reforms 1901-1911.

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Presentation on theme: "Failure of Reform and the End of the Qing Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 100 Days Reform 1898 Boxer Uprising 1900 Late Qing Reforms 1901-1911."— Presentation transcript:

1 Failure of Reform and the End of the Qing Sino-Japanese War Days Reform 1898 Boxer Uprising 1900 Late Qing Reforms

2 Sino-Japanese War Treaty of Shimonoseki (Li Hongzhang and Ito Hirobumi) 1. China recognizes “full and complete independence of Korea” 2. China must pay 200 million taels in gold as indemnity 3. Four more treaty ports on Yangzi River 4. Taiwan, Pescadores, and Liaodong Peninsula (later returned for cash) 5. Permission to build factories and industrial enterprises in treaty ports Triple Intervention, Germany, Russia and France respect “territorial integrity”

3 Foreign Imperialism and the “Scramble for Concessions Treaty Port System and Trade indirectly disrupted rural economy China opened to Foreign Missionaries hundreds of disturbances requiring top level diplomatic negotiations. “ Scramble for Concession” unprecedented level of foreign penetration Leaseholds, railways, mining

4 Foreign Imperialism and the “Scramble for Concessions” ( ) Germany: Shandong Britain: New Territories Guangdong Russia: Liaodong France: Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong Japan: Korea and Taiwan U. S. Open Door Policy: “respect political independence and territorial integrity ”

5 Foreign Spheres of Influence

6 “100 Days” Reform 1898 Guangxu Emperor (r ) ( “independent”) Kang Youwei ( ) Confucius as Reformer Zhang Zhidong ( ) Conservative Reform Empress Dowager, Cixi ( ) “Coup” stops reform movement Yuan Shikai, Military Commander Reasons for Failure, ‘bad politics’

7 Boxer Uprising 1900, Anti-Christian, Anti-Foreign Reaction to Foreign imperialism and Christianity Local factors, drought Empress Dowager’s support Eight Nation Army occupied Beijing

8 Boxer Uprising 1900, Anti- Christian, Anti-Foreign Boxer Protocol Punishment of Pro-Boxer Officials 450 million taels indemnity (4X annual revenue) Dagu forts destroyed Foreign troops stationed on route to Beijing No arms imports for 2 years

9 “Late” Qing Reforms Education Abolish civil service exams 1905 Send students abroad Military Eliminate Provincial-based Armies Create National “New Army” Political Constitution Local, provincial, national assemblies


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