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Presentation on theme: "African Colonial History KEY TO UNDERSTANDING AFRICAN UNDERDEVELOPMENT ORIGINS AND MYTHS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Colonial Motives Economic Interpretation- raw materials, minerals and agricultural products Missionary Influence and abolitionism (Divide Religiously) Pseudo-Scientific Racism European Rivalries Cultural Imperialism and Racism

3 Theme “We have the Maxim Gun, They Have None” Hillaire Blazac

4 Issue: The Crusher “Bula Matari came to represent [the] alien authority…” Crawford Young describes Henry Morton Stanley

5 Further Reading Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness Later film, Apocalypse Now by Francis Ford Coppola Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost

6 The Scramble for Africa Triangular Trade to 1800 Legitimate Trade and Spheres of Influence Spheres of Influence (the China Model) The Role of the Trading Companies German East African Company French West African Trading Company British East and British South African Companies

7 The Scramble for Africa France, Germany and European Rivalries Belgium, King Leopold and the “Congo Free State” Congresses of Berlin: 1878 and 1884-85

8 Origins of Colonialism: 1890-1914 West Africa: French vs. British and Assimilation vs. Indirect Rule oFrom Company Rule to Indirect Rule oSmaller Powers East Africa: Settlers and Imperialism oGerman Authoritarianism, oWhite Highlands oBritish East Africa Company

9 Origins of Colonialism Central and Southern Africa Jan van Riebeck and the Cape- 1652 Britain- Cape Colony: 1815 Cecil John Rhodes: British South Africa Company The Rhodesias and Nyasaland- Company Rule to 1923 From Federation to UDI

10 Styles of Colonialism- Tactics and Methods Force, Trickery, sub-imperialism (client kingdoms) and Authoritarian Prefectoralism  Carl Peters and his Bags full of Treaties  Sir Samuel Baker and his Hungarian Wife Stimulate alliances and rivalries among different ethnic and religious groups Use of Indigenous Forces: Create African Armies Use puppet rulers, appoint chiefs in “stateless systems, use District Commissioners (Prefects)

11 Patterns of Colonial Rule Parallel Rule vs. Indirect Rule- Britain Assimilation- France Portugal and France Federations vs. Fragmentation- Francophone vs. East Africa Special Role of Settler Colonies

12 Discussion “Do Things Fall Apart in Africa After 1870?

13 The Colonial Administrative State Integration- Algeria and Lusophone Overseas territories and provinces- France Colonial Office and the Overseas Governor Cultural Sub-Nationalism: Buganda, Ashanti and South Africa

14 British Colonialism Sir Frederick Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (London: 1922).

15 Types of Territories Without European Settlers- Nkrumah and the Mosquito –Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone Without European Settlers- Protectorates –Uganda, Zanzibar, Nyasaland With European Settlers (No Home rule) –Kenya, Tanzania, Northern Rhodesia With European Settlers (Home rule) –Rhodesia, South Africa, South West Africa (after 1920)

16 Colonial Processes Oxbridge Generalists Major Ralph Furse and Gentlemen Administrators LEGCO, EXECO and Unofficial Advisors (Europeans, Arabs and Indians, and Late a few Africans) “Multi-racialism” vs. Ornamentalism

17 British Colonial Structures Parliament Treasury Secretary of State for Colonies Colonial Office London Secretary for Foreign and Dominion Affairs

18 Structure of British Colonialism Colonial Office London GhanaTanganyika Governor or High Commissioner Executive Council Legislative Council Uganda

19 Colonial Administration Governor Provincial Commissioner Provincial Commissioner Provincial Officer District Commissioner Provincial l Commissioner Provincial Education Officer Government Secretary/ Secretariat

20 Colonial Administration District Commissioner DAO Agricultural Demonstrator District Education Officer District School Inspector DMODPWD District Officer

21 Colonial Administration District Commissioner District OfficerDO Paramount Chief DO

22 “Tribal” Administration Paramount Chief Sub-Chief Head Man Village Leader Sub-Chief

23 Colonial Structures-1956 Parliament and Cabinet-London Colonial Office Governor and Colonial Secretariat Legco And Execo Departments District Offices Commonwealth And Foreign Office Treasury Colonial Welfare And Development Office

24 Traditional Government Two Structures National Systems Paramount Chief (King) Advisors Native Councils Traditional Meeting Place Sub-Chiefs Headmen Judicial System

25 Imperial Systems King Chief Sub-Chiefs And Headmen Chief King’s RepresentativeInner Council Outer Council

26 Parallel Rule The External Protectorate Soldiers, Missionaries and Police Settlers: Eastern and Southern Africa

27 Origins of Indirect Rule INDIRECT RULE THEORISTS Lord Lugard and Northern Nigeria Theophilus Shepstone in Natal Sir Donald Cameroon in Tanganyika

28 "Tribal Administration“ and Indirect Rule Traditional vs. “Tribal” Rule Modification of Parallel or Dual Rule Goal: Legal/Rational Model Modification of Tradition Training of tribal administrator

29 Indirect Rule System Chief Tribal Secretary Clerks TreasuryCourt Police Council Sub- Chiefs Headmen

30 French Colonialism Meaning of Assimilation Direct Rule Use of Traditional Authorities as French Administrators Replacement of Traditional Authorities by Soldiers In Practice Assimilation was Association British and French administrative Practice not that different in rural Africa

31 French Colonialism The Concept of Permanent Association Goal a French Language Union (Political Economic and Social) Paris and A Single, highly centralized system- World Wide Facade of Direct Rule

32 French Colonial Structures France Overseas: Indochina, Caribbean North Africa: Tunisia, Morocco, the Department of Algeria L’Afrique Occidentale Francaise (AOF) L’Afrique Equitoriale Francaise (AEF) The Mandates: Togo, Cameroons

33 French Colonial Structures French Executive And Cabinet French National Assembly ( Nominal African Reps. Ministry of Overseas Affairs French Civil and Colonial Services

34 French Colonial Structures Governor General Of the Federation Territorial Governor Secretariat and Staff Old Communes: St. Louis Rep. in French Assembly

35 French Colonial Structures Governor Commandant (Prefect) Chef de subdivisions District Chiefs Sub-Chiefs And Headmen Commandant De cercle Commandant

36 French Decolonization The Concept of the French Union France and World War II: French Africa and Vichy Socialist Governments and Socialist Empires Collapse of Federation, the Loi Cadre of 1956 DeGaulle and the 1958 Referendum

37 SMALLER COLONIAL POWERS Germany: Lost Colonies: German East Africa, German South West Africa, Cameroons and Togo Belgium: Monarch’s Private Property (Congo Free State) Rwanda, Burundi- Primary Education, Church, Mineral Extraction Portugal: Post-Revolutionary States. Four Centuries of Neglect, Massive Amounts of Settlers Post-WWI and WWII-Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde

38 SMALLER COLONIAL POWERS Italy: National Grandeur, Battle of Adowa, Mussolini- Italian Somaliland, Eritrea, Libya, Ethiopia (1937-1940) Spain: Colonial Remnants of Slave Trade- Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Spanish Equatorial Guinea Holland: From Cape Colony to Dutch Republics Orange Free State, Transvaal, French Protestants, Germans-South Africa (Apartheid)

39 Themes of Colonial Rule Psychological Dependence and Revolution Racial animosity and “love-hate” cultural links (Indians, Arabs, Europeans) Absence of Core State Nationalism as a Product of Colonialism Gender, Race and Class debates

40 Discussion Similarities and Differences: Richard Rive Chinua Achebe Crawford Young

41 NEXT WEEK “Seek ye first the political kingdom, all else will follow” Kwame Nkrumah


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