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2 The Collapse of Imperialism in Africa © Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com

3 AFRICA’S NATURAL RESOURCES Why were the colonial powers there? Majority of world’s diamonds Vast oil reserves 75% of world’s cobalt 25% of world’s copper 50% of world’s gold 33% of world’s manganese and uranium

4 OTHER AFRICAN EXPORTS Cocoa Coffee Cotton Lumber Palm products Peanuts Wine

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6 Results of World War II Defeat of dictatorships. Unparalleled destruction. The decline of colonial powers. The rise of the superpowers and the Cold War. Defeat of dictatorships. Unparalleled destruction. The decline of colonial powers. The rise of the superpowers and the Cold War.

7 The Impact of Globalization

8 Process of Decolonization and Nation- Building Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945. Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. Three patterns: 1.Civil war (China) 2.Negotiated independence (India and much of Africa) 3.Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam)

9 The Decline of the Colonial Powers

10 Decolonization of Asia & Africa Changed the Makeup of the UN

11 Africa Produced Many Newly- Independent Nations in a Very Short Time

12 who often found themselves caught in a battle between the two superpowers

13 AFRICAN NATIONALISM Movement took off following World War II Africa under imperial rule – Harsh treatment of African peoples – Artificial borders Divided cultural groups United long-standing enemies

14 African Nationalist Movements European colonization had a negative effect on Africa. Colonial rule disrupted social systems and governments, and robbed Africa of resources Many Africans objected, but they did not have enough power to act. During the 1920s and 1930s colonial rulers sent a few Africans to study in Europe and the United States.

15 African Nationalist Movements These educated young people started to dream of independence and worked to increase nationalism. Nationalist movements are movements that seek independence for the people living in a country that is controlled by another power.

16 Pan-Africanism Began in the early 1900s Slogan: “Africa for the Africans” – Called for a sense of unity among African nations and their people – Recognized that independence from colonial rule could come only if diverse tribes could unite for a common cause.

17 Pan - Africanism Pan – Africanism - movement which sought to unify native Africans and those of African heritage into a "global African community". Pan-African Congress - a series of five meetings in 1919, 1921, 1923, 1927, and 1945 that were intended to address the issues facing Africa due to European colonization of much of the continent.

18 Negritude Movement Encouraged Africans to celebrate their heritage Rejected the view held by colonial powers of African cultures – “White Man’s Burden”, R.Kipling Greatest leader of the Pan- Africanism and the Negritude movement is Leopold Sedar Senghor—a poet and politician [President of Senegal for 20 years]

19 Leopold Sedar Senghor Western educated Francophone intellectual from Senegal Poet who became first president of Senegal. Advocated democratic socialism and negritude. Negritude: validation of African culture and the African past by the Negritude poets. Recognized attributes of French culture but were not willing to be assimilated into Europe.

20 Africa for Africans Nationalists composed of ex- servicemen, urban unemployed & under-employed, and the educated. Pan-Africanism and Negritude Senghor (Senegal) and Dubois (African- American)

21 New Nations Emerge WWI & WWII takes its toll on the Colonial Powers Cold War helped African Nationalists – 1 st world and 2 nd world countries compete for new governments – 1950 there were only four independent nations Liberia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and South Africa – Most African Nations become independent around 1960 – Southern region of Africa is still emerging

22 INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS Imperialist nations diverted and weakened by World War II Cold War – Soviet Union encouraged anti- colonial settlement Growing literacy and education among Africans Africans had increased contacts with one another and with non-African world

23 Steps to African Independence Nationalism grew in the different African countries after WWII. Most Europeans were reluctant to fight to hold onto overseas colonies. African leaders began to use the cry of “Africa for Africans”.

24 Steps to African Independence African leaders organized political parties and staged strikes & boycotts. Organization of African Unity - Formed in 1963 to promote peace and independence Pan-Africanism – calls for the unifying of all of Africa

25 Aim: What are the challenges that Africa faces today? Do Now: What problems do you face as a student today? I dream of the realization of the unity of Africa, whereby its leaders combine in their efforts to solve the problems of this continent. I dream of our vast deserts, of our forests, of all our great wildernesses.” According to this quote, what does Africa need to solve its problems? Nelson Mandela

26 Aim: What are the challenges that Africa faces today? Do Now: What problems do you face as a student today? The land is ours. It's not European and we have taken it, we have given it to the rightful people... Those of white extraction who happen to be in the country and are farming are welcome to do so, but they must do so on the basis of equality. Robert Mugabe What is Mugabe angry about?

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28 Phases of Decolonization Phase One: roughly 1957- 1973 (most of West and East Africa) Phase Two: roughly 1974- 1994 (mostly Southern/Central Africa)

29 Phase One---The 1960s: Optimism and Compromise The first phase of decolonization was by no means without violence, but it included many examples of peaceful, smooth transfer of power Colonial powers maintain some control over the terms of decolonization Decolonization was grounded in the rhetoric of democracy and classical liberalism Newly independent states looked to Japan and Germany as models of a post-occupation boom

30 Phase Two of Decolonization Violence was far more ubiquitous than in the first phase of decolonization Decolonization tended to be grounded in the rhetoric of liberation and social transformation Deeply enmeshed with the Cold War

31 Beginnings of Decolonization At the end of WWII only a few nations were independent: – Liberia: founded in 1822 as a haven for freed slaves – S. Africa: granted self-government in 1910, controlled by white minority – Egypt: 1922 – Ethiopia: taken in 1936 by Italy, Freed in 1945 (acquired Eritrea, later won its freedom) After these, the Arab and Berber nations of N. Africa gained their freedom (Libya, Sudan, Morocco, and Tunisia) One by one, Britain gave independence to its colonies, ending with Zimbabwe in 1980. Other European nations gradually gave up their colonies

32 British Colonies Were Some of the First to Seek Independence because Britain felt hypocritical about colonialism. War left her weak and unable to afford colonies. A New African educated middle class began to emerge in the cities.

33 British Africa Independence in British Africa was more complex. Colonies were handled on an individual basis, not as a unified group like French Africa. Britain formed committee in 1947 to deal with colonies. Recommended independence for Africa, which they saw as inevitable. London opted to gradually grant independence.

34 North Africa North African states led the way during independence era. Libya achieved independence in 1951. Egypt became independent in 1922. Morocco, Tunisia, and Sudan became independence in 1956.[Atlas Mts. in Morocco above.]

35 BRITISH EMPIRE IN AFRICA Area/CountryIndependence Anglo-Egyptian Sudan1922 British Cameroon → split between Nigeria & Republic of Cameroon1961 Egypt1922 Gambia1965 Gold Coast → Ghana1957 Kenya1963 Nigeria1957 Nyasaland → Malawi1964 Sierra Leone1961 Somaliland → joined Italian Somaliland as Republic of Somalia1960 Southern Rhodesia → independence under white minority rule1965 Tanganyika → joined Zanzibar as Tanzania1964 Togoland → joined Ghana (independent in 1957)1956 Uganda1962

36 De-colonization in Africa 1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah. By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent.

37 Ghana and Nkrumah Kwame Nkrumah – the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1952 to 1966. (President/PM) Studied abroad for about 15 years (USA) Nkrumah organized a "People's Assembly” –proposing government reforms which were rejected. Led campaign for change which included civil disobedience. Arrested, but released shortly afterwards and asked to form and lead government of Ghana. Ghana became the first sub-Saharan African country to gain its independence in 1957. Military coup (with possible assistance from USA) overthrew Nkrumah in 1966. Today is considered one of the most respected leaders in African history

38 Ghana 1964: Ghana declared a one-party state with Nkrumah as Life President Nkrumah insisted that the development of the country as a whole (which he saw as synonymous with industrialization) must supersede individual prosperity One major project was the Akosombo dam, which put Ghana into serious debt

39 Ghana: First African State to Gain Independence

40 Kwame Nkrumah Led the Former Gold Coast to Independence Educated abroad. Schoolteacher. Preached nonviolence. Used boycotts and strikes. Ultimately successful 1957.

41 Nkrumah and Ghana Increased debt meant higher taxes on cocoa farmers, the basis of the economy While Nkrumah was on a state visit to Vietnam in 1966, he was overthrown in a military coup

42 Ghana today still needs to modernize Market in Kumasi. Market in Kumasi. Sells shoes crafted from old automobile tires. Sells shoes crafted from old automobile tires. Sprawls across 25 dusty acres in ancient Ashanti capital. Sprawls across 25 dusty acres in ancient Ashanti capital. One of the largest marketplaces in West Africa. One of the largest marketplaces in West Africa.

43 Nigeria Britain given control during Belgium Conference Nigeria divided into two colonies – north and south Britain treated ethnic groups differently. British spent more money on roads and schools in south than in north. By 1940, Nigerians started fighting for freedom by forming political parties. 1957, Nigerians were allowed to elect their Prime Minister – the first head of the government. Nigeria did not have to fight for its independence from Britain. Abubakar was overthrown and murdered in a military coup by primarily junior officers of Igbo extraction on January 15, 1966. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (Ah-boo-bah-kahr Tah-fah-wah- Bhah-lay-wah) 1 st Prime minister of Nigeria

44 British Central Africa Southern Rhodesia: sizeable settler population (150,000 in 1950, 200,000 by 1960), Northern Rhodesia: mineral resources, Nyasaland: labor resources S. Rhodesian settlers began demanding federation following WWII Federation strongly resisted by Africans, incl. Dr. Hastings Banda Federation pushed through in 1953

45 British Central Africa African protest intensified over the 1950s, leading to the declaration of a state of emergency in Nyasaland 1959 Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s “winds of change” speech in Cape Town, 1960 South Africa severed all ties with Britain Zambia and Malawi moved towards independence in 1964 Southern Rhodesian settlers under Ian Smith issued unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) in 1965

46 Kenya Kenyans thought the British had taken land unfairly. Mau Mau – secret society that used force to fight for independence from 1952 to 1960. Thousands of people were killed. (~100 Europeans) Kikuyu Tribesmen (Mau Maus) 1950s Kenyans supported the Mau Mau and their nationalist ideas. Convinced the British to help Kenyans hold democratic elections. Jomo Kenyatta was elected President in 1963.

47 Jomo Kenyatta - considered the founding father of the Kenyan nation. Lived and studied abroad for almost 15 years (England) Arrested in October 1952 and indicted with five others on the charges of "managing and being a member" of the Mau Mau Society (violent organization). The accused were known as the "Kapenguria Six". Imprisoned for 9 years. Died in office in 1978. Kenya and Kenyatta

48 KenyaKenya

49 Kenya Fights for Independence In Kenya, white settlers had moved in and displaced African farmers, mostly of the Kikuyu tribe. Jomo Kenyatta was a spokesman for the Kikuyu and led the movement to get Europeans off their land. Kenyatta supported nonviolent methods, but others turned to guerrilla warfare. By 1952, they began to attack European settlers.

50 Kenya Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. 1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta.

51 Kenya Fights for Independence The British called the guerrillas Mau Mau and pictured them as savages. The British imprisoned Kenyatta and threw thousands of Kikuyu into concentration camps. The British went on to bomb the Mau Mau fighters, armed only with swords. The rebels were crushed, but not the freedom movement. When the British released Kenyatta in 1963, he became the first prime minister of an independent Kenya.

52 Kenyan Independence: 1963 London educated Jomo Kenyatta provided strong nationalist leadership. Mau Mau Rebellions made up of Kikuyu farmers weaken British settlers opposition.

53 Today famous athlete opened school for orphans Kip Keino, famed distance runner. Kip Keino, famed distance runner. Opened school for grades 1-8. Opened school for grades 1-8. Down road from his Baraka ("Blessing") farm. Down road from his Baraka ("Blessing") farm. He and his wife, adopted more than 100 orphaned and abandoned children in past 30 years. He and his wife, adopted more than 100 orphaned and abandoned children in past 30 years.

54 Senegal: Home of the Negritude Movement

55 The Solitary Baobob Tree The national symbol of Senegal, baobab trees often mark burial sites and inspire the poetry of de-colonization…

56 I heard a grave voice answer, Rash son, this strong young tree This splendid tree Apart from the white and faded flowers Is Africa, your Africa Patiently stubbornly growing again And its fruits are carefully learning The sharp sweet taste of liberty. David Diop 1956

57 COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS British Commonwealth formed following the dismantling of the British empire Today known as the Commonwealth of Nations Voluntary organization of 53 member states (as of 2009), including many in Africa Organization works toward common goals Interests include economic development, education, and shared history

58 De-colonization in French-ruled Africa Initially more resistant than the British. Encouraged closer French ties- assimilation, not autonomy. Not willing to go far enough in granting rights. With exception of Algeria, by 1960 had granted independence.

59 French West and Equatorial Africa After 1946, French West and Equatorial Africa were permitted to send ten delegates to the French National Assembly Many of these delegates returned to Africa and became nationalist leaders By 1956, internal self-government had been achieved throughout French West and Equatorial Africa

60 1958 “Oui” or “Non” Vote Instituted by Charles de Gaulle Aimed at forestalling African demands for independence All colonies but Guinea voted “oui,” agreeing to continued French sovereignty All French ties to Guinea immediately withdrawn Departing French officials destroyed government records and buildings

61 1958 “Oui” or “Non” Vote Despite “oui” vote, colonies still demanded further concessions in terms of independence French government agreed to formal independence for many colonies in 1960, with the proviso that economic ties to France be maintained

62 FRENCH EMPIRE IN AFRICA 1945-1958 – French Union – organization of French colonial possessions 1956 – Morocco and Tunisia independent 1958-1960 – French Community succeeded French Union – ended in 1960 with most French colonial possessions independent 1962 – Algeria independent Circa 115,000,000 French speakers in Africa (2009)

63 FRENCH AFRICA In Algeria, warfare raged from 1954 through 1962 as the “Front de la Liberation Nationale” (FLN). Algerian independence was proclaimed in 1962. [Algerian Square above.] In 1958, Guinea became the first French colony to achieve independence without violence. French President Charles de Gaulle granted independence to 14 French African colonies in 1960 as dissatisfaction with imperialism grew.

64 AlgeriaAlgeria French settlers fought fiercely to keep Algeria a French colony. DeGaulle realized after the war that France could not hold onto Algeria by force. Independence came in 1962.

65 Algeria Appeal of Arab nationalism Large French settler population 1954- 1962 war between FLN (nationalist party) and French troops “part of France” 300,000 lives

66 FORMER BELGIAN POSSESSIONS 1960 – Congo declared free by Belgium – Democratic Republic of the Congo – Province of Katanga attempted to secede – civil war – United Nations troops kept peace for four years – Former president of Katanga, Moise Tshombe, became prime minister in 1964 Burundi and Ruanda (Rwanda) – Belgian mandate ended in 1962

67 FORMER BELGIAN POSSESSIONS Belgium – 3 territories: Rwanda, Burundi, Belgium Congo Granted independence in 1960. Belgium Congo – Civil war after independence. United Nations intervened Murder of 1 st prime minister, Patrice Lumumba. Thousands died.

68 Patrice Lumumba Became the leader of the Mouvement National Congolais. Arrested for inciting anti- colonial violence. Lumumba and the MNC were elected in 1960. On June 23, 1960 34-year- old Lumumba became Congo's first prime minister. Ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States

69 The Belgian Congo Extremely limited opportunities for education and political organization 1956: “middle class” elections for municipal governments Most political organizations were regionally based Leopoldville/Kinshasa a key center of anti- colonial agitation

70 The old BelgianCongo, Formerly Zaire, Faces Many Challenges Today! The old Belgian Congo, Formerly Zaire, Faces Many Challenges Today!

71 Mobutu Sese Seko Ruled 1965-1997. Ruled 1965-1997. Supported by U.S. as Cold War ally. Supported by U.S. as Cold War ally. Changed name to Zaire. Changed name to Zaire. Left “a house that had been eaten by termites” NYTimes. Left “a house that had been eaten by termites” NYTimes. Reign described in 2002 documentary as an “African Tragedy.” Reign described in 2002 documentary as an “African Tragedy.”

72 Mobutu Rapid movement towards decolonization in 1959-60—insufficient preparation? Patrice Lumumba’s Mouvement Nationale Congolais gained power but was unable to gain sufficient support throughout the country, lost control of both Katanga and the army General Joseph Mobutu backed by US Even before Mobutu’s formal seizure of power in a 1965 coup, the government became rife with corruption Mobutu’s rise to power associated with a cult of personality as well as outside backing

73 Congo Makes Up for a Lack of Roads & Highways Congo River barge carries hundreds of passengers on its 1000 mile journey from Kinshasa to Kisangani. Congo River barge carries hundreds of passengers on its 1000 mile journey from Kinshasa to Kisangani. Many people travel on barges without shelter for as long as a month, crowded together with their belongings, livestock, furniture and wares for sale. Many people travel on barges without shelter for as long as a month, crowded together with their belongings, livestock, furniture and wares for sale.

74 Today the Congo Is Experiencing Punishing War! Michael Kamber for The New York Times Michael Kamber for The New York Times About 5,000 people fleeing the ethnic warfare in and around Bunia, Congo, sought safety at a camp on Monday.

75 Death in the Congo!

76 The Allure Rich Mineral Resources: Gold Diamonds Copper Have Often Drawn Foreign Exploitation.

77 Young Soldiers & a Victim

78 Child Rebels A child fighter in a rebel group stands watch with a U.N. armored vehicle in Bunia, Congo, where there have been reports of rape and cannibalism.

79 FORMER ITALIAN POSSESSIONS Ethiopia – Independent during World War II Libya – Independent in 1951 Italian Somaliland – Joined British Somaliland in 1960 as Somalia

80 FORMER PORTUGUESE POSSESSIONS Angola – Independent in 1975 Mozambique – Independent in 1975

81 Portuguese Africa Metropolitan government viewed colonies (Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Angola and Mozambique) as absolutely essential, were willing to exert force to retain them Pattern of “liberation movements” was set by Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau By 1974, all Portuguese colonies in some state of open hostility 1974 coup in Portugal predicated on military withdrawal from Africa

82 AngolaAngola 400 years: Portuguese are the first the arrive and the last to leave in 1975.

83 Civil War Withdrawal of Portuguese troops in 1975 left both Angola and Mozambique in a state of civil war MPLA in Angola and FRELIMO in Mozambique were strongly socialist in perspective, received support from USSR and Cuba (incl. 13,000 Cuban troops in Angola) UNITA in Angola and RENAMO in Mozambique received support from South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and the United States

84 Civil War Both MPLA and FRELIMO constituted official governments, but their legitimacy and ability to govern were severely limited by opposing groups Despite outside intervention, opposition groups also played on dissent within the populace at large

85 Angola Left With Bitter Civil War Mateus Chitangenda, Fernando Chitala and Enoke Chisingi and their families have been displaced by war to the town of Kunhinga, in central Angola.

86 Going to School A father walks his daughter to school in Kuito, Angola. All students in the town bring their own small benches to class.

87 Southern Rhodesia/Zimbabwe Violence against Smith government began immediately following UDI Following Portuguese withdrawal, Smith government found itself more isolated A compromise government was installed in 1978, but this was unable to stop guerilla fighting and was discredited Full free elections held in 1979, resulting in the 1980 creation of independent Zimbabwe

88 Africa: 2000

89 Factors that Impacted the Economic and Political Success of Newly Liberated Nations: Did the nation fight to become free? How enlightened had the colonizing power been? Had it educated a native elite, leaving behind politicians, economists, and trained personnel with practical skills? Were there serious ethnic, cultural, or religious divisions? Did a country have natural resources to exploit? Did the government exploit them efficiently or were they unable to diversify its economy? Did a newly liberated country take sides in the Cold War, i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union? Superpowers often intervened in the affairs of decolonized nations.

90 Problems in the African Nations Unity – inherited borders drawn up by imperial powers, split ethnic groups and tribes Finding Professionals – before independence Europeans dominated professions – few Africans had training as educators, doctors, scientists, engineers, etc… Maintaining Government: – When independence came, Africans had little experience running a government

91 Patterns of Government in Africa

92 Post-Colonial Regimes Post Settler Regimes: Home Rule Zimbabwe Namibia South Africa

93 Post-Colonial Regimes and the Impact of Colonialism Ethnic Identification Overseas Language Metropolitan Values Administrative Process Political Shell Economic/ Trade links- primary products and markets

94 Traditional REGIMES Traditional Elements: Ethiopia- 1960s, Swaziland, Somalia, Neo-Traditional: Botswana, Buganda, Northern Nigeria, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho Patrimonialism: Strong Presidential Models and Neo-traditionalsim

95 Independence and One Party States Attempts at Intra-Party democracy: Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia- 1970s to 1980s. Grass roots and periphery: Soft States Elections within the party Question: contained political systems?

96 Afro-Marxist Vanguard Parties and Leninism Angola, Mozambique in 1980s Ethiopia under the Dergue, 1969-1991 Benin and Congo Brazzaville, 1970s-1980s

97 "No" Party Administrative States One Party States where the party is a shell Kenya, Ivory Coast in 1970s Uganda in the 1990s; Eritrea, Rwanda (Claim non-party)

98 GOVERNANCE ISSUES Nature of the Administrative State-the Bureaucracy evolved over time but political institutions tacked on a few years before independence Causes of Institutional Weakness: Too strong a bureaucracy weakens institutions and decline of political party (ies) Result: Patronage and nepotism

99 Bureaucratic Interests- Organizational Bourgeoisie No private sector, few interest groups Public sector economic strategy Little or No civil society

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101 Political “Realities” of Contemporary Africa: Regime Types Today: Africa’s Second Revolution/Independence Democratic (17)Partially Democratic (15)Undemocratic (16) Benin Botswana Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Sao Tome Senegal Seychelles South Africa Tunisia Zambia Chad Camoros Congo (Brazzaville) Gabon Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Lesotho Madagascar Morocco Rwanda Sierra Leone Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Algeria Angola Burundi Cameroon Congo (Democratic Republic) ? Cote D’Ivoire Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Guinea Libya Mauritania Niger Somalia Sudan Togo Zimbabwe

102 Understanding Contemporary Africa: Impact of the Cold War Impact of Cold War? Instability caused by assassinations, coups, and civil strife within and between key African “client” states. Wars directly linked to Cold War machinations: Angola civil war (invasion by South Africa, Cuban troops); Congo (including recent “First African World War;” Ethiopia/Somalia; Liberia, Mozambique; Sudan “Failed States:” Congo, Liberia, Somalia, Sudan. Economic devastation: Case of Congo rich in natural and human resources Human suffering: millions killed (over a million in Angolan civil war); Angola second largest number of land-mine amputees (after Cambodia) Africa second largest refugee population in the world

103 Results for Africa of aid from U.S. and the West during the Cold War US gave at least $1.5 bill weapons to Africa during Cold War (1950-89) – - incl $400 mill to dictator Mobutu in Congo – $250 mill to Jonas Savimbi’s UNITA movement Angola – Half the US aid went to governments with known human rights abuses including Congo, Rwanda, Uganda atrocities (perhaps 3 million)

104 Militarization Across Africa: Curse of landmines Angola: more than 70,000 amputees and more than 16,000 killed. – Estimates of total number of land mines = 10-20 million – Angola is the one most heavily impacted by 1-2 land mines per person – Whatever you want to do, whether it's plant a field or rehabilitate a school or open a road, you've first got to clear away the mines. The threat of mines has paralyzed the country More than 70 types of mines - manufactured in at least 22 countries - have been planted in Angola during recent decades. – Mines were installed by the government military, the South Africans, the Cubans, the Russians, UNITA, the police, by neighboring governments, and several other Angolan armed groups. The numbers of mine layers makes demining - which includes understanding the strategy and patterns of mine laying - even more complicated. – Mine clearance experts say only the Cubans made accurate maps of their mine fields. Tens of thousands of one-legged Angolans hobbling around their country on crutches provide graphic evidence that most of the mines laid here are small anti-personnel mines designed to maim rather than kill. Yet the explosives are often targeted at civilians, most often women and children, rather than soldiers. Planted near water sources and under shade trees in the savannah, they are designed to terrorize, often with the goal of depopulating the countryside.

105 Militarization Across Africa Portuguese soldiers planting and unearthing land mines in Angola, 1970s

106 Militarization in Africa—The Cost An average of $22 billion is being spent each year by the nations of Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America on arms. If this were redirected, it would be enough to reach the UN targets of Universal Primary Education And reducing infant and maternal mortality. And Meeting all of the Millennium Development Goals

107 Militarization of Africa –Arms Sales Out of Control The U.S., France, Russia, China and the UK together account for 88% of all the world’s conventional arms exports. There are 639 MILLION small arms and light weapons in the world Today, eight million more are produced every year. From 1996-2001, the USA, UK, and France earned more income from arms sales to developing countries than they gave in all kinds of emergency, disaster, and economic assistance aid.

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109 The costs of the new wars to Africa’s children Up to 20,000 children are fighting in Africa’s conflicts today…..

110 Africa – Civil Unrest Somalia – Warlord Mohamed Aidid throws Somalia into civil war – Keeps UN food from people, starving them

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112

113 Africa – Civil Unrest Rwanda – Belgium grants independence in 1962 Hutus are resentful of Tutsi rule and take over government

114 Africa – Civil Unrest Tutsi refugees form Rwandan Patriotic Front 1994: Hutus slaughter close to a million Tutsis RPF fights back and takes over government

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116 Tutsi Refugee Camp

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118 Darfur, Sudan Ethnic and religious conflict began in 2003 Between Arab-speaking, Islamic nomads and militants from the north and non-Arabic farmers to the south.

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120 Darfur, Sudan Violence, genocide, and ethnic cleansing has killed an estimated 200,000 people and displaced over two million

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122 Other Problems Facing Africa Today Structural Legacies --Economies based on raw material exports --Aid/dependency --Migrant labor/labor compounds Cultural Legacies --Public Health/concern with African bodies --Education/educational diaspora --Tension between “tradition” and “modernity”

123 Debt and Structural Adjustment

124 Origins of African Debt For some countries (Ghana, for example), debt began with ambitious development projects in the 1960s In most cases, however, serious indebtedness began in the early 1970s Oil crisis dramatically increased the price of imports Worldwide recession decreased the willingness of the US and former colonial powers to distribute aid in grants

125 Origins of African Debt World prices for exports (especially agricultural exports) fell The public sector grew, especially with increased bureaucracy (in Ghana, for example, by 150 percent between 1957 and 1979) Between 1970 and 1976, Africa’s public debt quadrupled

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127 State Contraction in the 1980s: Trying to Pay Off Debt Debt servicing began to take a substantial portion of many countries’ GDPs Ambitious development plans were largely scrapped Governments tended to focus on maintaining power and preserving order

128 Structural Adjustment: Trying to Pay Off Debt Implemented by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank beginning in roughly 1981 Required substantial cuts in state services Tended to promote industrialization as a path to economic growth Often involved the devaluation of currency

129 Debt, Structural Adjustment and Legitimacy The demands of debt and structural adjustment often rendered governments less able to supply the needs of their people and less able to claim grassroots legitimacy Debt seen as attached to a country, not to a particular government— transferred even when a government was deemed illegitimate

130 International Aid to Help African Debt Since the 1970s, the general trend has been a decrease in aid to Africa—monetary aid fell by almost half in the 1990s A large proportion of what is counted as aid by donor countries is known “phantom aid”—for example, some 50% of all technical assistance is said to be wasted because of inappropriate usage on expensive consultants, their living expenses, and training Aid frequently carries restrictions with regard to its use

131 Aid Donors to Africa Most donor countries use aid as part of a broader foreign policy focused on “national interests” The US has directed aid to regions where it has concerns related to its national security, e.g. Middle East Sweden has targeted aid to “progressive societies” France has sought to promote maintenance or preserve and spread of French culture, language, and influence, especially in West Africa, while disproportionately giving aid to those that have extensive commercial ties with France

132

133 African Trade Imbalance Many aid packages require receiving countries to purchase goods from the donor country, often in a way that disadvantages the economy of the recipient Reports have suggested that aid tied with conditions cut the value of aid to recipient countries by some 25-40 percent, because it obliges them to purchase imports from the richer nations at uncompetitive prices As of 2000, over two-thirds of United States aid was tied to requirements to purchase goods and services from the US Aid generally fails to increase the export side of receiving countries’ economies

134 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa The Combined Gross Domestic Product for all of Sub-Saharan Africa in 2000 was US$322.73 Billion—less than the GDP for the Netherlands (and considerably smaller than the GDP for the state of California) Between 1990 and 2000 GNP per capita declined.7 per cent in Sub- Saharan Africa However, since 2000 a number of African countries have experienced a annual growth rate of around 5% Nearly 40% of Africa’s GNP is from agriculture, less than 15% from manufacturing: lowest of any region in the world. Africa counts for less than 2% of global trade In 1960 average service debt of an African country was 2% of exports; in 2000 239% of exports

135 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty ( Numbers and Percent of People living on $1 or less a day) World Region 199019992015 #*#*%#%#% S-S Afr241473154940446 L. Amer48115711477.5 S. Asia506454883726416 M East & N Afr 526282

136 Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa: Poverty ( Numbers and Percent of People living on $2 or less a day) World Region 199019992015 #*#*%#%#% S-S Afr386764807561870 L. Amer121281322611719 S. Asia101090112885113968 M East & N Afr 502168236216

137 Economic Realities: Congo Congo: Mineral Rich: Copper, Cobalt, Coltan, Diamonds, Tin Agriculture: wide variety of food and cash crops including coffee, tea, rubber and commercial lumber. Industry: very little manufacturing, mineral processing Yet: GDP per Capita is $88 compared to an average of $541 in Sub-Saharan Africa; Per Capita Income $110 per capita compared to $600 for Sub-Saharan Africa

138 But... AFRICA’S GROWTH RATES ARE CATCHING UP TO OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

139 African per capita income is now increasing in tandem with other developing countries … Annual Change in Real per capita GDP % Forecast 2008 Source: World Bank

140 … growth has improved since the 1980’s

141 Problems Facing Independent Africa Dictatorship (Uganda 1971-1979) and Zaire (1965-1977) Corruption: Many African regimes tended to function under unlawful systems. Failure to modernize and diversify economies. The Cold War: Many nations became pawns in the “global chess game between the United States and USSR.” Rapid population growth and food shortages (Somalia and Ethiopia) The HIV/AIDS pandemic Lack of cultural or linguistic unity: Most borders were drawn by European colonizers for their own benefit and convenience, leaving behind confusing varieties of ethnicities, languages, cultural practices and religions in each country.

142 Health Realities of Contemporary Africa The Scourge of HIV-AIDS HIV-AIDS: Out of approximately 40 million HIV-AIDS victims in the world 29.4 victims reside in Sub-Saharan African countries. Nearly three million children under the age of 15 are HIV positive Four countries in southern Africa have HIV infection rates of 25% or higher of adult population In the last decade 12 million people died of AIDS in Africa Life expectancy in southern Africa increased throughout the region to nearly 60 years of age in 1990 (from 44 years in 1950); life expectancy expected to drop to 40-45 years of age by 2005. Rays of hope: decline in infection rate in a number of countries, stabilization in South Africa; reduction in the price of anti- retrovirals.

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144 AIDS in Africa Data suggests AIDS began in Africa in the late 1970s, spreading south from equatorial areas over the 1980s Southern Africa has been hit particularly hard by the AIDS epidemic—Botswana has approx. 38% of the adult population infected Uganda is often cited as a model for the control of AIDS—percentage of the population infected has dropped to 5% from a high of 14%

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147 The Paradox of Botswana: Stable Government and Economy, but AIDS Rampant Botswana has maintained a stable, democratic government since 1965 The country’s diamond resources and strong beef industry have produced a middle-class standard of living for many residents Even as Botswana thrives, however, it has the second highest rate of HIV infection in Africa (after Swaziland)— over 1/3 of people between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected

148 Health Realities of Contemporary Africa Diseases of Poverty: Malaria kills over 1 million people in Africa each year with an estimated cost to African economies of over $2 billion Sleeping Sickness (trypanosomasis) threat to 60 million, infects 300,000 each year River Blindness (onchocerciasis) 17.5 million in Africa (99%) of world total Biharziasis impacts estimated 80 million in Africa

149 Malaria has not received adequate attention and is a major cause of death of children

150 Social Realities of Contemporary Africa Severe Social Dislocation: Male (productive age) labor migration: short term and long term Urbanization: – unplanned, minimal social services (health, education, housing, sanitation) Gender/family relations: – change in social relations of production and reproduction (male migration, “male cash crops,”) – absence of fathers/husbands; – rural poverty (women & children most severely impacted); – survival strategies (prostitution, beer-making).

151 Additional Social Problems Facing Independent Africa Intertribal and interethnic conflict: Nearly all African wars have been fought within national borders, not between different countries. Uncontrolled flow of small arms and light weapons: Thousands of children have been forcibly drafted into militias and paramilitaries. Treatment of women: In African’s more developed countries and especially in cities, women have attained a certain degree of economic and social equality. However, progress has been slow and women are still dominated by men, especially in rural areas.

152 Education Realities of Contemporary Africa Education: Colonial Heritage: Education for a very few (at independence, no colony had more than 60% of the elementary school age population in school, most less than 30%; even lower for high school and tertiary education Portuguese had most restrictive educational program. In rural Mozambique less than 20% of school age cohort had full seven years of elementary education at independence in 1975 At independence in 1960 the D.R. Congo had an extensive primary school system (70% enrollment) but less than 10% went to secondary school and only 50 university graduates! French followed policy of “assimilation”—targeted 10-20% of population with relatively good education system, but vast majority little or no schooling. British generally most “progressive” but great differences between “protectorates” (Nigeria, Ghana) where in-direct rule was practiced, and settler colonies (Rhodesias, Kenya) where educational expenditure was very limited. Curriculum heavily biased to humanities—limited opportunities in science, math, technology

153 Education Realities of Contemporary Africa Education: Post-Independence Example of Zimbabwe: 1980: 60% of primary school age cohort in school, less than 40% finished primary education 1995: 100% of primary school age cohort in school, over 90% finished seven years of primary school 1980: only 64,000 students in secondary school; 1995 over 800,000 in secondary school Negative Impact of ESAP conditionalities on education

154 More Problems in African Nations Living Standards – most in poverty, lack capital for development – Foreign investors deterred by political instability African Unity – Haile Selassie believed that the differences (linguistic, racial, economic, and political) too vast and recommended a loose organization of nations – OAU (Organization of African Unity)

155 Goals of OAU: African Unity Loose Confederation – Heads of state meet once a year – Council meets every 6 months – Commission of Mediation and Conciliation to settle inter-African disputes African Cooperation – Foreign policy, defense, economics, education Liberation of all African territories still under foreign rule – Worked to end white rule in S. Africa


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